- Starch digestibility and apparent metabolizable energy of western Canadian wheat market classes in broiler chickens. [Journal Article]
- PSPoult Sci 2018 May 16
- Wheat is the primary grain fed to poultry in western Canada, but its nutritional quality, including the nature of its starch digestibility, may be affected by wheat market class. The objectives of th...
Wheat is the primary grain fed to poultry in western Canada, but its nutritional quality, including the nature of its starch digestibility, may be affected by wheat market class. The objectives of this study were to determine the rate and extent of starch digestibility of wheat market classes in broiler chickens, and to determine the relationship between starch digestibility and wheat apparent metabolizable energy (AME). In vitro starch digestion was assessed using gastric and small intestinal phases mimicking the chicken digestive tract, while in vivo evaluation used 468 male broiler chickens randomly assigned to dietary treatments from 0 to 21 d of age. The study evaluated 2 wheat cultivars from each of 6 western Canadian wheat classes: Canadian Prairie Spring (CPS), Canadian Western Amber Durum (CWAD), CW General Purpose (CWGP), CW Hard White Spring (CWHWS), CW Red Spring (CWRS), and CW Soft White Spring (CWSWS). All samples were analyzed for relevant grain characteristics. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design and cultivars were nested within market class. Pearson correlation was used to determine relationships between measured characteristics. Significance level was P ≤ 0.05. The starch digestibility range and wheat class rankings were: proximal jejunum - 23.7 to 50.6% (CWHWSc, CPSbc, CWSWSbc, CWRSab, CWGPa, CWADa); distal jejunum - 63.5 to 76.4% (CWHWSc, CPSbc, CWSWSbc, CWRSab, CWGPa, CWADa); proximal ileum - 88.7 to 96.9% (CWSWSc, CPSbc, CWHWSbc, CWRSb, CWGPb, CWADa); distal ileum - 94.4 to 98.5% (CWSWSb, CWHWSb, CPSb, CWRSab, CWGPab, CWADa); excreta - 98.4 to 99.3% (CPSb, CWRSb, CWHWSb, CWSWSab, CWGPab, CWADa). Wheat class affected wheat AMEn with levels ranging from 3,203 to 3,411 kcal/kg at 90% DM (CWRSc, CWSWSc, CPSb, CWGPb, CWADa, CWHWSa). Significant and moderately strong positive correlations were observed between in vitro and in vivo starch digestibility, but no correlations were found between AME and starch digestibility. In conclusion, rate and extent of starch digestibility and AME were affected by western Canadian wheat class, but starch digestibility did not predict AME.
- In vitro and in vivo assessment of the effect of initial moisture content and drying temperature on the feeding value of maize grain. [Journal Article]
- BPBr Poult Sci 2018 Jun 11; :1-11
- 1. This study assessed the impact of drying temperature (54, 90, and 130°C) and maize grain moisture content at harvest (36% and 29%) on in vitro digestibility, the growth performance and ileal diges...
1. This study assessed the impact of drying temperature (54, 90, and 130°C) and maize grain moisture content at harvest (36% and 29%) on in vitro digestibility, the growth performance and ileal digestibility of broiler chickens. 2. In contrast to the results from the in vitro digestibility, apparent ileal digestibility of starch and energy decreased when the drying temperature was raised from 54 to 130°C, and this effect was more pronounced in maize grain harvested at high initial moisture content (36%). Ileal protein digestibility of maize grain decreased significantly when dried at the intermediate temperature (90°C) and with a high harvest moisture content (36%). Drying temperature and initial moisture content did not significantly affect AMEn. 3. When maize was dried at 130°C, the particle sizes of flour recovered after standard milling procedures decreased significantly, which would influence animal growth performance and in vivo digestibility through animal feed selection.
- Growth performance, nutrient digestibility, antioxidant capacity, blood biochemical biomarkers and cytokines expression in broiler chickens fed different phytogenic levels. [Journal Article]
- ANAnim Nutr 2017; 3(2):114-120
- The effects of inclusion levels of a phytogenic feed additive (PFA), characterized by menthol anethol and eugenol, on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility, biochemical biomarkers and to...
