- Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [BOOK]
- BOOKNational Library of Medicine (US): Bethesda (MD)
- Limited information on the use of estradiol during breastfeeding indicates that the route of administration and dosage form have influences on the amount transferred into breastmilk. Vaginal administ...
Limited information on the use of estradiol during breastfeeding indicates that the route of administration and dosage form have influences on the amount transferred into breastmilk. Vaginal administration results in measurable amounts in milk, but transdermal patches do not. Maternal doses of up to 200 mcg daily transdermally do not increase estradiol or estriol in breastfed infants or cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. Vaginal administration results in unpredictable peak times for estradiol in breastmilk, so timing of the dose with respect to breastfeeding is probably not useful. A case report of inadequate milk production and inadequate infant weight gain was possibly caused by transdermal estradiol initiated on the first day postpartum, but 2 small studies found no such effect when the drug was initiated after lactation was well established.
- Psychomotor Tremor and Proprioceptive Control Problems in Current and Former Stimulant Drug Users: An Accelerometer Study of Heavy Users of Amphetamine, MDMA, and Other Recreational Stimulants. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Pharmacol 2017; 57(10):1330-1337
- The recreational use of various stimulant drugs has been implicated in the development of movement disorders through dysregulation of the dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurotransmitter systems. The...
The recreational use of various stimulant drugs has been implicated in the development of movement disorders through dysregulation of the dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurotransmitter systems. The present study investigated psychomotor differences in current and former recreational stimulant drug users compared with nonusing controls. Sixty participants comprised 3 groups: 20 current stimulant drug users (CSUs; 11 men, aged 31.4 ± 9.1 years), 20 former stimulant drug users (FSUs; 5 men, aged 39.1 ± 8.5 years), and 20 nonuser controls (NUCs; 5 men, aged 35.7 ± 6.4 years). Psychomotor arm steadiness for each participant was assessed with a wrist-attached accelerometer during 5 arm positions with eyes open and then eyes closed. Arm-drop of arm position was indicated by the arm longitudinal rotation axis (ALoRA), and tremor was indicated by the overall vector of dynamic body acceleration (VeDBA). Overall, CSUs performed the most poorly on ALoRA (P < .05) and VeDBA indices (P < .05), and FSUs perform almost as poorly on VeDBA indices (P < .05) compared with NUCs. It was concluded that stimulant drug use, primarily MDMA and amphetamines, may result in acute stimulant-induced tremor as well as long-term proprioceptive deficits in terms of arm-droop.
- Bioavailability of oestradiol from the Alora (0.1 mg/day) oestradiol matrix transdermal delivery system compared with Estraderm (0.1 mg/day). [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- JOJ Obstet Gynaecol 1998; 18(6):575-80
- This open-label, randomised, two-way crossover study compared the steady-state bioavailability of oestradiol administered by way of a new oestradiol matrix transdermal delivery system (Alora 0.1 mg/d...
This open-label, randomised, two-way crossover study compared the steady-state bioavailability of oestradiol administered by way of a new oestradiol matrix transdermal delivery system (Alora 0.1 mg/day) with that of Estraderm (0.1 mg/day) in 24 subjects. Serum oestradiol, oestrone and oestrone sulphate concentrations were determined by measurement of blood samples. Mean SD pre-dosing, nonadjusted oestradiol levels for Alora (71.9 27.0 pg/ml) were substantially higher than those for Estraderm (26.7 9.7 pg/ml), while peak oestradiol concentrations were comparable. Consequently, fluctuations in steady-state levels were substantially smaller for Alora than for Estraderm; the fluctuation index values (\[C- C ])/ max min C ) were significantly lower for Alora (0.97 0.23) than av for Estraderm (1.68 0.45). Oestradiol levels remained constant over the dosing interval with Alora but decreased significantly after 48 hours with Estraderm. The bioavailability of oestradiol with Alora was 127 56% that of Estraderm. Oestrone and oestrone sulphate data showed the same qualitative and quantitative differences between the two systems. Both systems were well tolerated. In summary, Alora delivered more oestradiol to the systemic circulation with greater consistency and over a longer time than did Estraderm.
- [Care of children and adolescents with asthma by primary care physicians: current situation and proposals for improvement]. [Journal Article]
- APAn Pediatr (Barc) 2003; 58(5):449-55
- CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to present results on the current situation of asthma management by primary care pediatricians in Spain. The results show the need to improve record-keeping, facilitate the resources required for diagnosis and follow-up and prioritize education in order to achieve an optimal level of self-management by patients and their families.
