- Feeding dihydroquercetin to broiler chickens. [Journal Article]
- BPBr Poult Sci 2018 Dec 05
- 1. A total of 80 male Ross 308 broilers were used in a study to investigate the effect of dietary dihydroquercetin (DHQ) on growth performance variables, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and immune organ...
1. A total of 80 male Ross 308 broilers were used in a study to investigate the effect of dietary dihydroquercetin (DHQ) on growth performance variables, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and immune organ development, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and haemoglobin in blood, hepatic vitamin E content, dietary N-corrected metabolisable energy (AMEn), and nutrient retention coefficients when fed to broiler chickens from 7 to 35 days of age. 2. Two treatments were used in this study: control (C) and C + 0.5 g/kg extract of Siberian Larch (Larix sibirica) per kg feed, containing 85 % DHQ. The diets were fed over two feeding phases, a grower phase from 7 to 28 d of age, and a finisher phase from 28 to 35 d of age. The birds were reared under the breeder's recommended conditions. 3. In general, there were no effects of DHQ on growth performance of broiler chickens. However, the results of this experiment showed that there can be changes in redness colour of the breast meat when DQH is fed. No negative effects of feeding DHQ at 0.5 g/kg diet were observed in this study. 4. Supplementation of poultry diets with DHQ under standard industry rearing conditions, did not improve performance or any of the studied variables, except an increase of redness index of the breast fillets. Feeding DHQ at different doses and/or under more challenging conditions, e.g. heat stress, may, however, bring positive responses.
- A new aliphatic ester of hydroxysalicylic acid from fermented Carica papaya L. preparation with a potential hair growth stimulating activity. [Journal Article]
- NPNat Prod Res 2018 Dec 04; :1-6
- An aliphatic ester of hydroxysalicylic acid (6), reported for the first time from a natural source in addition to five known compounds were isolated from the fermented Carica papaya L. preparation, a...
An aliphatic ester of hydroxysalicylic acid (6), reported for the first time from a natural source in addition to five known compounds were isolated from the fermented Carica papaya L. preparation, a commercialized functional food. The known compounds were identified as 5-hydroxymethylfurfuraldehyde (1), trans-caffeic acid (2), butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (butylparaben) (3), lycopene (4), benzyl isothiocyanate (5). Compounds 1 and 3 were reported for the first time from Papaya fruits through this study. The new compound showed a moderate antioxidant activity and a potent hair growth stimulating activity in vitro.
- Saturated fatty acids may ameliorate environmental heat stress in broiler birds by affecting mitochondrial energetics and related genes. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Therm Biol 2018; 78:1-9
- Heat stress decreases performance of poultry. The novel strategies to maintain production level, or at least minimizing the decrease in productivity during hot days need to be elucidated. This study ...
Heat stress decreases performance of poultry. The novel strategies to maintain production level, or at least minimizing the decrease in productivity during hot days need to be elucidated. This study was conducted to determine the effect of four fat types on mitochondrial energetics in heat-stressed broilers. In experiment 1, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) content of four supplemental fat sources, including olive oil, soybean oil, coconut oil and beef tallow, all supplemented at 3%, 6%, and 9% in the basal diet, was evaluated. The AMEn values of fats were determined as 9738.0 ± 137.9, 8949.0 ± 159.9, 7844.0 ± 91.7, and 7368.0 ± 190.3 kcal/kg for olive oil, soybean oil, coconut oil and beef tallow, respectively. In experiment 2, birds were kept in two separated rooms under 24 °C or 36 °C from 32 to 42 d of age. Each room consisted of four experimental groups. Birds in the experimental groups were fed on beef tallow-, coconut oil-, olive oil- or soybean oil-supplemented diets (factorial arrangement with two factors of fat types and environmental temperatures). The birds reared under 24 °C had higher final body weight (P < 0.01), weight gain (P < 0.01), feed intake (P < 0.05) and lower feed conversion ratio (P < 0.01) than the birds grown under 36 °C. There was a temperature by fat type interaction effect on mitochondrial attributes. At 36 °C, in birds fed on coconut oil- or beef tallow-supplemented diets, the expression levels of avUCP and avANT mRNA were lower (P < 0.05) but that of HSP70 mRNA was higher (P < 0.01) in comparison with the birds feeding on the olive oil- or soy oil-supplemented diets. An interaction effect was recorded between the temperature and fat type for ATP concentration and mitochondrial membrane potential (P < 0.01); with significant differences between birds receiving the coconut oil- or beef tallow-supplemented diets and the birds feeding on the soy oil- or olive oil-supplemented diets. It was also found that unsaturated fatty acids had a more significant effect on avUCP and avANT mRNA expression. It can be concluded that when using fat in the diet of heat stressed-broilers, it is advisable to choose a type, which has a lower effect on the expression of avUCP and avANT, and hence reduces the metabolic heat load in the bird.
