- HHV-8-associated haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a patient with advanced AIDS. [Case Reports]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2017 Dec 22; 2017
- We present a patient with advanced AIDS admitted with recurrent shock of unclear aetiology, fevers, altered mental status and refractory cytopenias. His case posed a diagnostic challenge because eval...
We present a patient with advanced AIDS admitted with recurrent shock of unclear aetiology, fevers, altered mental status and refractory cytopenias. His case posed a diagnostic challenge because evaluation of septic shock in the setting of advanced AIDS requires a time-consuming work-up for broad infectious aetiologies that can delay consideration of other diagnoses, including primary or secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). After this patient did not improve with supportive care and empiric antimicrobials, there was concern for HLH given that he met ≥5 of the HLH consortium criteria. He underwent bone marrow biopsy, which was non-diagnostic. Empiric therapy for HLH was initiated, but unfortunately, the patient died. Autopsy revealed extensive haemophagocytosis in the spleen, bone marrow and liver, confirming the diagnosis of HLH. Postmortem, his soluble CD-25 returned 18 890 pg/mL (<1033 pg/mL), and his serum HHV-8 PCR resulted positive. The diagnosis was HLH secondary to Human Herpes Virus 8 (HHV-8) in a patient with advanced AIDS.
- Cryptococcal cerebellitis in no-VIH patient. [Case Reports]
- CMColomb Med (Cali) 2017 Jun 30; 48(2):94-97
- CONCLUSIONS: The cryptococcosis has different presentations, it´s a disease whose incidence has been increasing since the advent of the HIV / AIDS pandemy, however the commitment of the encephalic parenchyma and in particular the cerebellum is considered rare. In this way we are facing the first case of cryptococcal cerebellitis in our midst.
- New Diagnosis of AIDS Based on Salmonella enterica subsp. I (enterica) Enteritidis (A) Meningitis in a Previously Immunocompetent Adult in the United States. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Infect Dis 2017; 2017:1051975
- Salmonella meningitis is a rare manifestation of meningitis typically presenting in neonates and the elderly. This infection typically associates with foodborne outbreaks in developing nations and AI...
Salmonella meningitis is a rare manifestation of meningitis typically presenting in neonates and the elderly. This infection typically associates with foodborne outbreaks in developing nations and AIDS-endemic regions. We report a case of a 19-year-old male presenting with altered mental status after 3-day absence from work at a Wisconsin tourist area. He was febrile, tachycardic, and tachypneic with a GCS of 8. The patient was intubated and a presumptive diagnosis of meningitis was made. Treatment was initiated with ceftriaxone, vancomycin, acyclovir, dexamethasone, and fluid resuscitation. A lumbar puncture showed cloudy CSF with Gram negative rods. He was admitted to the ICU. CSF culture confirmed Salmonella enterica subsp. I (enterica) Enteritidis (A). Based on this finding, a 4th-generation HIV antibody/p24 antigen test was sent. When this returned positive, a CD4 count was obtained and showed 3 cells/mm(3), confirming AIDS. The patient ultimately received 38 days of ceftriaxone, was placed on elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide (Genvoya) for HIV/AIDS, and was discharged neurologically intact after a 44-day admission.
- Burden Among Caregivers of Children Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in North India. [Journal Article]
- NAN Am J Med Sci 2016; 8(3):129-33
- CONCLUSIONS: Caring of children is a universal practice but there is a need of special care for children living with HIV. The majority of caregivers who were usually the mothers perceived the burden and need to be assisted in caring for the child. Stigma and discrimination with HIV infection further increased the burden as caregivers did not disclose the HIV status to any near and dear one.
- A comparison of routine, opt-out HIV screening with the expected yield from physician-directed HIV testing in the ED. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Emerg Med 2015; 33(4):506-11
- CONCLUSIONS: Routine opt-out HIV screening was feasible and accepted by a majority of ED patients. The yield of this strategy only modestly exceeded what may have been observed with physician-directed testing.
- Brain magnetic resonance imaging screening is not useful for HIV-1-infected patients without neurological symptoms. [Journal Article]
- ARAIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2014; 30(10):970-4
- We investigated the diagnostic usefulness of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening in HIV-1-infected patients without neurological symptoms in detecting intracranial diseases at early stag...
