- Effect of preoperative gabapentin and acetaminophen on opioid consumption in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery: a retrospective study. [Journal Article]
- RJRom J Anaesth Intensive Care 2018; 25(1):43-48
- CONCLUSIONS: The addition of preoperative gabapentin and acetaminophen to a VATS lobectomy multimodal analgesic regimen reduces the incidence of high dose postoperative opioid consumption without observed negative side effects.
- Efficacy of bilevel positive airway pressure and continuous positive airway pressure therapy in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome: protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- BOBMJ Open 2018 May 03; 8(5):e020832
- Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is a major respiratory complication caused by severe obesity, being associated with significant morbidity, negative impacts on quality of life and reduced survi...
Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is a major respiratory complication caused by severe obesity, being associated with significant morbidity, negative impacts on quality of life and reduced survival if not treated appropriately. Positive airway pressure therapy is the first-line treatment for OHS although the optimal modality remains unclear. The goal of this study is to identify the efficacy of home bilevel positive airway pressure therapy by comparison to continuous positive airway pressure therapy and determine the best strategy for patients with OHS.
- [A case of severe obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome with urinary and anal incontinence]. [Journal Article]
- ZNZhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2018 Mar 28; 43(3):333-336
- A case of a young male patient, who came to the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University because of snoring for 10 years and nocturnal gatism for half month, was analyzed retrospectively. He...
A case of a young male patient, who came to the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University because of snoring for 10 years and nocturnal gatism for half month, was analyzed retrospectively. He was diagnosed as obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) finally. The patient had been diagnosed and treated as stroke in the local hospital, while urinary and anal incontinence were not relieved. It was a dilemma for him to be properly diagnosed and treated. Polysomnography in our hospital revealed apnea hypopnea index (AHI) at 44.7 events/h, oxygen desaturation index (ODI) at 70.8 events/h and the longest apnea time at 185 seconds while the lowest blood oxygen saturation reduced to 31%. In addition, 413 events of apnea accounted for 61.2% of the sleep time and the minimal heart rate was 23 times/min. The patient was diagnosed as severe OSAHS with hypoxia metabolic brain disease, moderate pulmonary arterial hypertension, secondary polycythemia and obesity hypoventilation syndrome finally. He received the treatment of positive airway pressure non-invasive ventilator with an average pressure at 11.7 cmH2O with reduced AHI and increased blood oxygen saturation. The urinary and anal incontinence disappeared during the first night of treatment and it has been totally resolved so far. We considered that gatism was secondary to OSAHS with severe hypoxia resulted from attenuated regulation of primary defecation in the night. Physicians should pay attention to OSAHS when accepting obese patients with nocturnal incontinence, obvious daytime sleepiness and night snoring. Urinary and anal incontinence could be completely disappeared under therapy of positive airway pressure.
- Inhalational Anesthetics Induce Neuronal Protein Aggregation and Affect ER Trafficking. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Mar 27; 8(1):5275
- Anesthetic agents have been implicated in the causation of neurological and cognitive deficits after surgery, the exacerbation of chronic neurodegenerative disease, and were recently reported to prom...
Anesthetic agents have been implicated in the causation of neurological and cognitive deficits after surgery, the exacerbation of chronic neurodegenerative disease, and were recently reported to promote the onset of the neurologic respiratory disease Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome (CCHS), related to misfolding of the transcription factor Phox2B. To study how anesthetic agents could affect neuronal function through alterations to protein folding, we created neuronal cell models emulating the graded disease severity of CCHS. We found that the gas anesthetic isoflurane and the opiate morphine potentiated aggregation and mislocalization of Phox2B variants, similar to that seen in CCHS, and observed transcript and protein level changes consistent with activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) unfolded protein response. Attenuation of ER stress pathways did not result in a correction of Phox2B misfolding, indicating a primary effect of isoflurane on protein structure. We also observed that isoflurane hindered the folding and activity of proteins that rely heavily on ER function, like the CFTR channel. Our results show how anesthetic drugs can alter protein folding and induce ER stress, indicating a mechanism by which these agents may affect neuronal function after surgery.
- Predicting Adverse Perioperative Events in Patients Undergoing Primary Cleft Palate Repair. [Journal Article]
- CPCleft Palate Craniofac J 2018; 55(4):574-581
- CONCLUSIONS: APE incidence was 23.0% after palatoplasty, with a 37-fold higher incidence in extreme-risk patients. Individualized risk assessment tools may enhance perioperative clinical decision making to mitigate complications.
- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Respiratory acidosis is a state in which there is usually a failure of ventilation and an accumulation of carbon dioxide. The primary disturbance of elevated arterial PCO2 is the decreased ratio of a...
Respiratory acidosis is a state in which there is usually a failure of ventilation and an accumulation of carbon dioxide. The primary disturbance of elevated arterial PCO2 is the decreased ratio of arterial bicarbonate to arterial PCO2, which leads to a lowering of the pH. In the presence of alveolar hypoventilation, 2 features commonly are seen are respiratory acidosis and hypercapnia. To compensate for the disturbance in the balance between carbon dioxide and bicarbonate (HCO3-), the kidneys begin to excrete more acid in the forms of hydrogen and ammonium and reabsorb more base in the form of bicarbonate. This compensation helps to normalize the pH.
- Severe Multi-Organ Failure and Hypereosinophilia: When to Call It "Idiopathic"? [Journal Article]
- JIJ Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2018 Jan-Dec; 6:2324709618758347
- The hypereosinophilic syndrome is a rare disease characterized by the association between high absolute eosinophil count and eosinophil-mediated organ damage. We describe a case of a 70-year-old male...
