Did you mean: (ambient)?
- Zolpidem and Facebook Don't Mix. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Psychiatr Nurses Assoc 2018 Sep/Oct; 24(5):414
- A randomized controlled trial for effectiveness of zolpidem versus acupressure on sleep in hemodialysis patients having chronic kidney disease-associated pruritus: Erratum. [Journal Article]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(37):e12527
- The influences of CYP2C9*1/*3 genotype on the pharmacokinetics of zolpidem. [Journal Article]
- APArch Pharm Res 2018; 41(9):931-936
- Zolpidem is predominantly metabolized by CYP3A4, and to a lesser extent by CYP2C9, CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP2C19. The aim of this study was to identify the effects of CYP2C9*3 allele on the pharmacokine...
Zolpidem is predominantly metabolized by CYP3A4, and to a lesser extent by CYP2C9, CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP2C19. The aim of this study was to identify the effects of CYP2C9*3 allele on the pharmacokinetics of zolpidem. Healthy male subjects were divided into two genotype groups, CYP2C9*1/*1 and CYP2C9*1/*3. They received a single oral dose of 5 mg zolpidem, and the plasma concentrations of zolpidem were determined up to 12 h after drug administration. In addition, since zolpidem is metabolized at a high rate by CYP3A4, the effect of CYP2C9*3 allele on the pharmacokinetics of zolpidem was also observed in the condition where CYP3A4 was sufficiently inhibited by the steady-state concentration of clarithromycin, a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor. For this, clarithromycin 500 mg was administered twice daily for 5 days. Plasma concentrations of zolpidem were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The overall pharmacokinetic parameters of zolpidem were not significantly different between two CYP2C9 genotypes. Even with the potent CYP3A4 inhibitor clarithromycin present at steady-state concentrations, there were no significant differences in the exposure of zolpidem, except for elimination half-life (t1/2). In conclusion, our study suggests that CYP2C9*1/*3 genotype does not affect the plasma exposure of zolpidem.
- Two cases of white globe appearance in non-cancerous stomach. [Journal Article]
- EEcancermedicalscience 2018; 12:856
- In this report, we describe two patients with white globe appearance in the non-cancerous stomach. The patient in Case 1 was an 82-year-old Japanese man who had been taking vonoprazan, dimethicone, a...
In this report, we describe two patients with white globe appearance in the non-cancerous stomach. The patient in Case 1 was an 82-year-old Japanese man who had been taking vonoprazan, dimethicone, acotiamide, sitagliptin, candesartan, dutasteride, etizolam and zolpidem. The patient in Case 2 was a 74-year-old Japanese woman who had been taking esomeprazole, rebamipide, sitagliptin, candesartan, ezetimibe, mirabegron, levocetirizine, zolpidem and lactobacillus preparation. In both cases, endoscopy revealed multiple white spots in the stomach. Magnifying endoscopy and blue laser imaging revealed a slightly elevated, round, white substance. Biopsied specimens from the lesions contained parietal cell protrusions and fundic gland cysts. Intraglandular necrotic debris was absent. Consequently, microscopic features in these cases were different from those reported previously for white globe appearance observed in gastric cancer lesions. These results indicate that white globe appearance can be observed in non-cancerous stomach. Although the macroscopic features could be confusing or misleading, thorough endoscopic observation and pathological analysis of white globe appearance will aid oncologists and endoscopists in differentiating between cancer-related lesions and non-cancerous lesions.
- Treatment of Sleep Disturbance May Reduce the Risk of Future Probable Alzheimer's Disease. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Aging Health 2018 Aug 30; :898264318795567
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the emerging link between sleep disturbance and AD. Our findings also suggest a continued need to elucidate the mechanisms that offer protective factors against AD development.
- A general deoxygenation approach for synthesis of ketones from aromatic carboxylic acids and alkenes. [Journal Article]
- NCNat Commun 2018 Aug 29; 9(1):3517
- The construction of an aryl ketone structural unit by means of catalytic carbon-carbon coupling reactions represents the state-of-the-art in organic chemistry. Herein we achieved the direct deoxygena...
The construction of an aryl ketone structural unit by means of catalytic carbon-carbon coupling reactions represents the state-of-the-art in organic chemistry. Herein we achieved the direct deoxygenative ketone synthesis in aqueous solution from readily available aromatic carboxylic acids and alkenes, affording structurally diverse ketones in moderate to good yields. Visible-light photoredox catalysis enables the direct deoxygenation of acids as acyl sources with triphenylphosphine and represents a distinct perspective on activation. The synthetic robustness is supported by the late-stage modification of several pharmaceutical compounds and complex molecules. This ketone synthetic strategy is further applied to the synthesis of the drug zolpidem in three steps with 50% total yield and a concise construction of cyclophane-braced 18-20 membered macrocycloketones. It represents not only the advancement for the streamlined synthesis of aromatic ketones from feedstock chemicals, but also a photoredox radical activation mode beyond the redox potential of carboxylic acids.
