- A colonic amoebic abscess mimicking colonic carcinoma. [Journal Article]
- MJMed J Malaysia 2018; 73(5):334-335
- Amebiasis is one of the major causes of diarrhea in the developing countries and it can present with a wide range of gastrointestinal symptoms depending on the phase of infection. We described a case...
Amebiasis is one of the major causes of diarrhea in the developing countries and it can present with a wide range of gastrointestinal symptoms depending on the phase of infection. We described a case of 50 year-old male patient who presented with abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomiting. After right hemicolectomy for appendicular abscess with tumour over the ileum, histopathological examinations revealed numerous trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica in a background of inflammations (Figure 1). Following resection of the ameboma, he received intravenous metronidazole treatment for total of two weeks duration.
- The first Acanthamoeba keratitis case in the Midwest region of Brazil: diagnosis, genotyping of the parasite and disease outcome. [Case Reports]
- RSRev Soc Bras Med Trop 2018 Sep-Oct; 51(5):716-719
- We report an Acanthamoeba keratitis case associated with the use of contact lens in a 28-year-old female from Brasília, Brazil. Samples from corneal scraping and contact lens case were used for cultu...
We report an Acanthamoeba keratitis case associated with the use of contact lens in a 28-year-old female from Brasília, Brazil. Samples from corneal scraping and contact lens case were used for culture establishment, PCR amplification, and partial sequencing (fragments of ~400kb) of small subunit rDNA; both culture and PCR were positive. The sequence analyses of the cornea and of isolates from the contact lens case showed similarity with the T4 genotype. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of T4 Acanthamoeba keratitis case from the Midwest region of Brazil.
- Changes in the immune system in experimental acanthamoebiasis in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts. [Journal Article]
- PVParasit Vectors 2018 Sep 20; 11(1):517
- CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that analysis of the immune response and pathogenesis mechanisms of clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba spp. in an animal model not only has purely cognitive significance but above all, may help in the development of effective methods of pharmacological therapy especially in patients with low immunity.
- High-Throughput Screening of Entamoeba Identifies Compounds Which Target Both Life Cycle Stages and Which Are Effective Against Metronidazole Resistant Parasites. [Journal Article]
- FCFront Cell Infect Microbiol 2018; 8:276
- Neglected tropical diseases, especially those caused by parasites, are significantly underserved by current drug development efforts, mostly due to the high costs and low economic returns. One method...
Neglected tropical diseases, especially those caused by parasites, are significantly underserved by current drug development efforts, mostly due to the high costs and low economic returns. One method for lowering the costs of drug discovery and development for these diseases is to repurpose drugs developed for other indications. Here, we present the results of a screen of five repurposed drug libraries to identify potential new lead compounds to treat amebiasis, a disease that affects tens of millions of people and causes ~100,000 deaths annually. E. histolytica, the causative agent of amebiasis, has two major life cycle stages, the trophozoite and the cyst. The current primary treatment for amebiasis, nitroimidazole compounds, do not eliminate parasites from the colonic lumen, necessitating a multi-drug treatment regimen. We aimed to address this problem by screening against both life stages, with the aim of identifying a single drug that targets both. We successfully identified eleven compounds with activity against both cysts and trophozoites, as well as multiple compounds that killed trophozoites with improved efficacy over existing drugs. Two lead compounds (anisomycin and prodigiosin) were further characterized for activity against metronidazole (MNZ) resistant parasites and mature cysts. Anisomycin and prodigiosin were both able to kill MNZ resistant parasites while prodigiosin and its analog obatoclax were active against mature cysts. This work confirms the feasibility of identifying drugs that target both Entamoeba trophozoites and cysts, and is an important step toward developing improved treatment regimens for Entamoeba infection.
- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Amebiasis or amoebic dysentery is a common parasitic enteral infection. It is caused by any of the amoebas of the Entamoeba group. Amoebiasis may present with no symptoms or mild to severe symptoms i...
Amebiasis or amoebic dysentery is a common parasitic enteral infection. It is caused by any of the amoebas of the Entamoeba group. Amoebiasis may present with no symptoms or mild to severe symptoms including abdominal pain, diarrhea, or bloody diarrhea. Severe complications may include inflammation and perforation resulting in peritonitis. People affected may develop anemia. If the parasite reaches the bloodstream, it can spread through the body and end up in the liver causing amoebic liver abscesses. Liver abscesses can occur without previous diarrhea. Diagnosis is typically by stool examination using a microscope. An increased WBC count may be present. The most accurate test is specific antibodies in the blood. Prevention of amoebiasis is by improved sanitation. Two treatment options are possible, depending on the location. Amoebiasis in tissue is treated with metronidazole, tinidazole, nitazoxanide, dehydroemetine or chloroquine. A luminal infection is treated with diloxanide furoate or iodoquinoline. Effective treatment may require a combination of medications. Infections without symptoms require treatment, but infected individuals can spread the parasite to others. Amoebiasis is present all over the world. Each year, about 40,000 to 110,000 people die from amoebiasis infection.
- Effect of storage time and temperature on the detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acanthamoeba and Herpes Simplex Virus from corneal impression membranes. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Microbiol 2018; 67(9):1321-1325
- The effect of storage time and temperature on the recovery of pathogen DNA from polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) was investigated. PTFE impression membranes were inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ...
