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Unbound Medicine.
(Altered mental status in HIV AIDS)
70 results
  • Atypical presentation and diagnosis of AIDS-related CMV encephalitis. [Case Reports]
    BMJ Case Rep. 2022 Aug 30; 15(8)Kawegere E, Goldberg T
  • We report a case of man in his 40s with a medical history of post-traumatic stress disorder who presented to the emergency department with altered mental status, ataxia, headache and dizziness a few hours after snorting amphetamines and mushrooms. Twenty-four hours after presentation, while no longer abusing amphetamines or mushrooms, he remained ataxic and dizzy. A CT scan of the head showed per…
  • Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome: a known entity in an unknown provenance. [Case Reports]
    BMJ Case Rep. 2022 Apr 11; 15(4)Naidu YV, Calderon Candelario RA, Kett DH
  • A 49-year-old man was admitted with altered mental status, high-grade fevers, tachycardia and leucocytosis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was purulent with a markedly elevated nucleated cell count with neutrophilic predominance, elevated protein and low glucose. CSF gram stain was negative. Patient received vancomycin, cefepime, ampicillin and acyclovir for presumed meningitis. He was intubated for p…
  • Shigella Bacteremia in an Immunocompetent Patient. [Case Reports]
    Cureus. 2021 Nov; 13(11):e19778.Rotramel HE, Zamir HS
  • Isolation of Shigella in the bloodstream is a rare sequela of Shigella infections. Shigellemia typically occurs in patients with immature immune responses or in immunocompromised adults. Herein, we present a case of shigellemia in a 40-year-old male who presented with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), severe diarrhea, hypovolemic hyponatremia, and altered mental status. Stool cultures were found to be…
  • Bilateral Cranial Nerve VI Palsies in Cryptococcal Meningitis, HIV, and Syphilis: A Case Report. [Journal Article]
    Clin Pract Cases Emerg Med. 2021 Nov; 5(4):515-518.Rival G, Okorji O, … Cullen D
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cryptococcal meningitis remains a life-threatening complication of HIV/AIDS. Coinfections with HIV, particularly syphilis, further complicate a patient's prognosis as both can lead to devastating neurological sequelae. In cryptococcal meningitis, elevated intracranial pressure is a complication that can manifest as seizures, altered mental status, and cranial nerve palsies.
  • Treatment of Elsberg Syndrome Causes Fever of Unknown Origin Attributable to Drug Reaction. [Case Reports]
    Cureus. 2021 Oct; 13(10):e18510.Bhagat YV, Yunasan E, … Michael MB
  • A 56-year-old male with a history of non-adherence to HIV anti-retroviral therapy (ART) presented with Elsberg syndrome - varicella reactivation causing fever, painful dermatomal rash, weakness of bilateral lower extremities, and urinary and bowel dysfunction. On the third day of hospitalization, the patient developed altered mental status. An investigation for encephalitis and myelitis revealed …
  • Successful Utilization of Levodopa in HIV-Induced Parkinsonism. [Case Reports]
    Cureus. 2020 Dec 01; 12(12):e11825.Almajali M, Almajali F, … Chand P
  • We report a case of a 63-year-old African American female patient with a past medical history of treatment naïve human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). She was referred to our hospital with altered mental status and rigidity with a history of progressive ambulation difficulties and decreased verbal output over the previous months as reported by her son. Her clinical presentation and brain MRI were c…
  • Impact of biological sex on cryptococcal meningitis mortality in Uganda and South Africa. [Journal Article]
    Med Mycol. 2021 Jul 06; 59(7):712-719.Stadelman AM, Ssebambulidde K, … Boulware DR
  • The role of biological sex on clinical outcomes and the pathogenesis of AIDS-related opportunistic infections is unknown. We assessed baseline biomarkers and outcomes between 577 men and 400 women in HIV-related cryptococcal meningitis cohorts in Uganda and South Africa from 2010 to 2017. We compared 10-week mortality by sex via Cox proportional hazards models. The 10-week mortality for women was…
  • Meningomyeloencephalitis secondary to Mycobacterium haemophilum infection in AIDS. [Case Reports]
    Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2020 05 19; 8(1):73.Leskinen S, Flowers X, … Hickman RA
  • Infections by opportunistic non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are rising in global incidence. One emerging, slowly growing NTM is Mycobacterium haemophilum, which can cause skin, lung, bone, and soft tissue infections in immunocompromised patients as well as lymphadenitis in immunocompetent individuals. Detection of this microorganism is difficult using conventional culture-based methods and few…
  • Mapping abnormal subcortical neurodevelopment in a cohort of Thai children with HIV. [Journal Article]
    Neuroimage Clin. 2019; 23:101810.Wade BSC, Valcour VG, … PREDICT and Resilience Study Groups
  • Alterations in subcortical brain structures have been reported in adults with HIV and, to a lesser extent, pediatric cohorts. The extent of longitudinal structural abnormalities in children with perinatal HIV infection (PaHIV) remains unclear. We modeled subcortical morphometry from whole brain structural magnetic resonance imaging (1.5 T) scans of 43 Thai children with PaHIV (baseline age = 11.0…
  • Factors associated with social deprivation among older persons living with HIV. [Journal Article]
    AIDS Care. 2019 07; 31(7):809-815.Enel P, Retornaz F, … VISAGE Study Group
  • Aging persons living with HIV may develop multiple health problems, including comorbidities, and altered physical and mental health, earlier than non-infected people. They may also experience social deprivation. We assessed the prevalence of social deprivation and its relationship with health indicators in older persons living with HIV. An 18-month, multicenter, cross-sectional study was carried …
  • HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis Occurring at Relatively Higher CD4 Counts. [Journal Article]
    J Infect Dis. 2019 02 23; 219(6):877-883.Tugume L, Rhein J, … COAT and ASTRO-CM teams
  • CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected individuals developing cryptococcal meningitis with CD4 ≥100 cells/μL presented more frequently with altered mental status despite having 10-fold lower fungal burden and with greater Th2 (IL-13) immune response. Higher CD4 count was protective despite an increased propensity for immune-mediated damage, consistent with damage-response framework.
  • HHV-8-associated haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a patient with advanced AIDS. [Case Reports]
    BMJ Case Rep. 2017 Dec 22; 2017Bangaru S, Strickland A, … Shah N
  • We present a patient with advanced AIDS admitted with recurrent shock of unclear aetiology, fevers, altered mental status and refractory cytopenias. His case posed a diagnostic challenge because evaluation of septic shock in the setting of advanced AIDS requires a time-consuming work-up for broad infectious aetiologies that can delay consideration of other diagnoses, including primary or secondar…
  • Cryptococcal cerebellitis in no-VIH patient. [Case Reports]
    Colomb Med (Cali). 2017 Jun 30; 48(2):94-97.Lasso FA, Zamora Bastidas TO, … Díaz Idrobo B
  • CONCLUSIONS: The cryptococcosis has different presentations, it´s a disease whose incidence has been increasing since the advent of the HIV / AIDS pandemy, however the commitment of the encephalic parenchyma and in particular the cerebellum is considered rare. In this way we are facing the first case of cryptococcal cerebellitis in our midst.
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