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- Ti:Pt:Au:Ni thin-film CVD diamond sensor ability for charged particle detection. [Journal Article]
- ARAppl Radiat Isot 2018; 139:181-186
- This work demonstrates the development of diamond sensors with reliable contacts using a new metallization formula, which can operate under high-pressure gas environment. The metallization was create...
This work demonstrates the development of diamond sensors with reliable contacts using a new metallization formula, which can operate under high-pressure gas environment. The metallization was created using thin film layers of titanium, platinum, gold and nickel deposited on a single crystal electronic grade CVD diamond chip. The contacts were 2 mm in diameter with thickness of 50/5/20/150 nm of Ti:Pt:Au:Ni. The optimum operating voltage of the sensor was determined from the current-voltage measurements. The sensor was calibrated with 239Pu and 241Am alpha radiation sources at 300 V. The energy resolution of the Ti:Pt:Au:Ni diamond sensor was determined to be 7.6% at 5.2 MeV of 239Pu and 2.2% at 5.48 MeV of 241Am. The high-pressure gas loading environment under which this sensor was used is discussed. Specifically, experimental observations are described using hydrogen loading of nickel as a means of initiating low energy nuclear reactions. No neutrons, electrons, ions or other ionizing radiations were observed in these experiments.
- Monte Carlo simulation of chemistry following radiolysis with TOPAS-nBio. [Journal Article]
- PMPhys Med Biol 2018 May 17; 63(10):105014
- Simulation of water radiolysis and the subsequent chemistry provides important information on the effect of ionizing radiation on biological material. The Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit has added chemica...
Simulation of water radiolysis and the subsequent chemistry provides important information on the effect of ionizing radiation on biological material. The Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit has added chemical processes via the Geant4-DNA project. The TOPAS tool simplifies the modeling of complex radiotherapy applications with Geant4 without requiring advanced computational skills, extending the pool of users. Thus, a new extension to TOPAS, TOPAS-nBio, is under development to facilitate the configuration of track-structure simulations as well as water radiolysis simulations with Geant4-DNA for radiobiological studies. In this work, radiolysis simulations were implemented in TOPAS-nBio. Users may now easily add chemical species and their reactions, and set parameters including branching ratios, dissociation schemes, diffusion coefficients, and reaction rates. In addition, parameters for the chemical stage were re-evaluated and updated from those used by default in Geant4-DNA to improve the accuracy of chemical yields. Simulation results of time-dependent and LET-dependent primary yields Gx (chemical species per 100 eV deposited) produced at neutral pH and 25 °C by short track-segments of charged particles were compared to published measurements. The LET range was 0.05-230 keV µm-1. The calculated Gx values for electrons satisfied the material balance equation within 0.3%, similar for protons albeit with long calculation time. A smaller geometry was used to speed up proton and alpha simulations, with an acceptable difference in the balance equation of 1.3%. Available experimental data of time-dependent G-values for [Formula: see text] agreed with simulated results within 7% ± 8% over the entire time range; for [Formula: see text] over the full time range within 3% ± 4%; for H2O2 from 49% ± 7% at earliest stages and 3% ± 12% at saturation. For the LET-dependent Gx, the mean ratios to the experimental data were 1.11 ± 0.98, 1.21 ± 1.11, 1.05 ± 0.52, 1.23 ± 0.59 and 1.49 ± 0.63 (1 standard deviation) for [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], H2, H2O2 and [Formula: see text], respectively. In conclusion, radiolysis and subsequent chemistry with Geant4-DNA has been successfully incorporated in TOPAS-nBio. Results are in reasonable agreement with published measured and simulated data.
- Effect of internal contamination with tritiated water on the neoplastic colonies in the lungs, innate anti-tumour reactions, cytokine profile, and haematopoietic system in radioresistant and radiosensitive mice. [Journal Article]
- RERadiat Environ Biophys 2018; 57(3):251-264
- Tritium is a potentially significant source of internal radiation exposure which, at high levels, can be carcinogenic. We evaluated whether single intraperitoneal injection of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice...