We investigated the diagnostic usefulness of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening in HIV-1-infected patients without neurological symptoms in detecting intracranial diseases at early stages. In this retrospective analysis, the study patients were HIV-1-infected patients who underwent brain MRI scan in clinical practice between 2001 and 2013. We excluded patients with MRI for (1) follow-up examination for prediagnosed intracranial diseases, (2) cancer staging, (3) screening mycobacterium/bacteria/fungi disease proliferation in the brain, and (4) evaluation for meningitis/encephalitis. The study patients (n=485) were classified into two groups: those who underwent brain MRI scan without any neurological symptoms/signs (asymptomatic patients, n=158) and those who underwent MRI due to such symptoms (symptomatic patients, n=327). Asymptomatic patients had lower CD4 counts than symptomatic patients (median 78 versus 241/μl). Intracranial diseases were detected in three (2%) of the asymptomatic patients [two toxoplasmosis and one progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)] compared to 58 (19%) of the symptomatic patients (the χ(2) test, p<0.01). The latter included toxoplasmosis (n=10), PML (n=7), cytomegalovirus encephalitis (n=3), primary central nervous system lymphoma (n=3), cryptococcoma/meningitis (n=3), and HIV-associated dementia (n=17). Among symptomatic patients, intracranial diseases were common in those with slurred speech (3/6, 50%), seizure (4/10, 40%), eyesight/vision abnormality (5/16, 31%), altered mental status (8/31, 26%), and hemiplegia/numbness (13/50, 26%). For patients with CD4 count <200/μl, intracranial diseases were detected in only 3 (3%) of 144 asymptomatic patients, compared with 46 (32%) of 113 symptomatic patients (p<0.01). Brain MRI screening for HIV-1-infected patients without neurological symptoms is of little value.
- The Effect of Therapeutic Lumbar Punctures on Acute Mortality from Cryptococcal Meningitis. [Journal Article]
- CIClin Infect Dis 2014 Jul 23
- CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic LPs were associated with a 69% relative improvement in survival, regardless of initial intracranial pressure. The role of therapeutic LPs should be re-evaluated.
- Identification of acute HIV infection using fourth-generation testing in an opt-out emergency department screening program. [Journal Article]
- AEAnn Emerg Med 2014; 64(5):537-46
- CONCLUSIONS: HIV testing with a fourth-generation antigen/antibody laboratory test producing rapid results is feasible in an ED. Unexpectedly, nearly one fourth of patients with undiagnosed HIV had acute infections, which would have been more difficult to detect with previous testing technology.
- HIV and cannot see. [Case Reports]
- SOSurv Ophthalmol 2014 Jul-Aug; 59(4):468-73
- A 55-year-old HIV-positive man presented with acute vision loss in the right eye and altered mental status. Ophthalmic evaluation revealed light perception vision OD with a right relative afferent pu...
A 55-year-old HIV-positive man presented with acute vision loss in the right eye and altered mental status. Ophthalmic evaluation revealed light perception vision OD with a right relative afferent pupillary defect, conjunctival chemosis, large mutton-fat keratitic precipitates, and diffuse cream-colored vitreous cells. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and orbit with and without contrast with fat saturation showed choroidal thickening OD, multifocal deep periventricular and deep ganglionic enhancing lesions, and a suprasellar mass. Brain biopsy showed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Intrathecal chemotherapy with methotrexate and cytarabine and whole brain radiation therapy failed. His mental status deteriorated. He developed pancytopenia, neutropenic fever, and septic shock and subsequently expired under palliative care.
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- Determinants of mortality in a combined cohort of 501 patients with HIV-associated Cryptococcal meningitis: implications for improving outcomes. [Journal Article]
- CIClin Infect Dis 2014; 58(5):736-45
- CONCLUSIONS: CSF fungal burden, altered mental status, and rate of clearance of infection predict acute mortality in HIV-associated CM. The results suggest that earlier diagnosis, more rapidly fungicidal amphotericin-based regimens, and prompt immune reconstitution with ART are priorities for improving outcomes.