- Mushroom Poisoning byMacrolepiota neomastoidea. [Case Reports]
- KJKorean J Gastroenterol 2018 Feb 25; 71(2):94-97
- There are currently over 5,000-known species of mushrooms worldwide. Only 20-25% of mushrooms have been named, and 3% of these are poisonous. More than 95% of mushroom poisoning cases occur due to di...
There are currently over 5,000-known species of mushrooms worldwide. Only 20-25% of mushrooms have been named, and 3% of these are poisonous. More than 95% of mushroom poisoning cases occur due to difficulties associated with the identification of mushroom species. Most of the fatal mushroom poisoning cases recorded to date have been related to theAmanitaspecies. Until now, a case of fatal poisoning caused byMacrolepiota neomastoidea(M. neomastoidea) has not been reported in Asia. A 57-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. He reported ingesting wild mushrooms with his mother and sister about 2 days ago. His mother and sister were treated with only supportive care, but he was admitted to the intensive care unit and underwent liver transplantation due to acute liver failure. We are reporting a case of fatalM. neomastoideaintoxication from wild mushrooms, a rare case of mushroom poisoning.
- Toxicity and toxicokinetics of Amanita exitialis in beagle dogs. [Journal Article]
- TToxicon 2018 Mar 01; 143:59-67
- In this study, the toxicology of A. exitialis, a lethal mushroom found in China, and the toxicokinetics of peptide toxins contained in it were evaluated. Beagles were fed A. exitialis powder (20 or 6...
In this study, the toxicology of A. exitialis, a lethal mushroom found in China, and the toxicokinetics of peptide toxins contained in it were evaluated. Beagles were fed A. exitialis powder (20 or 60 mg/kg) in starch capsules, after which they were assessed for signs of toxicity, as well as biochemical and pathological changes. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry was used to assay the peptide toxins. The total peptide toxins in A. exitialis was 3482.6 ± 124.94 mg/kg. The beagles showed signs of toxicity, such as vomiting and diarrhea, at 12-48 h following ingestion of A. exitialis. Furthermore, alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels in plasma, as well as prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time peaked at 36 h post A. exitialis ingestion. Furthermore, total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase levels peaked at 48 h after A. exitialis ingestion. Three dogs that were administered 60 mg/kg A. exitialis died at 24-72 h after ingesting the capsules. Additionally, liver histopathological examinations showed hemorrhagic necrosis of hepatocytes. α-Amanitin, β-amanitin, and phallacidin were rapidly absorbed and eliminated from plasma after A. exitialis was ingested. A long latency period (12-24 h post A. exitialis ingestion) was observed in the dogs before the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms. There was acute liver damage thereafter. Gastric lavage and enhanced plasma clearance methods such as hemodialysis, hemoperfusion, or plasma exchange may be ineffective in removing amatoxins from blood at 12 h post A. exitialis ingestion. Enhanced excretion of amatoxins in urine could be effective within 2 days after ingestion of A. exitialis because amatoxins in 0-2 d urine accounted for more than 90% of the total urine excretion.
- Amatoxin-Containing Mushroom Poisonings: Species, Toxidromes, Treatments, and Outcomes. [Review]
- WEWilderness Environ Med 2018 Jan 08
- Amatoxins are produced primarily by 3 species of mushrooms: Amanita, Lepiota, and Galerina. Because amatoxin poisonings are increasing, the objective of this review was to identify all amatoxin-conta...
Amatoxins are produced primarily by 3 species of mushrooms: Amanita, Lepiota, and Galerina. Because amatoxin poisonings are increasing, the objective of this review was to identify all amatoxin-containing mushroom species, present a toxidromic approach to earlier diagnoses, and compare the efficacies and outcomes of therapies. To meet these objectives, Internet search engines were queried with keywords to select peer-reviewed scientific articles on amatoxin-containing mushroom poisoning and management. Descriptive epidemiological analyses have documented that most mushroom poisonings are caused by unknown mushrooms, and most fatal mushroom poisonings are caused by amatoxin-containing mushrooms. Amanita species cause more fatal mushroom poisonings than other amatoxin-containing species, such as Galerina and Lepiota. Amanita phalloides is responsible for most fatalities, followed by Amanita virosa and Amanita verna. The most frequently reported fatal Lepiota ingestions are due to Lepiota brunneoincarnata, and the most frequently reported fatal Galerina species ingestions are due to Galerina marginata. With the exception of liver transplantation, the current treatment strategies for amatoxin poisoning are all supportive and have not been subjected to rigorous efficacy testing in randomized controlled trials. All patients with symptoms of late-appearing gastrointestinal toxicity with or without false recovery or quiescent periods preceding acute liver insufficiency should be referred to centers providing liver transplantation. Patients with amatoxin-induced acute liver insufficiency that does not progress to liver failure will have a more favorable survival profile with supportive care than patients with amatoxin-induced acute liver failure, about half of whom will require liver transplantation.
- Clinical characteristics and outcome of toxicity from Amanita mushroom poisoning. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Gen Med 2017; 10:395-400
- CONCLUSIONS: Amanita mushroom poisoning caused high fatalities. Serum transaminase and creatinine were the factors associated with death. Treatment with oral high dose silymarin should be investigated further as one of the principal therapies in amatoxin poisoning.
