- Primary pulmonary amebic abscess in a patient with pulmonary adenocarcinoma: a case report. [Journal Article]
- IDInfect Dis Poverty 2018 Apr 27; 7(1):34
- CONCLUSIONS: In such cases where patients with pulmonary nodules were in immunodeficiency state and had adequate but ineffective anti-bacterial treatment, Entamoeba histolytica infection could be one of the rare causes. Percutaneous lung biopsy should be recommended and specific dying for parasites should be done when necessary.
- Chloroquine as a possible disinfection adjunct of disinfection solutions against Acanthamoeba. [Journal Article]
- EPExp Parasitol 2018; 188:102-106
- Acanthamoeba keratitis is commonly encountered by contact lens wearers. Contact lens solution plays an important role in the safe use of contact lenses. The most popular products for disinfecting len...
Acanthamoeba keratitis is commonly encountered by contact lens wearers. Contact lens solution plays an important role in the safe use of contact lenses. The most popular products for disinfecting lenses are multipurpose disinfecting solutions (MPDS). However, almost all MPDS retailed in Korea are ineffective in killing Acanthamoeba. The objective of this study was to determine the possibility of using autophagy inhibitor chloroquine as a disinfecting agent to improve the amoebicidal activity of MPDS against Acanthamoeba, especially the cyst. Amoebicidal effects of eight different MPDSs combined with chloroquine (CQ), an autophagy inhibitor, and their cytotoxicities to human corneal epithelium cells were determined. Almost all MPDS showed strong amoebicidal effect on trophozoites after 8 h of exposure. However, they showed inadequate amoebicidal effect on cysts even after 24 h of exposure. MPDSs combined with 100 μM CQ increased their amoebicidal effects on immature cyst by inhibiting formation of mature cysts. Incubation with 100 μM CQ for 30 min did not have cytotoxicity to human corneal epithelial cells.
- THE USE OF EXTRACTS FROM PASSIFLORA SPP. IN HELPING THE TREATMENT OF ACANTHAMOEBIASIS. [Journal Article]
- APActa Pol Pharm 2017; 74(3):921-928
- Chronic progressive diseases of the central nervous system such as granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, amoebic keratitis, amoebic pneumonitis and also skin infections caused by free-living amoebae (A...
Chronic progressive diseases of the central nervous system such as granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, amoebic keratitis, amoebic pneumonitis and also skin infections caused by free-living amoebae (Acanhamoeba spp.) are a significant challenge for pharmacotherapy. This is due to the lack of effective treatment because of encystation, which makes the amoebae highly resistant to anti-amoebic drugs. A very inter- esting and promising source of future drugs in this area are plant materials obtained not only from the habitat but also from plant in vitro culture as an alternative source of biomaterials. Alcoholic extracts from leaves of Passiflora incarnata, P. caerulea, P. alata (Passifloraceae) and from callus cultures were evaluated in vito for amoebicidal activity. Phytochemical analysis showed that all extracts contained phenolic compounds including flavonoids? Biological study revealed that all extracts showed amoebostatic and amoebicidal properties in concentrations from 4 to 12 mg/mL. Extracts of P. alata leaf and callus showed the most effective activities (IC5, 4.01 mg/mL, IC,5 7.29 mg/mL, respectively) after 48 h of exposure, which was correlated with the highest concentration of total phenolics and flavonoids in comparison with other extracts.
- Regional spread of contact lens-related Acanthamoeba keratitis in Italy. [Journal Article]
- NMNew Microbiol 2018; 41(1):83-85
- Acanthamoeba ocular infections, known as Acanthamoeba keratitis, are an emerging problem among contact lens wearers. Infections mediated by Acanthamoeba are uncommon, but they can be underestimated d...
Acanthamoeba ocular infections, known as Acanthamoeba keratitis, are an emerging problem among contact lens wearers. Infections mediated by Acanthamoeba are uncommon, but they can be underestimated due to poor awareness and delayed diagnosis. The routine use of rapid and cost-effective molecular methods like Real Time PCR for the diagnosis of this important pathogen could improve diagnosis and therapy outcome. This report describes the detection by Real Time PCR assay of six T4 and one T3 Acanthamoeba infections, as the first reported cases in Tuscany, Italy.
- Tap Water and Risk of Acanthamoeba Keratitis in Rigid Gas-Permeable Lens Wearers: Sacred Cow or Culprit? [Letter]
- ECEye Contact Lens 2018; 44(2):132-136
- In vivo confocal microscopy and in vitro culture techniques as tools for evaluation of severe Acanthamoeba keratitis incidents [Journal Article]
- APAnn Parasitol 2017; 63(4):341-346
- Amphizoic amoebae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba are known as etiological agents of sight-threatening Acanthamoeba keratitis. The leading risk factor for the development of this serious human di...