Tritium is a potentially significant source of internal radiation exposure which, at high levels, can be carcinogenic. We evaluated whether single intraperitoneal injection of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice with tritiated water (HTO) leading to exposure to low (0.01 or 0.1 Gy) and intermediate (1.0 Gy) cumulative whole-body doses of β radiation is immunosuppressive, as judged by enhancement of artificial tumour metastases, functioning of NK lymphocytes and macrophages, circulating cytokine's levels, and numbers of bone marrow, spleen, and peripheral blood cells. We demonstrate that internal contamination of radiosensitive BALB/c and radioresistant C57BL/6 mice with HTO at all the absorbed doses tested did not affect the development of neoplastic colonies in the lungs caused by intravenous injection of syngeneic cancer cells. However, internal exposure of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice to 0.1 and 0.01 Gy of β radiation, respectively, up-regulated cytotoxic activity of and IFN-γ synthesis in NK lymphocytes and boosted macrophage secretion of nitric oxide. Internal contamination with HTO did not affect the serum levels of pro- (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α,) and anti-inflammatory (IL-1Ra, IL-4, IL-10) cytokines. In addition, exposure of mice of both strains to low and intermediate doses from the tritium-emitted β-particles did not result in any significant changes in the numbers of bone marrow, spleen, and peripheral blood cells. Overall, our data indicate that internal tritium contamination of both radiosensitive and radioresistant mice leading to low and intermediate absorbed β-radiation doses is not immunosuppressive but may enhance some but not all components of anticancer immunity.
- Utilization of GEANT to calculation of production yield for89Zr by charge particles interaction on89Y,natZr andnatSr. [Journal Article]
- ARAppl Radiat Isot 2017; 127:161-165
- The89Zr, is one of the radionuclide with near-ideal properties for PET due to its suitable half-life and decay properties. The cross-section of89Zr via89Y(p,n)89Zr,89Y(d,2n)89Zr,natSr(α,xn)89Zr andna...
The89Zr, is one of the radionuclide with near-ideal properties for PET due to its suitable half-life and decay properties. The cross-section of89Zr via89Y(p,n)89Zr,89Y(d,2n)89Zr,natSr(α,xn)89Zr andnatZr(p,pxn)89Zr, were calculated by the TALYS-1.8 code to predict the optimum range of charge particle energy. The Monte Carlo code GEANT4 was used to simulate the formation of89Zr in the target body. The simulated89Zr yield was in good agreement with published experimental results in the optimum energy range. According to the calculations, the89Y(p,n)89Zr was superior to the other reactions useful to medical application.
- Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors. [Review]
- NMNeurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 2016 Jul 15; 56(7):361-71
- Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of na...
Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Therefore, BNCT enables the application of a high dose of particle radiation selectively to tumor cells in which boron-10 compound has been accumulated. We applied BNCT using nuclear reactors for 167 cases of malignant brain tumors, including recurrent malignant gliomas, newly diagnosed malignant gliomas, and recurrent high-grade meningiomas from January 2002 to May 2014. Here, we review the principle and history of BNCT. In addition, we introduce fluoride-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography and the clinical results of BNCT for the above-mentioned malignant brain tumors. Finally, we discuss the recent development of accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams. This development could provide an alternative to the current use of specially modified nuclear reactors as a neutron source, and could allow BNCT to be performed in a hospital setting.
- Techniques to alleviate nuisance alarms observed by PCMs following 222Rn-progeny deposition on clothing. [Journal Article]
- HPHealth Phys 2015; 108(2 Suppl 2):S72-83
- This paper presents technically-based techniques to deal with nuisance personnel contamination monitor (PCM) alarms. The techniques derive from the fundamental physical characteristics of radon proge...
