- Autopsy in dengue encephalitis: An analysis of three cases. [Case Reports]
- NINeurol India 2018 Nov-Dec; 66(6):1721-1725
- Dengue viral infection with unusual presentations has been described in literature, but autopsy is rarely done and is only limited to some cases, based on the literature review. Here, we present the ...
Dengue viral infection with unusual presentations has been described in literature, but autopsy is rarely done and is only limited to some cases, based on the literature review. Here, we present the autopsy findings in three cases of dengue encephalitis. All the three patients clinically presented with signs of meningoencephalitis and were positive for dengue non-structural (NS) 1 antigen (Ag) in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The postmortem findings revealed cerebral edema, inflammation, hemorrhage, and microinfarcts in all the three cases with herniation of the brain in one case. Sub-massive hepatocellular necrosis was seen in one case. The renal findings included hemorrhage into the Bowman's capsule with red cell cast in two of three cases. The pulmonary findings included a diffuse destruction of the alveoli and hemorrhage into the alveolar spaces in all the three cases.
- Correlation of clinical parameters with imaging findings to confirm the diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Burns Trauma 2018; 8(5):135-144
- CONCLUSIONS: The FES is common in young males with long bone fractures. Respiratory distress and neurological deterioration were common presentations. We suggest that the all patients with suspected FES by clinical criteria should have imaging studies to confirm the diagnosis.
- Effect of plasma exchange in acute respiratory failure due to Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. [Letter]
- CCCrit Care 2018 Dec 04; 22(1):328
- CONCLUSIONS: A multimodal induction regimen combining immunosuppressants and plasma exchange may rapidly reverse the respiratory dysfunction in ANCA-associated vasculitis-related DAH.
- Pulmonary manifestations of large, medium, and variable vessel vasculitis. [Review]
- RMRespir Med 2018; 145:182-191
- The hallmark of vasculitis is autoimmune inflammation of blood vessels and surrounding tissues, resulting in an array of constitutional symptoms and organ damage. The lung is commonly targeted in the...
The hallmark of vasculitis is autoimmune inflammation of blood vessels and surrounding tissues, resulting in an array of constitutional symptoms and organ damage. The lung is commonly targeted in the more familiar ANCA-associated small vessel vasculitidies, but large and medium vessel vasculitides, including Takayasu arteritis, giant cell arteritis, polyarteritis nodosa, Behcet's disease, and necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis, may also feature prominent pulmonary involvement. Pulmonary manifestations of these conditions include pulmonary arterial aneurysms, pulmonary hypertension, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, pulmonary nodules, and parenchymal infiltrates. An understanding of the diverse manifestations of vasculitis and a high index of clinical suspicion are essential to avoid delays in disease recognition that may result in permanent or life threatening morbidity. In this review, we outline the general clinical manifestations, pulmonary manifestations, diagnostic workup, imaging findings, and treatment of medium, large, and variable vessel vasculitides.
- Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage during alemtuzumab infusion in a patient with multiple sclerosis: a case report. [Journal Article]
- BPBMC Pharmacol Toxicol 2018 Nov 19; 19(1):75
- CONCLUSIONS: This is the first published report of diffuse alveolar bleeding in a patient with multiple sclerosis treated with alemtuzumab. Four similar cases in patients treated for multiple sclerosis and several fatal cases in patients treated for other conditions are registered at the World Health Organization database of suspected adverse events (VIgiBase©), underscoring that this is a serious and possibly under-recognized complication of alemtuzumab which can also occur in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. The clinician should consider the possibility of diffuse pulmonary haemorrhage in patients with sudden onset of respiratory distress and haemoptysis following administration of alemtuzumab for multiple sclerosis.
- Fatal strongyloidiasis after corticosteroid therapy for presumed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. [Journal Article]
- JCJMM Case Rep 2018; 5(9):e005165
- CONCLUSIONS: The findings of our study suggest that corticosteroid administration in strongyloidiasis can lead to the development of fatal strongyloides hyper-infection syndrome. Hence our experience suggests the need for early diagnosis of strongyloidiasis to avoid such an outcome. A deterioration of the patient's condition after the initiation of corticosteroid therapy in endemic areas should raise the possibility of strongyloidiasis.
- Nebulised recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) does not attenuate the haemorrhagic effects of blast lung injury. [Journal Article]
- JRJ R Army Med Corps 2018 Nov 12
- CONCLUSIONS: A single dose of nebulised rFVIIa did not attenuate pulmonary haemorrhage in a rabbit model of blast lung injury. As there was some evidence of systemic absorption, the inhaled route does not avoid the concern about potential thromboembolic complications from administration of rFVIIa.