Amphizoic amoebae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba are known as etiological agents of sight-threatening Acanthamoeba keratitis. The leading risk factor for the development of this serious human disease is contact lens wearing which popularity increases worldwide, also in Poland. The disease with active epithelial inflammations, corneal ulcers, including loss of the visual acuity is a serious medical problem as an emerging threat for the public health related to improper contact lens hygiene. The treatment of the amoebic keratitis is difficult, often unsuccessful due to delayed proper diagnosis. The clinical picture of the disease, often with severe course is nonspecific, similar to that occurring in viral, fungal or bacterial keratitis, thus clinical symptoms alone are not sufficient to identify the causative agent of the amoebic infection. Early diagnosis is decisive for the suitable therapeutic management and the treatment efficacy. In our studies, several complicated, difficult to treat Acanthamoeba keratitis incidences pertaining Polish patients using contact lenses have been retrospectively analyzed in terms of the usefulness of non-invasive methods of in vivo confocal microscopy and in vitro culture techniques applied for diagnosis. Hyper-reflective double-walled spherical Acanthamoeba cysts, with a more reflective outer wall were detected in the epithelium and anterior layers of the corneal stroma. In vivo confocal microscopy, if available, may be a valuable, sensitive tool for diagnosis in late identified severe infections mainly with strong viability strains, however confoscan may offer limited value at lowintensity amoebic infections. The microscopic visualization of amoebae in slides prepared directly from corneal scraping and laboratory examinations of specimens from in vitro cultivated corneal isolates allow to confirm or verify results of in vivo examinations, furthermore to identify directly the pathogens and to clarify previous misdiagnoses.
- All caecal ulcers is not Crohn's: Think Travel-Think again. [Case Reports]
- AGActa Gastroenterol Belg 2017 Jan-Mar; 80(1):83-84
- Influence of Artemisia annua L. on toll-like receptor expression in brain of mice infected with Acanthamoeba sp. [Journal Article]
- EPExp Parasitol 2018; 185:17-22
- The treatment of acanthamoebiasis is a still a problem. Our previous studies showed that the application of extracts from Artemisia annua L. significantly prolonged the survival of mice infected by A...
The treatment of acanthamoebiasis is a still a problem. Our previous studies showed that the application of extracts from Artemisia annua L. significantly prolonged the survival of mice infected by Acanthamoeba. This plant has medicinal properties in the treatment of human parasitic diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of A. annua on expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 in brain of mice with Acanthamoeba infection. Mice were infected with Acanthamoeba sp. strain Ac309 (KY203908) by intranasal inoculation without and after application of A. annua extract. The administration of extract from A. annua significantly reduced the level of expression of TLR2 and modified the level of expression of TLR4. A. annua extract is a natural substance that is well tolerated in animals and may be considered as a combination therapy in treatment of acanthamoebiasis. Our study suggested that A. annua extract may be used as an alternative therapeutic tool.
- Silver nanoparticle conjugation affects antiacanthamoebic activities of amphotericin B, nystatin, and fluconazole. [Journal Article]
- PRParasitol Res 2018; 117(1):265-271
- Infectious diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality, killing more than 15 million people worldwide. This is despite our advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy and supportive care. Na...
Infectious diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality, killing more than 15 million people worldwide. This is despite our advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy and supportive care. Nanoparticles offer a promising technology to enhance drug efficacy and formation of effective vehicles for drug delivery. Here, we conjugated amphotericin B, nystatin (macrocyclic polyenes), and fluconazole (azole) with silver nanoparticles. Silver-conjugated drugs were synthesized successfully and characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Conjugated and unconjugated drugs were tested against Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype using amoebicidal assay and host cell cytotoxicity assay. Viability assays revealed that silver nanoparticles conjugated with amphotericin B (Amp-AgNPs) and nystatin (Nys-AgNPs) exhibited significant antiamoebic properties compared with drugs alone or AgNPs alone (P < 0.05) as determined by Trypan blue exclusion assay. In contrast, conjugation of fluconazole with AgNPs had limited effect on its antiamoebic properties. Notably, AgNP-coated drugs inhibited amoebae-mediated host cell cytotoxicity as determined by measuring lactate dehydrogenase release. Overall, here we present the development of a new formulation of more effective antiamoebic agents based on AgNPs coated with drugs that hold promise for future applications.
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- Non-contact lens relatedAcanthamoebakeratitis. [Review]
- IJIndian J Ophthalmol 2017; 65(11):1079-1086
- The purpose of the study is to describe epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) with special focus on the disease in nonusers of contact lenses (CLs)....
The purpose of the study is to describe epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) with special focus on the disease in nonusers of contact lenses (CLs). This study was a perspective based on authors' experience and review of published literature. AK accounts for 2% of microbiology-proven cases of keratitis. Trauma and exposure to contaminated water are the main predisposing factors for the disease. Association with CLs is seen only in small fraction of cases. Contrary to classical description experience in India suggests that out of proportion pain, ring infiltrate, and radial keratoneuritis are seen in less than a third of cases. Majority of cases present with diffuse infiltrate, mimicking herpes simplex or fungal keratitis. The diagnosis can be confirmed by microscopic examination of corneal scraping material and culture on nonnutrient agar with an overlay of Escherichia coli. Confocal microscopy can help diagnosis in patients with deep infiltrate; however, experience with technique and interpretation of images influences its true value. Primary treatment of the infection is biguanides with or without diamidines. Most patients respond to medical treatment. Corticosteroids play an important role in the management and can be used when indicated after due consideration to established protocols. Surgery is rarely needed in patients where definitive management is initiated within 3 weeks of onset of symptoms. Lamellar keratoplasty has been shown to have good outcome in cases needing surgery. Since the clinical features of AK in nonusers of CL are different, it will be important for ophthalmologists to be aware of the scenario wherein to suspect this infection. Medical treatment is successful if the disease is diagnosed early and management is initiated soon.