The effect of storage time and temperature on the recovery of pathogen DNA from polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) was investigated. PTFE impression membranes were inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) or Acanthamoeba and stored at -70 °C, -20 °C, +4 °C or +35 °C. PCR was performed on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 7 and months 1, 3 and 10 post-inoculation. We found no reduction in the DNA recovery of any of the studied microorganisms for the first 3 days of storage up to +35 °C. For HSV-1 and P. aeruginosa, storage for 3 months at +35 °C was associated with a significant reduction in DNA recovery (P<0.001), but not at +4 °C, -20 °C or -70 °C for 1 month for P. aeruginosa and for 10 months for HSV-1. Acanthamoeba DNA recovery was not affected by any storage parameters (P=0.203). These results will inform the investigation of microbial keratitis where access to microbiological testing is not readily available.
- A Review of the Global Burden, New Diagnostics, and Current Therapeutics for Amebiasis. [Review]
- OFOpen Forum Infect Dis 2018; 5(7):ofy161
- Amebiasis, due to the pathogenic parasite Entamoeba histolytica, is a leading cause of diarrhea globally. Largely an infection of impoverished communities in developing countries, amebiasis has emerg...
Amebiasis, due to the pathogenic parasite Entamoeba histolytica, is a leading cause of diarrhea globally. Largely an infection of impoverished communities in developing countries, amebiasis has emerged as an important infection among returning travelers, immigrants, and men who have sex with men residing in developed countries. Severe cases can be associated with high case fatality. Polymerase chain reaction-based diagnosis is increasingly available but remains underutilized. Nitroimidazoles are currently recommended for treatment, but new drug development to treat parasitic agents is a high priority. Amebiasis should be considered before corticosteroid therapy to decrease complications. There is no effective vaccine, so prevention focuses on sanitation and access to clean water. Further understanding of parasite biology and pathogenesis will advance future targeted therapeutic and preventative strategies.
- Hepatic Abscess in a Returning Traveler with Crohn's Disease: Differentiating Amebic from Pyogenic Liver Abscess. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Med 2018; 2018:9593865
- Liver abscess is a rare but serious complication of Crohn's disease. Patients with Crohn's disease are at risk for pyogenic liver abscesses due to immunosuppressive therapy, fistulous disease, and in...
Liver abscess is a rare but serious complication of Crohn's disease. Patients with Crohn's disease are at risk for pyogenic liver abscesses due to immunosuppressive therapy, fistulous disease, and intraabdominal abscesses. Inflammatory bowel disease patients are also known to have a greater prevalence of amebiasis compared to the rest of the population; however, a higher incidence of amebic liver abscess has not been reported. We describe a case of a liver abscess in a patient with Crohn's disease that was initially presumed pyogenic but later determined to be amebic in origin. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of amebic and pyogenic liver abscesses are discussed.
- Flavonoids as a Natural Treatment Against Entamoeba histolytica. [Review]
- FCFront Cell Infect Microbiol 2018; 8:209
- Over the past 20 years, gastrointestinal infections in developing countries have been a serious health problem and are the second leading cause of morbidity among all age groups. Among pathogenic pro...
Over the past 20 years, gastrointestinal infections in developing countries have been a serious health problem and are the second leading cause of morbidity among all age groups. Among pathogenic protozoans that cause diarrheal disease, the parasite Entamoeba histolytica produces amebic colitis as well as the most frequent extra-intestinal lesion, an amebic liver abscess (ALA). Usually, intestinal amebiasis and ALA are treated with synthetic chemical compounds (iodoquinol, paromomycin, diloxanide furoate, and nitroimidazoles). Metronidazole is the most common treatment for amebiasis. Although the efficacy of nitroimidazoles in killing amebas is known, the potential resistance of E. histolytica to this treatment is a concern. In addition, controversial studies have reported that metronidazole could induce mutagenic effects and cerebral toxicity. Therefore, natural and safe alternative drugs against this parasite are needed. Flavonoids are natural polyphenolic compounds. Flavonoids depend on malonyl-CoA and phenylalanine to be synthesized. Several flavonoids have anti-oxidant and anti-microbial properties. Since the 1990s, several works have focused on the identification and purification of different flavonoids with amebicidal effects, such as, -(-)epicatechin, kaempferol, and quercetin. In this review, we investigated the effects of flavonoids that have potential amebicidal activity and that can be used as complementary and/or specific therapeutic strategies against E. histolytica trophozoites. Interestingly, it was found that these natural compounds can induce morphological changes in the amebas, such as chromatin condensation and cytoskeletal protein re-organization, as well as the upregulation and downregulation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, glyceraldehyde-phosphate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (enzymes of the glycolytic pathway). Although the specific molecular targets, bioavailability, route of administration, and doses of some of these natural compounds need to be determined, flavonoids represent a very promising and innocuous strategy that should be considered for use against E. histolytica in the era of microbial drug resistance.
New Search Next
- Comparative study of tinidazole versus metronidazole in treatment of amebic liver abscess: A randomized control trial. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- IJIndian J Gastroenterol 2018; 37(3):196-201
- CONCLUSIONS: Tinidazole, as compared to metronidazole, has early clinical response, shorter treatment course, favorable rate of recovery, and high tolerability; thus, tinidazole can be preferred over metronidazole in ALA.