The effects of inclusion levels of a phytogenic feed additive (PFA), characterized by menthol anethol and eugenol, on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility, biochemical biomarkers and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of plasma and meat, as well as on the relative expression of selected cytokines, were studied in a 42-d experiment. A total of 225 one-day-old male Cobb broiler chickens were assigned into 3 treatments, with 5 replicates of 15 chickens each. Chickens were fed maize-soybean meal basal diets following a 3 phase (i.e., starter, grower and finisher) feeding program. Depending on PFA inclusion level, treatments were: no PFA (PFA-0), PFA at 100 mg/kg (PFA-100) and PFA at 150 mg/kg (PFA-150). Feed and water were available ad libitum. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) during finisher phase was improved quadratically (P < 0.05) with increasing PFA level. Overall, increasing PFA level increased body weight gain (BWG) in a linear (P < 0.05) and quadratic (P < 0.05) manner with treatments PFA-100 and PFA-150 being greater (P < 0.05) compared with PFA-0. Total tract apparent digestibility of dry matter increased linearly (P < 0.05) and quadratically (P < 0.05) with increasing PFA level. The apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn) also increased linearly (P < 0.05). Increasing PFA level resulted in a linear (P < 0.05) increase in blood plasma TAC. Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin -18 (IL-18) was reduced linearly (P < 0.05) in spleen with increasing PFA level. In conclusion, PFA inclusion at 100 mg/kg diet positively influenced performance, whereas PFA inclusion at 150 mg/kg resulted in a stronger improvement in AMEn and plasma TAC. Finally, PFA inclusion resulted in a pattern of reduced pro-inflammatory biomarker IL-18 at spleen. Overall, this study provides evidence for the beneficial role of PFA as a natural growth and health promoter in broiler chickens that needs to be further confirmed in field studies.
- Nitrogen retention, energy, and amino acid digestibility of wheat bran, without or with multicarbohydrase and phytase supplementation, fed to broiler chickens. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anim Sci 2018 Jun 04; 96(6):2371-2379
- The study was conducted to determine the effects of multicarbohydrase (MC) preparation (700 U α-galactosidase, 2,200 U galactomannanase, 3,000 U xylanase, and 22,000 U β-glucanase per kg of diet) and...
The study was conducted to determine the effects of multicarbohydrase (MC) preparation (700 U α-galactosidase, 2,200 U galactomannanase, 3,000 U xylanase, and 22,000 U β-glucanase per kg of diet) and phytase (Phy, 500 FTU per kg of diet) supplementation on the nutritive value of wheat bran (WB) in broiler chicks. Trial 1 determined retention of nutrients and apparent metabolizable energy corrected by nitrogen (AMEn). One reference diet (RD) protein-free (85% corn based) was fortified to determine the WB nutrient retention coefficient. Trial 2 determined standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA, when pancreas and liver were weighed. An additional group of bird was fed with an RD with 5% casein-corn starch diet, fortified with vitamins and minerals to quantify the endogenous fraction and determine SID of AA. For each trial, the test diets were made by mixing RD and WB 7:3 (wt/wt) and fed without or with MC or Phy or combination. Male broilers (Cobb 500), 245 d old, were allocated to five treatments to give seven replicates (seven birds/cage). The birds were fed a commercial diet from day 0 to10 followed by Trial 1 diets from day 11 to 18 and finally Trial 2 diets from day 19 to 21. Excreta samples were collected on days 15-18 and all birds were slaughtered on day 21 for ileal digesta. There was an interaction (P < 0.05) between MC and Phy on retention of DM, N, P, and AMEn. An interaction (P < 0.05) was also observed on SID of Arg, His, Leu, Lys, Phe, Thr, Val, Asp, Cys, Glu, and Ser. Responses of MC plus Phy supplementation were higher (P < 0.05) on overall SID of AA by 6.05% (75.18 to 94.26%), compared with responses for MC (2.35%; 72.04 to 88.97) or Phy (3.46%; 73.27 to 92.13). Liver and pancreas weights were affected (P < 0.05) by the single MC supplementation. The MC and Phy combination may be an effective strategy to improve AA utilization of WB in broiler chickens.
- Relationships between digestive efficiency and metabolomic profiles of serum and intestinal contents in chickens. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Apr 27; 8(1):6678
- The increasing cost of conventional feedstuffs has bolstered interest in genetic selection for digestive efficiency (DE), a component of feed efficiency, assessed by apparent metabolisable energy cor...
