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- Clinical Pharmacology of Antihypertensive Therapy for the Treatment of Hypertension in Chronic Kidney Disease. [Journal Article]
- CJClin J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 Nov 13
- CKD is common and frequently complicated with hypertension both predialysis and in ESKD. As a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease in this high-risk population, treatment of hypert...
CKD is common and frequently complicated with hypertension both predialysis and in ESKD. As a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease in this high-risk population, treatment of hypertension in CKD is important. We review the mechanisms and indications for the major classes of antihypertensive drugs, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, β-adrenergic blocking agents, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, thiazide diuretics, loop diuretics, mineralocorticoid receptor blockers, direct vasodilators, and centrally acting α-agonists. Recent evidence suggests that β-adrenergic blocking agents may have a greater role in patients on dialysis and that thiazide diuretics may have a greater role in patients with advanced CKD. We conclude with sharing our general prescribing algorithm for both patients with predialysis CKD and patients with ESKD on dialysis.
- Dihydroergotoxine mesylate for the treatment of sialorrhea in Parkinson's disease. [Journal Article]
- PRParkinsonism Relat Disord 2018 Aug 30
- CONCLUSIONS: Dihydroergotoxine mesylate is safe and effective for sialorrhea in PD patients.
- Vasoactive androgens: Vasorelaxing effects and their potential regulation of blood pressure. [Journal Article]
- EREndocr Res 2018; 43(3):166-175
- CONCLUSIONS: The vasorelaxation induced by androgens is mainly mediated by blocking L-VOCCs and in lesser extent by the blockade of multiple signaling pathways operative during α-adrenoceptor-induced vasoconstriction. 5β-DHT regulates vascular resistance and BP by mainly acting in the mesenteric arterial bed, which may explain its outstanding antihypertensive response previously reported.
- Novel naftopidil derivatives containing methyl phenylacetate and their blocking effects on α1D/1A-adrenoreceptor subtypes. [Journal Article]
- BMBioorg Med Chem Lett 2018 02 15; 28(4):547-551
- α1-Adrenoceptor (α1-AR) antagonists are considered to be the most effective monotherapy agents for lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH). In this study,...
α1-Adrenoceptor (α1-AR) antagonists are considered to be the most effective monotherapy agents for lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH). In this study, we synthesized compounds 2-17, which are novel piperazine derivatives that contain methyl phenylacetate. We then evaluated the vasodilatory activities of these compounds. Among them, we found that compounds 2, 7, 12, which contain 2-OCH3, 2-CH3 or 2, 5-CH3, respectively, exhibited potent α1-blocking activity similar to protype drug naftopidil (1). The antagonistic effects of 2, 7, and 12 on the (-)-noradrenaline-induced contractile response of isolated rat prostatic vas deferens (α1A), spleen (α1B) and thoracic aorta (α1D) were further characterized to assess the sub receptor selectivity. Compared with naftopidil (1) and terazosin, compound 12 showed the most desirable α1D/1A subtype selectivity, especially improved α1A subtype selectivity, and the ratios pA2 (α1D)/pA2 (α1B) and pA2 (α1A)/pA2 (α1B) were 17.0- and 19.5-fold, respectively, indicating less cardiovascular side effects when used to treat LUTS/BPH. Finally, we investigated the chiral pharmacology of 12. We found, however, that the activity of enantiomers (R)-12 and (S)-12 are not significantly different from that of rac-12.
- Analysis of proarrhythmic potential of an atypical antipsychotic drug paliperidone in the halothane-anesthetized dogs. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pharmacol Sci 2017; 134(4):239-246
- Fatal cases with the use of atypical antipsychotic drug paliperidone have been reported; however, there was no clinical report describing paliperidone-induced torsade de pointes. In this study we ass...
Fatal cases with the use of atypical antipsychotic drug paliperidone have been reported; however, there was no clinical report describing paliperidone-induced torsade de pointes. In this study we assessed its electropharmacological effects together with its proarrhythmic potential in intravenous doses of 0.03, 0.3 and 3 mg/kg using the halothane-anesthetized dogs (n = 5), which could provide approximately 2, 20 and 200 times higher peak plasma drug concentrations than its therapeutic level, respectively. Paliperidone exerted potent vasodilator effect resulting in hypotension, which may be largely explained by its α1-adrenoceptor blocking action. In vivo electrophysiological results suggest that paliperidone may inhibit human ether-à-go-go-related gene K+ channel in a dose-related manner and modestly suppress Na+ channel in the in situ heart. The high dose of paliperidone may have some potential to induce early afterdepolarization that can trigger lethal ventricular arrhythmias, whereas the low and middle doses lack such proarrhythmic possibility, indicating that at least 20 times higher plasma concentration may be considered to be safe.
- Protein Kinase C Activation Promotes α1B-Adrenoceptor Internalization and Late Endosome Trafficking through Rab9 Interaction. Role in Heterologous Desensitization. [Journal Article]
- MPMol Pharmacol 2017; 91(4):296-306
- Upon agonist stimulation, α1B-adrenergic receptors couple to Gq proteins, calcium signaling and protein kinase C activation; subsequently, the receptors are phosphorylated, desensitized, and internal...