The hypereosinophilic syndrome is a rare disease characterized by the association between high absolute eosinophil count and eosinophil-mediated organ damage. We describe a case of a 70-year-old male with an absolute eosinophil count of 2130 cells/µL. Clinical symptoms and signs included the following: severe asthenia, axonal sensitive motor neuropathy, basal pleural effusion with signs of hypoventilation on chest radiography, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as severe diarrhea, weight loss (-10 kg in 6 months), abdominal pain, and vomiting. On physical examination he had an urticarial dermatitis on his back, abdomen, and lower limbs. An extensive instrumental and laboratory diagnostic workup was performed. When all causes of primary and secondary hypereosinophilic syndrome were excluded, treatment with solumedrol infusion and oral prednisone was started, with a rapid recover of clinical symptoms and normalization of laboratory parameters. A complete remission of the laboratory and clinical findings was achieved after 2 months and maintained over 1-year follow-up.
- Patterns of use, survival and prognostic factors in patients receiving home mechanical ventilation in Western Australia: A single centre historical cohort study. [Journal Article]
- CRChron Respir Dis 2018 Jan 01; :1479972318755723
- Home mechanical ventilation (HMV) is used in a wide range of disorders associated with chronic hypoventilation. We describe the patterns of use, survival and predictors of death in Western Australia....
Home mechanical ventilation (HMV) is used in a wide range of disorders associated with chronic hypoventilation. We describe the patterns of use, survival and predictors of death in Western Australia. We identified 240 consecutive patients (60% male; mean age 58 years and body mass index 31 kg m-2) referred for HMV between 2005 and 2010. The patients were grouped into four categories: motor neurone disorders (MND; 39%), pulmonary disease (PULM; 25%, mainly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), non-MND neuromuscular and chest wall disorders (NMCW; 21%) and the obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS; 15%). On average, the patients had moderate ventilatory impairment (forced vital capacity: 51%predicted), sleep apnoea (apnoea-hypopnea index: 25 events h-1), sleep-related hypoventilation (transcutaneous carbon dioxide rise of 20 mmHg) and daytime hypercarbia (PCO2: 54 mmHg). Median durations of survival from HMV initiation were 1.0, 4.2, 9.9 and >11.5 years for MND, PULM, NMCW and OHS, respectively. Independent predictors of death varied between primary indications for HMV; the predictors included (a) age in all groups except for MND (hazard ratios (HRs) 1.03-1.10); (b) cardiovascular disease (HR: 2.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-5.10) in MND;
- Severe peri-ictal respiratory dysfunction is common in Dravet syndrome. [Journal Article]
- JCIJ Clin Invest 2018 Mar 01; 128(3):1141-1153
- Dravet syndrome (DS) is a severe childhood-onset epilepsy commonly due to mutations of the sodium channel gene SCN1A. Patients with DS have a high risk of sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP)...
Dravet syndrome (DS) is a severe childhood-onset epilepsy commonly due to mutations of the sodium channel gene SCN1A. Patients with DS have a high risk of sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP), widely believed to be due to cardiac mechanisms. Here we show that patients with DS commonly have peri-ictal respiratory dysfunction. One patient had severe and prolonged postictal hypoventilation during video EEG monitoring and died later of SUDEP. Mice with an Scn1aR1407X/+ loss-of-function mutation were monitored and died after spontaneous and heat-induced seizures due to central apnea followed by progressive bradycardia. Death could be prevented with mechanical ventilation after seizures were induced by hyperthermia or maximal electroshock. Muscarinic receptor antagonists did not prevent bradycardia or death when given at doses selective for peripheral parasympathetic blockade, whereas apnea, bradycardia, and death were prevented by the same drugs given at doses high enough to cross the blood-brain barrier. When given via intracerebroventricular infusion at a very low dose, a muscarinic receptor antagonist prevented apnea, bradycardia, and death. We conclude that SUDEP in patients with DS can result from primary central apnea, which can cause bradycardia, presumably via a direct effect of hypoxemia on cardiac muscle.
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- [Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as a component of the metabolic syndrome, and its causal correlations with other extrahepatic diseases]. [Review]
- OHOrv Hetil 2017; 158(52):2051-2061
- Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common non-infectious chronic liver-disease in our age, and is a spectrum of all the diseases associated with increased fat accumulation in the hepatocyt...
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common non-infectious chronic liver-disease in our age, and is a spectrum of all the diseases associated with increased fat accumulation in the hepatocytes. Its development is promoted by sedentary life-style, over-feeding, and certain genetic predisposition. Prevalence in the adult population, even in Hungary is ~30%. In a part of cases, this disease may pass into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, later into fibrosis, rarely into primary hepatocellular cancer. Fatty liver is closely and bidirectionally related to the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and nowadays there is a general consensus that fatty liver is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic sycndrome. The importance of the fatty liver has been highly emphasized recently. In addition to the progression into steatohepatitis, its causal relationship with numerous extrahepatic disorders has been discovered. In our overview, we deal with the epidemiology, pathomechanism of the disease, discuss the possibilities of diagnosis, its relationship with the intestinal microbiota, its recently recognized correlations with bile acids and their receptors, and its supposed correlations with the circadian CLOCK system. Hereinafter, we overview those extrahepatic disorders, which have been shown to be causal link with the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Among these, we emphasize the metabolic syndrome/type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, chronic kidney disease, sleep apnea/hypoventilation syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, Alzheimer's disease, osteoporosis, and psoriasis, as well. Based on the above, it can be stated, that high risk individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease need systemic care, and require the detection of other components of this systemic pathological condition. While currently specific therapy for the disease is not yet known, life-style changes, adequate use of available medicines can prevent disease progression. Promising research is under way, including drugs, manipulation of the intestinal flora or the possibility of therapeutic use of bile acid receptors, and also bariatric surgery. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(52): 2051-2061.