The increasing cost of conventional feedstuffs has bolstered interest in genetic selection for digestive efficiency (DE), a component of feed efficiency, assessed by apparent metabolisable energy corrected to zero nitrogen retention (AMEn). However, its measurement is time-consuming and constraining, and its relationship with metabolic efficiency poorly understood. To simplify selection for this trait, we searched for indirect metabolic biomarkers through an analysis of the serum metabolome using nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). A partial least squares (PLS) model including six amino acids and two derivatives from butyrate predicted 59% of AMEn variability. Moreover, to increase our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms controlling DE, we investigated 1H NMR metabolomes of ileal, caecal, and serum contents by fitting canonical sparse PLS. This analysis revealed strong associations between metabolites and DE. Models based on the ileal, caecal, and serum metabolome respectively explained 77%, 78%, and 74% of the variability of AMEn and its constitutive components (utilisation of starch, lipids, and nitrogen). In our conditions, the metabolites presenting the strongest associations with AMEn were proline in the serum, fumarate in the ileum and glucose in caeca. This study shows that serum metabolomics offers new opportunities to predict chicken DE.
- Changes in content of triterpenoids and polysaccharides in Ganoderma lingzhi at different growth stages. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nat Med 2018; 72(3):734-744
- Ganoderma lingzhi is a traditional medicinal mushroom, and its extract contains many bioactive compounds. Triterpenoids and polysaccharides are the primary bioactive components that contribute to its...
Ganoderma lingzhi is a traditional medicinal mushroom, and its extract contains many bioactive compounds. Triterpenoids and polysaccharides are the primary bioactive components that contribute to its medicinal properties. In this study, we quantified 18 triterpenoids, total triterpenoid content and total polysaccharide content in the ethanol and water extracts of G. lingzhi at different growth stages. Triterpenoids were quantified by liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometry in the multiple-reaction-monitoring mode. Total triterpenoid and total polysaccharide content were determined by colorimetric analysis. The results indicated that the fruit bodies at an early growth stage had a higher content of ganoderic acid A, C2, I and LM2, as well as of ganoderenic acid C and D, than those at a later growth stage. In contrast, ganoderic acid K, TN and T-Q contents were higher in mature fruit bodies (maturation stage). The highest total triterpenoid and total polysaccharide contents were found in fruit bodies before maturity (stipe elongation stage or early stage of pileus formation). Our results provide information which will contribute to the establishment of an efficient cultivation system for G. lingzhi with a higher content of triterpenoids.
- Influence of grinding size of the main cereal of the diet on egg production and eggs quality of brown egg laying hens from 33 to 65 weeks of age. [Journal Article]
- PSPoult Sci 2018 Apr 17
- The influence of grinding size of the main cereal of the diet on production and egg quality traits was studied in brown hens from 33 to 65 wk of age. The experiment was completely randomized with 6 t...
The influence of grinding size of the main cereal of the diet on production and egg quality traits was studied in brown hens from 33 to 65 wk of age. The experiment was completely randomized with 6 treatments arranged as a 3 × 2 factorial with 3 main cereals (barley, corn, and wheat) and 2 grinding size of the cereal (6 and 10 mm screen). Each treatment was replicated 11 times (10 hens/replicate). Diets were isonutritive and contained 2,740 kcal/kg AMEn and 16.8% CP. Egg production, ADFI, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were determined by period (4 wk) and for the entire experiment. Egg quality traits (percentage of undergrades, Haugh units, thickness, strength, color of the shell, and proportion of albumen, yolk, and shell) were measured also by period. No interactions between main cereal and grinding size of the main cereal of the diet were observed for any of the traits studied. Feed intake, egg production, and BW gain were not affected by diet or grinding size. Eggs were heavier (P < 0.01) in hens fed barley than in hens fed corn or wheat, probably because of the higher fat content of the barley diets. Also, FCR tended to improve in hens fed barley compared with hens fed corn or wheat (P = 0.07). Diet did not affect any of the egg quality traits studied. In summary, barley and wheat conveniently supplemented with enzymes, can be used in substitution of corn at levels of up to 55% in diets for laying hens, without any adverse effect on egg production or egg quality traits. Moreover, the substitution of corn by a combination of barley and supplemental fat increased egg size. Consequently, the inclusion of one or other cereal in the diet will depend primarily on their relative cost. Within the range studied, screen size (6 vs. 10 mm) of the cereal had limited effects on hen production.
- Age-related energy values of meat and bone meal for broiler chickens. [Journal Article]
- PSPoult Sci 2018 Apr 17
- Six hundred and eighty-four male Ross 308 broiler chicks were used to test the null hypothesis that post hatching age between day 0 and 21 does not affect utilization of energy in meat and bone meal ...