Upon agonist stimulation, α1B-adrenergic receptors couple to Gq proteins, calcium signaling and protein kinase C activation; subsequently, the receptors are phosphorylated, desensitized, and internalized. Internalization seems to involve scaffolding proteins, such as β-arrestin and clathrin. However, the fine mechanisms that participate remain unsolved. The roles of protein kinase C and the small GTPase, Rab9, in α1B-AR vesicular traffic were investigated by studying α1B-adrenergic receptor-Rab protein interactions, using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), confocal microscopy, and intracellular calcium quantitation. In human embryonic kidney 293 cells overexpressing Discosoma spp. red fluorescent protein (DsRed)-tagged α1B-ARs and enhanced green fluorescent protein--tagged Rab proteins, pharmacological protein kinase C activation mimicked α1B-AR traffic elicited by nonrelated agents, such as sphingosine 1-phosphate (i.e., transient α1B-AR-Rab5 FRET signal followed by a sustained α1B-AR-Rab9 interaction), suggesting brief receptor localization in early endosomes and transfer to late endosomes. This latter interaction was abrogated by blocking protein kinase C activity, resulting in receptor retention at the plasma membrane. Similar effects were observed when a dominant-negative Rab9 mutant (Rab9-GDP) was employed. When α1B-adrenergic receptors that had been mutated at protein kinase C phosphorylation sites (S396A, S402A) were used, phorbol ester-induced desensitization of the calcium response was markedly decreased; however, interaction with Rab9 was only partially decreased and internalization was observed in response to phorbol esters and sphingosine 1-phosphate. Finally, Rab9-GDP expression did not affect adrenergic-mediated calcium response but abolished receptor traffic and altered desensitization. Data suggest that protein kinase C modulates α1B-adrenergic receptor transfer to late endosomes and that Rab9 regulates this process and participates in G protein-mediated signaling turn-off.
- Acidosis reduces the function and expression of α1D-adrenoceptor in superior mesenteric artery of Capra hircus. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Pharmacol 2016 Jul-Aug; 48(4):399-406
- CONCLUSIONS: (i) Adrenergic receptor mediates vasoconstriction in GSMA under normal physiological pHo, and α1D is the possible subtype involved in this event (ii) acidosis attenuates the vasocontractile response due to reduced function and expression of α1D-AR and also increased the release of endothelial-relaxing factors.
- Protective effects of MCR-1329, a dual α1 and angII receptor antagonist, in mineralocorticoid-induced hypertension. [Journal Article]
- PRPharmacol Rep 2016; 68(5):952-9
- CONCLUSIONS: MCR-1329 has the potential to be evaluated further for clinical development as a potential antihypertensive agent with multiple mechanisms of action.
- Treatment of cocaine cardiovascular toxicity: a systematic review. [Review]
- CTClin Toxicol (Phila) 2016; 54(5):345-64
- CONCLUSIONS: High-quality evidence for pharmacological treatment of cocaine cardiovascular toxicity is limited but can guide acute management of associated tachycardia, dysrhythmia, hypertension, and coronary vasospasm. Future randomized prospective trials are needed to evaluate new agents and further define optimal treatment of cocaine-toxic patients.
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- Benign prostatic hyperplasia - progress in pathophysiology and management. [Editorial]
- PMPol Merkur Lekarski 2015; 39(233):263-70
- Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease of the aging male population, in affected individuals often accompanied by metabolic syndrome. BPH is manifested by a complex range of symptoms ...
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease of the aging male population, in affected individuals often accompanied by metabolic syndrome. BPH is manifested by a complex range of symptoms originating from the lower urinary tract (LUTS - lower urinary tract symptoms), including disturbances resulting from impaired bladder compliance and bladder overactivity (e.g. frequency, nocturia, urinary incontinence, dysuria) and symptoms associated with the bladder outlet obstruction (e.g. the difficulty in voiding initiating, intermittency, involuntary interruption of voiding, weak urinary stream, straining to void). Despite numerous studies, the pathogenesis of BPH remains not completely understood, and the condition awaits a comprehensive description. The current pathophysiological view emphasizes the role of hormonal dysregulation, locally released in the prostate growth factors action and a complex inflammatory, BPH-associated process with the release of a number of pro-proliferative mediators. The current BPH pharmacotherapy involves administration of α-1-blockers, 5-α-reductase inhibitors, antimuscarinic drugs (cholinolytics) and phosphodiesterase- 5-inhibitors. Progress in the BPH pathophysiology allows the disclosure of additional, potential targets of pharmacological intervention, such as β-3 adrenoreceptor or CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonists, P2X1 purinergic or ETA endothelin receptors antagonists, RhoA/Rho kinase system inhibitors, nitric oxide donors, drugs indirectly (luteinizing hormone - releasing hormone antagonists) or directly (antiandrogens) abolishing the effect of testosterone and its derivatives or agents blocking the action of proinflammatory cytokines. The article briefly discusses the pathophysiology of the aforementioned issues and the current BPH management along with the future, potential opportunities for pharmacotherapy of the.