- How representative are insomnia clinical trials? [Journal Article]
- SMSleep Med 2018 Jun 26; 51:118-123
- CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest persons entering insomnia hypnotic clinical trials are a highly selected sample that is unlikely to be representative of the broad insomnia population or the population of potential medication users.
- Alprazolam and Zolpidem in Skeletal Tissue of Decomposed Body Confirms Exposure. [Case Reports]
- JFJ Forensic Sci 2018 Aug 21
- In several medico-legal cases, bone samples analysis may provide the only source of toxicological information. This case study reports the analysis of a human bone specimen, belonging to a 46-year-ol...
In several medico-legal cases, bone samples analysis may provide the only source of toxicological information. This case study reports the analysis of a human bone specimen, belonging to a 46-year-old man, found 3 months after his death due to cervical-thoracic injuries in a motorcycle accident. Bone specimen was the only available material for toxicological analysis, among few skull hair and rotten skin. Analysis was performed by a newly developed and validated ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method, following simple and efficient sample pretreatment. The results were in accordance with the man's medical record: Alprazolam and zolpidem were found at 2.2 and 5.4 ng/g of bone, respectively. Both these drugs were prescribed to the deceased.
- Pharmacological agents for improving sleep quality at high altitude: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. [Review]
- SMSleep Med 2018 Aug 16; 51:105-114
- Several hypnotic agents commonly recommended for improving sleep at sea level are discouraged at high altitude. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of drugs prescribed for improving sleep qu...
Several hypnotic agents commonly recommended for improving sleep at sea level are discouraged at high altitude. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of drugs prescribed for improving sleep quality in patients with acute exposure to high altitudes by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. An electronic search was executed for randomized controlled trials comparing drug treatments with placebo and no-treatment conditions, which used objective sleep parameters or subjective sleep quality evaluations. Eight studies (152 participants) were included in the meta-analysis and involved trials using acetazolamide, temazepam, zolpidem, zaleplon, and theophylline. Generally, the nonbenzodiazepines were reported to be superior and safe in improving sleep quality. Participants who were administered zaleplon or zolpidem reported a significant improvement in subjective sleep quality. As measured by polysomnography, both zaleplon and zolpidem improved the total sleep time, sleep efficiency index, and stage 4 sleep duration, whereas they decreased the wake-after-sleep onset without impairing ventilation. In contrast, temazepam was not superior to placebo in terms of quicker onset of sleep and better sleep quality. On the other hand, acetazolamide and theophylline both reduced the sleep efficiency index. The present results favored zaleplon and zolpidem in improving both the objective and subjective quality of sleep without impairing ventilation.
New Search Next
- Probing the molecular basis for affinity/potency- and efficacy-based subtype-selectivity exhibited by benzodiazepine-site modulators at GABAA receptors. [Journal Article]
- BPBiochem Pharmacol 2018 Aug 16
- The extracellular α(+)/γ2(-) interface in the α1,2,3,5βγ2 GABAA receptor harbours the allosteric binding site targeted by benzodiazepines and newer generations of subtype-selective modulators. We hav...
The extracellular α(+)/γ2(-) interface in the α1,2,3,5βγ2 GABAA receptor harbours the allosteric binding site targeted by benzodiazepines and newer generations of subtype-selective modulators. We have probed the molecular determinants for the affinity/potency-based α1-preference exhibited by the hypnotic zolpidem (Ambien®, Stilnox®) and the efficacy-based α3-over-α1 selectivity displayed by the analgesic NS11394. Binding affinities and functional properties of the modulators were characterized at wild-type, concatenated, mutant and chimeric α1,3β2γ2S receptors expressed in tsA201 cells and Xenopus oocytes by [3H]flumazenil binding and two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology. Substitution of Gly201 in α1 with the corresponding Glu in α3 completely eliminated the α1-over-α3 preference exhibited by zolpidem. In contrast, the reverse α3-E225G mutation did not yield corresponding increases in the binding affinity or modulatory potency of zolpidem at α3β2γ2S, and two additional molecular elements in the extracellular domain of the α-subunit were found also to contribute to its α1-preference. Interestingly, α1-Gly201/α3-Glu225 was also a key determinant of the efficacy-based α3-over-α1 selectivity exhibited by NS11394, and a pronounced correlation existed between side-chain bulkiness of this residue and modulatory efficacy of NS11394 at the receptor. The subtype-selectivity determinants identified for zolpidem and NS11394 were found also to apply in different degrees to the α1-preferring modulator indiplon and the α3-over-α1 selective modulator L-838,417, respectively. In conclusion, the molecular origins of subtype-selectivity exhibited by benzodiazepine-site modulators seem more complex than previously appreciated, and the importance of the α1-Gly201/α3-Glu225 residue for both potency- and efficacy-based subtype-selective modulation through this site is likely to be rooted in different molecular mechanisms.