Six hundred and eighty-four male Ross 308 broiler chicks were used to test the null hypothesis that post hatching age between day 0 and 21 does not affect utilization of energy in meat and bone meal (MBM). There were 6 replicate cages in each of 12 treatments consisting of 3 test diets (0, 40, or 80 g MBM/kg diets) at 4 feeding ages post hatching (day 0 to 7, 6 to 11, 10 to 16, or 15 to 21 post hatching) for a total of 72 cages in a randomized complete block design. Birds were assigned to the 12 treatments on day 0, fed a standard starter diet until they were switched to the test diets on day 0, 6, 10, or 15, and the number of birds per cage for day 0 to 7, 6 to 11, 10 to 16, or 15 to 21 were 12, 10, 8, or 8, respectively. Excreta were collected during the last 3 days of each feeding age post hatching and ileal digesta on the last day of each age. There was no interaction between dietary MBM level and feeding age post hatching for any of the response criteria. Weight gain and gain-to-feed ratio improved linearly (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary MBM and, expectedly, there was an increase (P < 0.001) in weight gain and a reduction (P < 0.001) in gain-to-feed ratio with bird feeding age post hatching. Ileal digestible energy (IDE), apparent metabolizable energy (AME), and nitrogen-corrected AME (AMEn) of the diet linearly increased (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary MBM. There were linear increases in dietary IDE (P < 0.05), AME (P < 0.001), and AMEn (P < 0.001) with bird feeding age post hatching. The IDE, ME, and MEn of MBM were determined by the regression procedure. During day 0 to 7, 6 to 11, 10 to 16, or 15 to 21, energy values increased (P < 0.05) with age and the respective IDE of MBM were 2.852, 2.962, 2.927, or 2.959 kcal/g DM. Corresponding ME of MBM were 2.909, 3.125, 3.083, or 3.075 kcal/g DM and those of MEn were 2.687, 2.887, 2.839, or 2.845 kcal/g DM. These results show that energy values of MBM increase with age post hatching and suggest the same energy value of MBM should not be used in formulating diets of broiler chickens during the first 3 weeks post hatching.
- Effect of increasing levels of apparent metabolizable energy on laying hens in barn system. [Journal Article]
- AJAsian-Australas J Anim Sci 2018 Apr 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Laying hens fed high AMEn diet (i.e., 3,050 kcal/kg in the current experiment) tended to overconsume energy with a positive effect on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphology but not in egg production and egg mass.
New Search Next
- Effectiveness of different avian influenza (H5) vaccination regimens in layer chickens on the humoral immune response and interferon-alpha signalling immune marker. [Journal Article]
- VRVet Res Commun 2018; 42(2):145-152
- Avian influenza (AI) vaccines are widely used to control and eliminate the ongoing avian influenza virus epidemic in Egypt. A strict vaccination policy with inactivated AI vaccines has been widely ap...
Avian influenza (AI) vaccines are widely used to control and eliminate the ongoing avian influenza virus epidemic in Egypt. A strict vaccination policy with inactivated AI vaccines has been widely applied, however the virus still circulating, evolving and causing great negative impact to the poultry sector in Egypt. Therefore, an updated poultry vaccination policy using different vaccine technologies might be valuable as an innovative additional control strategy of AIV in Egypt. In the present study, the effectiveness of different avian influenza (AI) vaccination schedules was evaluated in 300 commercial layer chicks (ISA White) using either the oil-emulsion baculovirus-H5-prototype vaccine (baculovirus-H5 prototype) or turkey herpesvirus (HVT) vector vaccine containing the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from H5N1 strain (rHVT-H5), applied alone or in combination and in different settings. Vaccination with either two injections of the baculovirus-H5 prototype, a single injection of rHVT-H5 or priming with rHVT-H5 at 1 day old followed by boosting with the baculovirus-H5 prototype induced AI-HI protective antibody responses starting as early as 3 to 4 weeks of age and lasting up to the end of the rearing period (16 weeks). A single vaccination with the baculovirus-H5 prototype did not generate a protective antibody titre for the entire rearing period. Furthermore, the present study elucidated that vaccination once or twice with the baculovirus-H5 vaccine prototype activated the chicken interferon-alpha (Ch-IFN-alpha) signalling pathway via transduction of antiviral components, e.g., Mx1 and IRF7. Birds immunized once with rHVT-H5 at 1 day old did not show activation of the Mx1 and IRF7 transcripts; however, following boosting with the baculovirus-H5 prototype vaccine, up-regulation of Mx1 and IRF7 was observed. Based on our findings, it can be concluded that either reinforcement with two injections of the baculovirus-H5 prototype or prime-boost vaccination (rHVT-H5 at 1 day old followed by the baculovirus-H5 prototype vaccine at 8 days old) is a successful strategy to induce both innate and humoral immune responses and could be recommended for the layer production sector over the entire rearing period, especially in AI-endemic areas.