- Pulmonary vasculitis. [Review]
- JTJ Thorac Dis 2018; 10(9):5560-5575
- Systemic vasculitides frequently affect the pulmonary vasculature. As the signs and symptoms of pulmonary vasculitis are variable and nonspecific, diagnosis and treatment represent a real challenge. ...
Systemic vasculitides frequently affect the pulmonary vasculature. As the signs and symptoms of pulmonary vasculitis are variable and nonspecific, diagnosis and treatment represent a real challenge. Vasculitides should be given consideration, as these diseases present severe manifestations of rapidly progressing pulmonary disease. Examining other organs usually affected by vasculitides (e.g., the skin and kidneys) and determining autoantibody levels are essential to a better management of the disease. A radiological study would also contribute to establishing a diagnosis. The lungs are commonly involved in small-vessel vasculitis, anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, and vasculitides associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. Associated life-threatening diffuse alveolar haemorrhages and irreversible damage to other organs-usually the kidneys-are severe complications that require early diagnosis. Vasculitides are rare diseases that affect multiple organs. An increasing number of treatments-including biological agent-based therapies-requiring cooperation between specialists and centers have become available in the recent years. In the same way, clinicians should be familiar with the complications associated with immunosuppressive therapies.
- Alveolar Hemorrhage in Vasculitis (Primary and Secondary). [Journal Article]
- SRSemin Respir Crit Care Med 2018; 39(4):482-493
- Defined by the accumulation of red blood cells into the alveolar space, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a severe and potentially fatal medical condition requiring careful attention. In contrast ...
Defined by the accumulation of red blood cells into the alveolar space, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a severe and potentially fatal medical condition requiring careful attention. In contrast to simple extravasation of erythrocytes facilitated by impaired hemostasis or hemodynamic causes, DAH in vasculitis is due to capillaritis, that is, inflammation of capillaries. Dyspnea, hemoptysis, chest infiltrates, and abrupt fall of blood hemoglobin level represent the cardinal features of DAH; yet, hemoptysis is lacking in one-third of cases. Bronchoalveolar lavage, retrieving bright red fluid, is the best diagnostic clue, also excluding infection and other causes of hemoptysis. Although not recommended, lung biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis of DAH and pulmonary capillaritis. Pulmonary capillaritis may be primary as in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis or secondary to drugs (especially antithyroid drugs such as propylthiouracil), infections, connective tissue diseases especially systemic lupus erythematosus, or other small vessel vasculitides. Newer toxic causes of drugs of abuse may be difficult to diagnose. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis are the most common causes of capillaritis and DAH, whereas DAH is extremely rare in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis. When pulmonary capillaritis is not secondary to underlying systemic vasculitis, idiopathic pauci-immune pulmonary capillaritis may be considered, with or without ANCA. Supportive treatment strategy is mandatory in all cases of DAH. Mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may be used in severe cases. Early identification and removal of the putative drug is crucial in drug-induced vasculitis/DAH and may obviate the need for immunosuppressive therapy. High-dose corticosteroids, intravenous cyclophosphamide, and recently rituximab are the mainstay of treatment in vasculitis. Plasma exchange is recommended in anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and in severe DAH associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and is used in selected cases in ANCA-associated vasculitis.
New Search Next
- Microscopic Polyangiitis: New Insights into Pathogenesis, Clinical Features and Therapy. [Journal Article]
- SRSemin Respir Crit Care Med 2018; 39(4):459-464
- Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) is one of the main clinical presentations of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides. Although the disease is defined by clinical and patholo...
Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) is one of the main clinical presentations of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides. Although the disease is defined by clinical and pathological criteria, the anti-myeloperoxidase (MPO) specificity of ANCAs is observed in almost 80% of MPA patients. The direct pathogenic role of anti-MPO antibodies has been proven in animal models, in which the disease was transmitted by transfer of anti-MPO antibodies or anti-MPO-specific splenocytes. The most frequently affected organs in this disease are the kidneys and the lungs. Necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis can be revealed by rapidly progressive renal failure, but kidney injury can be more slowly progressive and lead to end-stage renal disease without major extrarenal manifestations. The most frequent pulmonary manifestation is diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, but some patients may present with chronic interstitial fibrosis leading to respiratory failure. General signs such as fever and weight loss, muscular and articular symptoms, peripheral neuropathy, and cutaneous involvement may also reveal the disease. Although the relapse rate is quite low after induction of remission, 5-year mortality is 25%, with even higher mortality rates in older patients (> 65 years old), or those with significant kidney dysfunction. Iatrogenic causes (particularly infections) are an important cause of deaths in these vulnerable patients. Future studies are warranted to determine the optimal maintenance immunosuppressive regimen to minimize side effects of immunosuppression.