This paper presents technically-based techniques to deal with nuisance personnel contamination monitor (PCM) alarms. The techniques derive from the fundamental physical characteristics of radon progeny. Some PCM alarms, although valid alarms and not actually "false," could be due to nuisance naturally-occurring radionuclides (i.e., radon progeny). Based on certain observed characteristics of the radon progeny, several prompt techniques are discussed that could either remediate or at least mitigate the problem of nuisance alarms. Examples are provided which demonstrate the effective use of the techniques.
- The effectiveness of the high-LET radiations from the boron neutron capture [10B(n,α) 7Li] reaction determined for induction of chromosome aberrations and apoptosis in lymphocytes of human blood samples. [Journal Article]
- RERadiat Environ Biophys 2015; 54(1):91-102
- Provided that a selective accumulation of (10)B-containing compounds is introduced in tumor cells, following irradiation by thermal neutrons produces high-LET alpha-particles ((4)He) and recoiling li...
Provided that a selective accumulation of (10)B-containing compounds is introduced in tumor cells, following irradiation by thermal neutrons produces high-LET alpha-particles ((4)He) and recoiling lithium-7 ((7)Li) nuclei emitted during the capture of thermalized neutrons (0.025 eV) from (10)B. To estimate the biological effectiveness of this boron neutron capture [(10)B(n,α)(7)Li] reaction, the chromosome aberration assay and the flow cytometry apoptosis assay were applied. At the presence of the clinically used compounds BSH (sodium borocaptate) and BPA (p-boronophenylalanine), human lymphocytes were irradiated by sub-thermal neutrons. For analyzing chromosome aberrations, human lymphocytes were exposed to thermally equivalent neutron fluences of 1.82 × 10(11) cm(-2) or 7.30 × 10(11) cm(-2) (corresponding to thermal neutron doses of 0.062 and 0.248 Gy, respectively) in the presence of 0, 10, 20, and 30 ppm of BSH or BPA. Since the kerma coefficient of blood increased by 0.864 × 10(-12) Gy cm(2) per 10 ppm of (10)B, the kerma coefficients in blood increase from 0.34 × 10(-12) cm(2) (blood without BSH or BPA) up to 2.93 × 10(-12) Gy cm(2) in the presence of 30 ppm of (10)B. For the (10)B(n, α)(7)Li reaction, linear dose-response relations for dicentrics with coefficients α = 0.0546 ± 0.0081 Gy(-1) for BSH and α = 0.0654 ± 0.0075 Gy(-1) for BPA were obtained at 0.062 Gy as well as α = 0.0985 ± 0.0284 Gy(-1) for BSH and α = 0.1293 ± 0.0419 Gy(-1) for BPA at 0.248 Gy. At both doses, the corresponding (10)B(n, α)(7)Li reactions from BSH and BPA are not significantly different. A linear dose-response relation for dicentrics also was obtained for the induction of apoptosis by the (10)B(n, α)(7)Li reaction at 0.248 Gy. The linear coefficients α = 0.0249 ± 0.0119 Gy(-1) for BSH and α = 0.0334 ± 0.0064 Gy(-1) for BPA are not significantly different. Independently of the applied thermal neutron doses of 0.062 Gy or 0.248 Gy, the (10)B(n, α)(7)Li reaction from 30 ppm BSH or BPA induced an apparent RBE of about 2.2 for the production of dicentrics as compared to exposure to thermal neutrons alone. Since the apparent RBE value is defined as the product of the RBE of a thermal neutron dose alone times a boron localization factor which depends on the concentration of a (10)B-containing compound, this localization factor determines the biological effectiveness of the (10)B(n, α)(7)Li reaction.
- Direct photolysis of α-pinene ozonolysis secondary organic aerosol: effect on particle mass and peroxide content. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Technol 2014 Oct 07; 48(19):11251-8
- Primary and secondary organic aerosols (POA and SOA) contain a complex mixture of multifunctional chemicals, many of which are photolabile. Much of the previous work that aimed to understand the chem...