- Adhesive backing foil interactions affecting the elasticity, adhesion strength of laminates, and how to interpret these properties of branded transdermal patches. [Journal Article]
- DDDrug Dev Ind Pharm 2002; 28(10):1251-9
- Standard tensile strength and peel adhesion tests were carried out to investigate interactions of pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) with several backing foils used for transdermal patches. Seven br...
Standard tensile strength and peel adhesion tests were carried out to investigate interactions of pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) with several backing foils used for transdermal patches. Seven branded transdermal patches (Alora, Cutanum, Estraderm MX 50, Estraderm TTS 50, Fem7 -50 micrograms, Menorest, Oesclim) were included in the investigation. Their skin adhesion measured in several clinical trials was compared with the results of the laboratory measurements according to PSTC-1 (Peel Adhesion for Single Coated Tapes 180 degrees Angle, Pressure Sensitive Tape Council, Illinois, 1996), such as Young's modulus at 3% elongation and peel adhesion to stainless steel. Data obtained for the PSA-coated backings (laminates) show increasing elasticity with increasing PSA thickness. Interactions of PSAs with backing foil became evident in significant changes in Young's modulus by low PSA thickness, as seen for the silicone adhesive. The Young's moduli of the laminates were found to be influenced not only by the elasticity of the backing foil but also by the chemical structure of the PSA. There was no correlation between the elasticity and peel adhesion of both the laminates and the branded patches. Likewise, for the branded patches the peel adhesion to stainless steel does not correlate with skin adhesion values obtained from clinical trials. The Young's modulus of the branded patches was between 4 N/mm2 (Oesclim) and 501 N/mm2 (Fem7). For the branded transdermal patches no correlation was found between Young's modulus and both the peel force on stainless steel and the skin adhesion reported in studies.
- Effectiveness of Alora estradiol matrix transdermal delivery system in improving lumbar bone mineral density in healthy, postmenopausal women. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- MMenopause 2002 Sep-Oct; 9(5):343-53
- CONCLUSIONS: The EMTDS (Alora) administered twice weekly improves lumbar bone mineral density in healthy postmenopausal women, with the benefit of treatment evident by 1 year. The lowest effective dose is 0.025 mg/day.
- Comparison of Alora estradiol matrix transdermal delivery system with oral conjugated equine estrogen therapy in relieving menopausal symptoms. Alora Study Group. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- CClimacteric 1999; 2(1):29-36
- To compare the efficacy of two strengths of an estradiol matrix transdermal delivery system with daily oral doses of conjugated equine estrogens in reducing the frequency of moderate-to-severe hot fl...
To compare the efficacy of two strengths of an estradiol matrix transdermal delivery system with daily oral doses of conjugated equine estrogens in reducing the frequency of moderate-to-severe hot flushes in postmenopausal women.
- Significant differences in estradiol bioavailability from two similarly labelled estradiol matrix transdermal systems. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- CClimacteric 1999; 2(4):248-53
- CONCLUSIONS: Alora delivered a higher, more consistent concentration of estradiol into the systemic circulation over the entire dosing interval than did Everol. Although the full clinical significance of these findings is currently unknown, this study demonstrates that there are significant differences in estradiol delivery from these two products, although they are labelled with the same nominal delivery rate.
- Treatment of a café-au-lait macule with the erbium:YAG laser. [Case Reports]
- JAJ Am Acad Dermatol 2001; 45(4):566-8
- The erbium:YAG laser is a relatively new instrument for skin rejuvenation. We present a case of a "Q-switched laser-resistant" café-au-lait macule that was successfully treated with the erbium:YAG la...
The erbium:YAG laser is a relatively new instrument for skin rejuvenation. We present a case of a "Q-switched laser-resistant" café-au-lait macule that was successfully treated with the erbium:YAG laser.
New Search Next
- Application and maintenance habits do make a difference in adhesion of Alora transdermal systems. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- MMaturitas 2000 Apr 28; 35(1):57-64
- CONCLUSIONS: The data showed that there is a learning curve involved in achieving maximal adhesion with a transdermal patch. During the study, a novel patch application method ('press, fold and slide') was demonstrated for the participants. This method was very well received by all participants and was more easily executed than the previous method. An adaptation of this method was incorporated into the Alora patient information leaflet, together with several other changes to help improve adhesion success.