- Epidemiology and clinics of mushroom poisoning in Northern Italy: A 21-year retrospective analysis. [Journal Article]
- HEHum Exp Toxicol 2017 Jan 01; :960327117730882
- CONCLUSIONS: Early identification and management of potentially life-threatening cases is challenging in the ED, so that a mycologist service on call is highly advisable, especially during periods characterized by the highest incidence of poisoning.
- A universal method for the identification of genes encoding amatoxins and phallotoxins in poisonous mushrooms [Journal Article]
- RPRocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2017; 68(3):247-251
- CONCLUSIONS: Designed two couples of PCR-primers specific to amanitins and phallotoxins genes can be recommended for detection of Amanita phalloides and other mushroom species producing hepatotoxic cyclic peptides - amanitins and phallotoxins.
- [Evaluation of the toxicity of Basidiomycota fungi on the hatching of Artemia franciscana cysts]. [Journal Article]
- RIRev Iberoam Micol 2017 Oct - Dec; 34(4):220-224
- CONCLUSIONS: The brine shrimp bioassay appeared to be useful in the evaluation of the toxicity of several basidiomycetes, with the exception of Scleroderma texense, a mushroom considered poisonous, which showed no toxicity over A. franciscana.
- Investigating and analyzing three cohorts of mushroom poisoning caused by Amanita exitialis in Yunnan, China. [Journal Article]
- HEHum Exp Toxicol 2017 Jan 01; :960327117721960
- Amanita exitialis is a lethal mushroom found in China. Knowledge regarding taxonomic characterization, toxin detection, general poisoning conditions, clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations,...
Amanita exitialis is a lethal mushroom found in China. Knowledge regarding taxonomic characterization, toxin detection, general poisoning conditions, clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations, and clinical treatments for this species is currently lacking. We investigated three A. exitialis mushroom poisoning cohorts in Yunnan Province in 2014 and 2015, involving 10 patients. Mushroom samples were identified by morphological and molecular studies. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was used to detect the peptide toxins in the mushroom samples. Epidemiological information, clinical data, and results of laboratory examinations were collected and analyzed. The mushroom samples were all identified as A. exitialis. The average toxin concentration decreased from the cap to the stipe to the volva, and the average concentration of the peptide toxins decreased in the order of α-amanitin > phallacidin > β-amanitin > γ-amanitin. The latency period between ingestion and the onset of symptoms was 13.9 ± 2.1 h, and the time from ingestion to hospitalization was 49.6 ± 8.5 h. The most common symptoms were nausea and vomiting (100%). Four patients died from fulminant hepatic failure. Laboratory examinations showed that the alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, prothrombin time, and activated partial thromboplastin time levels peaked on the third day post-ingestion. Total bilirubin and direct bilirubin values peaked on day 7. The death group and the survival group had a similar variation trend of serological indexes, but the death group had a greater change. A. exitialis is an extremely dangerous mushroom and there is a need to educate the public to avoid picking and eating wild mushrooms that have not been definitively identified.
- Selection and analysis of a DNA aptamer binding α-amanitin from Amanita phalloides. [Journal Article]
- ABActa Biochim Pol 2017; 64(3):401-406
- Mushroom foraging is very popular in some regions of the world. Sometimes toxic and edible mushrooms are mistaken by mushroom collectors, leading to serious human poisoning. The group of mushrooms hi...
Mushroom foraging is very popular in some regions of the world. Sometimes toxic and edible mushrooms are mistaken by mushroom collectors, leading to serious human poisoning. The group of mushrooms highly dangerous for human health includes Amanita phalloides. This mushroom produces a toxic octapeptide called α-amanitin which is an inhibitor of nuclear RNA polymerase II. The inhibition of this polymerase results in the abortion of mRNA synthesis. The ingestion of A. phalloides causes liver failure due to the fact that most of the toxin is uptaken by hepatocytes. The hospitalization of poisoned patients involves the removal of the toxin from the digestive tract, its dilution in the circulatory system and the administration of therapeutic adjuvants. Since there is no effective antidote against amanitin poisoning, in this study we developed a DNA aptamer exhibiting specific binding to α-amanitin. This aptamer was selected using the SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) method. Next, its ability of toxin removal from aqueous solution was confirmed by pull-down assay. The aptamer region sufficient for α-amanitin binding was determined. Finally, the dissociation constant of the α-amanitin/DNA aptamer complex was calculated.
New Search Next
- [The peculiar features of the morphological manifestations of the damage to the liver associated with the death cap mushroom poisoning]. [Journal Article]
- SMSud Med Ekspert 2017; 60(3):23-26
- This article is focused on the peculiar features of the morphological manifestations of massive hepatic necrosis associated with the death cap mushroom (Amanita phalloides) poisoning in comparison wi...
This article is focused on the peculiar features of the morphological manifestations of massive hepatic necrosis associated with the death cap mushroom (Amanita phalloides) poisoning in comparison with similar cases of intoxication. It has been shown that the poisoning is associated with cell proliferation in the peri-portal regions of the liver and induction of the mechanisms of apoptosis responsible for the death of hepatocytes.