- A Review of the Global Burden, New Diagnostics, and Current Therapeutics for Amebiasis. [Review]
- OFOpen Forum Infect Dis 2018; 5(7):ofy161
- Amebiasis, due to the pathogenic parasite Entamoeba histolytica, is a leading cause of diarrhea globally. Largely an infection of impoverished communities in developing countries, amebiasis has emerg...
Amebiasis, due to the pathogenic parasite Entamoeba histolytica, is a leading cause of diarrhea globally. Largely an infection of impoverished communities in developing countries, amebiasis has emerged as an important infection among returning travelers, immigrants, and men who have sex with men residing in developed countries. Severe cases can be associated with high case fatality. Polymerase chain reaction-based diagnosis is increasingly available but remains underutilized. Nitroimidazoles are currently recommended for treatment, but new drug development to treat parasitic agents is a high priority. Amebiasis should be considered before corticosteroid therapy to decrease complications. There is no effective vaccine, so prevention focuses on sanitation and access to clean water. Further understanding of parasite biology and pathogenesis will advance future targeted therapeutic and preventative strategies.
- Hepatic Abscess in a Returning Traveler with Crohn's Disease: Differentiating Amebic from Pyogenic Liver Abscess. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Med 2018; 2018:9593865
- Liver abscess is a rare but serious complication of Crohn's disease. Patients with Crohn's disease are at risk for pyogenic liver abscesses due to immunosuppressive therapy, fistulous disease, and in...
Liver abscess is a rare but serious complication of Crohn's disease. Patients with Crohn's disease are at risk for pyogenic liver abscesses due to immunosuppressive therapy, fistulous disease, and intraabdominal abscesses. Inflammatory bowel disease patients are also known to have a greater prevalence of amebiasis compared to the rest of the population; however, a higher incidence of amebic liver abscess has not been reported. We describe a case of a liver abscess in a patient with Crohn's disease that was initially presumed pyogenic but later determined to be amebic in origin. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of amebic and pyogenic liver abscesses are discussed.
- Flavonoids as a Natural Treatment Against Entamoeba histolytica. [Review]
- FCFront Cell Infect Microbiol 2018; 8:209
- Over the past 20 years, gastrointestinal infections in developing countries have been a serious health problem and are the second leading cause of morbidity among all age groups. Among pathogenic pro...
Over the past 20 years, gastrointestinal infections in developing countries have been a serious health problem and are the second leading cause of morbidity among all age groups. Among pathogenic protozoans that cause diarrheal disease, the parasite Entamoeba histolytica produces amebic colitis as well as the most frequent extra-intestinal lesion, an amebic liver abscess (ALA). Usually, intestinal amebiasis and ALA are treated with synthetic chemical compounds (iodoquinol, paromomycin, diloxanide furoate, and nitroimidazoles). Metronidazole is the most common treatment for amebiasis. Although the efficacy of nitroimidazoles in killing amebas is known, the potential resistance of E. histolytica to this treatment is a concern. In addition, controversial studies have reported that metronidazole could induce mutagenic effects and cerebral toxicity. Therefore, natural and safe alternative drugs against this parasite are needed. Flavonoids are natural polyphenolic compounds. Flavonoids depend on malonyl-CoA and phenylalanine to be synthesized. Several flavonoids have anti-oxidant and anti-microbial properties. Since the 1990s, several works have focused on the identification and purification of different flavonoids with amebicidal effects, such as, -(-)epicatechin, kaempferol, and quercetin. In this review, we investigated the effects of flavonoids that have potential amebicidal activity and that can be used as complementary and/or specific therapeutic strategies against E. histolytica trophozoites. Interestingly, it was found that these natural compounds can induce morphological changes in the amebas, such as chromatin condensation and cytoskeletal protein re-organization, as well as the upregulation and downregulation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, glyceraldehyde-phosphate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (enzymes of the glycolytic pathway). Although the specific molecular targets, bioavailability, route of administration, and doses of some of these natural compounds need to be determined, flavonoids represent a very promising and innocuous strategy that should be considered for use against E. histolytica in the era of microbial drug resistance.
- Polyhexamethylene biguanide and chloroquine induce programmed cell death in Acanthamoeba castellanii. [Journal Article]
- EPExp Parasitol 2018 Jun 06
- Several chemotherapeutic drugs have been described as amoebicidal agents acting against Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts. However, the underlying mechanism of action is poorly characterized. Here,...
Several chemotherapeutic drugs have been described as amoebicidal agents acting against Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts. However, the underlying mechanism of action is poorly characterized. Here, we describe programmed cell death (PCD) in A. castellanii induced by polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) and chloroquine. We used four types of amoebicidal agents including 0.02% PHMB, 0.02% chlorhexidine digluconate, 100 μM chloroquine, and 100 μM 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile to kill Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts. Exposure to PHMB and chloroquine induced cell shrinkage and membrane blebbing in Acanthamoeba, observed microscopically. Externalization of phosphatidyl serine on the membranes of Acanthamoeba was detected by annexin V staining. Apoptotic cell death of Acanthamoeba by PHMB and chloroquine was confirmed by FACS analysis. Nuclear fragmentation of Acanthamoeba was demonstrated by DAPI staining. PHMB induced PCD in trophozoites and cysts, and chloroquine induced PCD in cysts. These findings are discussed to establish the most effective treatment for Acanthamoeba-induced keratitis.
- Atorvastatin: In-Vivo Synergy with Metronidazole as Anti-Blastocystis Therapy. [Journal Article]
- KJKorean J Parasitol 2018; 56(2):105-112
- Blastocystis is an enteric Straminopile in tropical, subtropical and developing countries. Metronidazole has been a chemotheraputic for blastocystosis. Failures in its regimens were reported and nece...