Primary and secondary organic aerosols (POA and SOA) contain a complex mixture of multifunctional chemicals, many of which are photolabile. Much of the previous work that aimed to understand the chemical evolution (aging) of POA and SOA has focused on the reactive uptake of gas-phase oxidants by particles. By stripping volatile compounds and ozone from α-pinene ozonolysis SOA with three 1-m-long denuders, and exposing the residual particles in a flow cell to near-ultraviolet (λ>300 nm) radiation, we find that condensed-phase photochemistry can induce significant changes in SOA particle size and chemical composition. The particle-bound organic peroxides, which are highly abundant in α-pinene ozonolysis SOA (22 ± 5% by weight), have an atmospheric photolysis lifetime of about 6 days at a 24-h average solar zenith angle (SZA) of 65° experienced at 34° latitude (Los Angeles) in the summer. In addition, the particle diameter shrinks 0.56% per day under these irradiation conditions as a result of the loss of volatile photolysis products. Experiments with and without the denuders show similar results, suggesting that condensed-phase processes dominate over heterogeneous reactions of particles with organic vapors, excess ozone, and gas-phase free radicals. These condensed-phase photochemical processes occur on atmospherically relevant time scales and should be considered when modeling the evolution of organic aerosol in the atmosphere.
- Production of α-particle emitting ²¹¹At using 45 MeV α-beam. [Journal Article]
- PMPhys Med Biol 2014 Jun 07; 59(11):2849-60
- Among the α-particle emitting radionuclides, (211)At is considered to be a promising radionuclide for targeted cancer therapy due to its decay properties. The range of alpha particles produced by the...
Among the α-particle emitting radionuclides, (211)At is considered to be a promising radionuclide for targeted cancer therapy due to its decay properties. The range of alpha particles produced by the decay of (211)At are less than 70 µm in water with a linear energy transfer between 100 and 130 keV µm(-1), which are about the maximum relative biological effectiveness for heavy ions. It is important to note that at the present time, only a few of cyclotrons routinely produce (211)At. The direct production method is based on the nuclear reactions (209)Bi(α,2n)(211)At. Production of the radionuclide (211)At was carried out using the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). To ensure high beam current, the α-beam was extracted with an initial energy of 45 MeV, which was degraded to obtain the appropriate α-beam energy. The calculations of beam energy degradation were performed utilizing the MCNPX. Alumina-baked targets were prepared by heating the bismuth metal powder onto a circular cavity in a furnace. When using an E(α, av) of 29.17 MeV, the very small contribution of (210)At confirms the right choice of the irradiation energy to obtain a pure production of (211)At isotope.
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- Nuclear model analysis of excitation functions of proton, deuteron and α-particle induced reactions on nickel isotopes for production of the medically interesting copper-61. [Journal Article]
- ARAppl Radiat Isot 2014; 89:65-73
- Excitation functions of the (61)Ni(p,n)(61)Cu, (62)Ni(p,2n)(61)Cu, (60)Ni(d,n)(61)Cu and (58)Ni(α,p)(61)Cu reactions were analyzed with respect to the production of (61)Cu (T½=3.33 h), a promising ra...
Excitation functions of the (61)Ni(p,n)(61)Cu, (62)Ni(p,2n)(61)Cu, (60)Ni(d,n)(61)Cu and (58)Ni(α,p)(61)Cu reactions were analyzed with respect to the production of (61)Cu (T½=3.33 h), a promising radionuclide for PET imaging. The nuclear model codes EMPIRE and TALYS reproduced the experimental data of all reactions well, except those for the (d,n) process. The fitted excitation functions were employed to calculate the integral yield of (61)Cu in all reactions. The amounts of the possible impurities (62)Cu and (60)Cu were assessed. A validation of the evaluated (p,xn) data was attempted.