- Partial Solar Radiation Exclusion with Color Shade Nets Reduces the Degradation of Organic Acids and Flavonoids of Grape Berry (Vitis vinifera L.). [Journal Article]
- JAJ Agric Food Chem 2017 Dec 13; 65(49):10693-10702
- The incidence of solar radiation on red-skinned grapes can promote the synthesis of flavonoids desirable for wine production, but elevated temperature may impair their accumulation. We performed a sh...
The incidence of solar radiation on red-skinned grapes can promote the synthesis of flavonoids desirable for wine production, but elevated temperature may impair their accumulation. We performed a shade cloth trial covering the fruit zone (from pepper-corn size to maturity) with four polyethylene 1 m curtains with different optical properties (20% shading factor Pearl colored and 40% shading factor Aluminet, Blue, and Black colored) and a Control with no cover. Cluster temperature was 3.7 °C lower on the Southwest side in Black-40% clusters during the warmest part of the day compared to Control. Results indicated a lower berry weight under the Aluminet-40%. Berries under the nets often had significantly lower pH and higher TA than Control, but only the Black-40% were significant at harvest. Black-40% had higher values of anthocyanins than Control toward the last weeks of development. Berry skin flavonol and anthocyanin composition and concentration were measured by C18 reversed-phased HPLC; and proanthocyanidin isolates were characterized by acid catalysis in the presence of excess phloroglucinol followed by reversed-phase HPLC. Proanthocyanidins and flavonol contents were lower in Black-40% before veraison and the first part of ripening, respectively. However, their contents in Control decreased toward the end of ripening to a point where any net was different from Control. Anthocyanin and flavonol profiles were richer in 3', 4', 5' hydroxylated forms. Proanthocyanidin chain length was not affected while small changes were observed in the proportion of terminal catechin/epicatechin and in seed galloylation in response to treatments. Results show that shade cloths may efficiently palliate temperature spikes, especially the last weeks before harvest, while transmitting enough radiation into the fruit zone to achieve a better grape composition compared to uncovered grapes.
- Physiological responses of feedlot heifers provided access to different levels of shade. [Journal Article]
- AAnimal 2017; 11(8):1344-1353
- Heat stress has a significant impact on all livestock and poultry species causing economic losses and animal well-being concerns. Providing shade is one heat-abatement strategy that has been studied ...
Heat stress has a significant impact on all livestock and poultry species causing economic losses and animal well-being concerns. Providing shade is one heat-abatement strategy that has been studied for years. Material selected to provide shade for animals greatly influences the overall stress reduction provided by shade. A study was conducted to quantify both the environment and animal response, when cattle had no shade access during summertime exposure or were given access to shade provided by three different materials. A total of 32 Black Angus heifers were assigned to one of the four treatment pens according to weight (eight animals per pen). Each pen was assigned a shade treatment: No Shade, Snow Fence, 60% Aluminet Shade Cloth and 100% Shade Cloth. In the shaded treatment pens, the shade structure covered ~40% of the pen (7.5 m2/animal). Animals were moved to a different treatment every 2 weeks in a 4×4 Latin square design to ensure each treatment was applied to each group of animals. Both environmental parameters and physiological responses were measured during the experiment. Environmental parameters included dry-bulb temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, black globe temperature (BGT), solar radiation (SR) and feedlot surface temperature. Animal response measurements included manual respiration rate (RRm), electronic respiration rate (RRe), vaginal temperature (body temperature (BT)), complete blood count (CBC) and plasma cortisol. The environmental data demonstrated changes proportional to the quality of shade offered. However, the animal responses did not follow this same trend. Some of the data suggest that any amount of shade was beneficial to the animals. However, Snow Fence may not offer adequate protection to reduce BT. For some of the parameters (BT, CBC and cortisol), 60% Aluminet and 100% Shade Cloth offers similar protection. The 60% Aluminet lowered RRe the most during extreme conditions. When considering all parameters, environmental and physiological, 60% Aluminet Shade Cloth offered reductions of BGT, SR, feedlot surface temperature and the best (or equal to the best) overall protection for the animals (RRe, RRm, BT, blood parameters).