Blastocystis is an enteric Straminopile in tropical, subtropical and developing countries. Metronidazole has been a chemotheraputic for blastocystosis. Failures in its regimens were reported and necessitate new studies searching for alternative therapeutic agents. Aim of current study is to investigate potential effects of Atorvastatin (AVA) compared to the conventional chemotherapeutic MTZ in experimentally Blastocystis-infected mice. Anti-Blastocystis efficacy of AVA was evaluated parasitologically, histopathologically and by transmission electron microscopy using MTZ (10 mg/kg) as a control. Therapeutic efficacy of AVA was apparently dose-dependent. Regimens of AVA (20 and 40 mg/kg) proved effective against Blastocystis infections with high reduction in Blastocystis shedding (93.4-97.9%) compared to MTZ (79.3%). The highest reductions (98.1% and 99.4%) were recorded in groups of combination treatments AVA 20-40 mg/kg and MTZ 10 mg/kg. Blastocystis was nearly eradicated by the 20th day post infection. Genotype analysis revealed that genotype I was most susceptible, genotype III was less. Histopathologic and ultrastructural studies revealed apoptotic changes in Blastocystis and significant improvement of intestinal histopathological changes more remarkable in combinational therapy groups. Thus, the present study offers AVA as a potential candidate for Blastocystis therapy combined with MTZ.
- Primary pulmonary amebic abscess in a patient with pulmonary adenocarcinoma: a case report. [Journal Article]
- IDInfect Dis Poverty 2018 Apr 27; 7(1):34
- CONCLUSIONS: In such cases where patients with pulmonary nodules were in immunodeficiency state and had adequate but ineffective anti-bacterial treatment, Entamoeba histolytica infection could be one of the rare causes. Percutaneous lung biopsy should be recommended and specific dying for parasites should be done when necessary.
- Chloroquine as a possible disinfection adjunct of disinfection solutions against Acanthamoeba. [Journal Article]
- EPExp Parasitol 2018; 188:102-106
- Acanthamoeba keratitis is commonly encountered by contact lens wearers. Contact lens solution plays an important role in the safe use of contact lenses. The most popular products for disinfecting len...
Acanthamoeba keratitis is commonly encountered by contact lens wearers. Contact lens solution plays an important role in the safe use of contact lenses. The most popular products for disinfecting lenses are multipurpose disinfecting solutions (MPDS). However, almost all MPDS retailed in Korea are ineffective in killing Acanthamoeba. The objective of this study was to determine the possibility of using autophagy inhibitor chloroquine as a disinfecting agent to improve the amoebicidal activity of MPDS against Acanthamoeba, especially the cyst. Amoebicidal effects of eight different MPDSs combined with chloroquine (CQ), an autophagy inhibitor, and their cytotoxicities to human corneal epithelium cells were determined. Almost all MPDS showed strong amoebicidal effect on trophozoites after 8 h of exposure. However, they showed inadequate amoebicidal effect on cysts even after 24 h of exposure. MPDSs combined with 100 μM CQ increased their amoebicidal effects on immature cyst by inhibiting formation of mature cysts. Incubation with 100 μM CQ for 30 min did not have cytotoxicity to human corneal epithelial cells.
- What Hides Behind Bloody Diarrhea? [Journal Article]
- GGastroenterology 2018; 154(8):2043-2044
- A rare cause of submucosal lesions in the cardiac region of the stomach. [Case Reports]
- AGActa Gastroenterol Belg 2018 Jan-Mar; 81(1):103
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- Anti-amoebic activity of acyclic and cyclic-samarium complexes on Acanthamoeba. [Journal Article]
- PRParasitol Res 2018; 117(5):1409-1417
- This work investigated the anti-amoebic activity of two samarium (Sm) complexes, the acyclic complex [bis(picrato)(pentaethylene glycol)samarium(III)] picrate-referred to as [Sm(Pic)2(EO5)](Pic)-and ...
This work investigated the anti-amoebic activity of two samarium (Sm) complexes, the acyclic complex [bis(picrato)(pentaethylene glycol)samarium(III)] picrate-referred to as [Sm(Pic)2(EO5)](Pic)-and the cyclic complex [bis(picrato)(18-crown-6)samarium(III)] picrate-referred to as [Sm(Pic)2(18C6)](Pic). Both Sm complexes caused morphological transformation of the protozoa Acanthamoeba from its native trophozoite form carrying a spine-like structure called acanthopodia, to round-shaped cells with loss of the acanthopodia structure, a trademark response to environmental stress. Further investigation, however, revealed that the two forms of the Sm complexes exerted unique cytotoxicity characteristics. Firstly, the IC50 of the acyclic complex (0.7 μg/mL) was ~ 10-fold lower than IC50 of the cyclic Sm complex (6.5 μg/mL). Secondly, treatment of the Acanthamoeba with the acyclic complex caused apoptosis of the treated cells, while the treatment with the cyclic complex caused necrosis evident by the leakage of the cell membrane. Both treatments induced DNA damage in Acanthamoeba. Finally, a molecular docking simulation revealed the potential capability of the acyclic complex to form hydrogen bonds with profilin-a membrane protein present in eukaryotes, including Acanthamoeba, that plays important roles in the formation and degradation of actin cytoskeleton. Not found for the cyclic complex, such potential interactions could be the underlying reason, at least in part, for the much higher cytotoxicity of the acyclic complex and also possibly, for the observed differences in the cytotoxicity traits. Nonetheless, with IC50 values of < 10 μg/mL, both the acyclic and cyclic Sm complexes feature a promising potential as cytotoxic agents to fight amoebic infections.