- Iron status at opposite ends of the menstrual function spectrum. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Trace Elem Med Biol 2019; 51:169-175
- CONCLUSIONS: Exercising women with ovulatory, eumenorrheic cycles are at a greater risk of iron depletion than exercising, amenorrheic women. Thus, menstrual function must be considered when screening for poor iron status in exercising women.
- Intramuscular Exposure of Macaca fascicularis to Low Doses of Low Passage- or Cell Culture-Adapted Sudan Virus or Ebola Virus. [Journal Article]
- VViruses 2018 Nov 16; 10(11)
- The filoviruses Ebola virus (EBOV) and Sudan virus (SUDV) can cause severe diseases, and there are currently no licensed countermeasures available for use against them. Transmission occurs frequently...
The filoviruses Ebola virus (EBOV) and Sudan virus (SUDV) can cause severe diseases, and there are currently no licensed countermeasures available for use against them. Transmission occurs frequently via contact with bodily fluids from infected individuals. However, it can be difficult to determine when or how someone became infected, or the quantity of infectious virus to which they were exposed. Evidence suggests the infectious dose is low, but the majority of published studies use high exposure doses. This study characterized the outcome of exposure to a low dose of EBOV or SUDV, using a Macaca fascicularis model. Further, because the effect of virus passage in cell culture may be more pronounced when lower exposure doses are used, viruses that possessed either the characteristics of wild type viruses (possessing predominantly 7-uridine (7U) genotype and a high particle-to-plaque forming unit (PFU) ratio) or cell culture-passaged viruses (predominantly 8-uridine (8U) genotype, a lower particle-to-PFU ratio) were used. The time to death after a low dose exposure was delayed in comparison to higher exposure doses. These data demonstrated that an extremely low dose of EBOV or SUDV is sufficient to cause lethal disease. A low dose exposure model can help inform studies on pathogenesis, transmission, and optimization of prevention strategies.
- Wastewater degradation by iron/copper nanoparticles and the microorganism growth rate. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Environ Sci (China) 2018; 74:19-31
- Nowadays, trends in wastewater treatment by zero-valent iron (ZVI) were turned to use bimetallic NZVI particles by planting another metal onto the ZVI surface to increase its reactivity. Nano size ze...
Nowadays, trends in wastewater treatment by zero-valent iron (ZVI) were turned to use bimetallic NZVI particles by planting another metal onto the ZVI surface to increase its reactivity. Nano size zero-valent iron/copper (NZVI/Cu0) bimetallic particles were synthesized in order to examine its toxicity effects on the wastewater microbial life, kinetics of phosphorus, ammonia stripping and the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD). Various concentrations of NZVI/Cu0 and operation conditions both aerobic and anaerobic were investigated and compared with pure NZVI experiment. The results showed that addition 10mg/L of NZVI/Cu0 significantly increased the numbers of bacteria colonies under anaerobic condition, conversely it inhibited bacteria activity with the presence of oxygen. Furthermore, the impact of nanoparticles on ammonia stripping and phosphorus removal was also linked to the emitted iron ions electrons. It was found that dosing high concentration of bimetallic NZVI/Cu0 has a negative effect on ammonia stripping regardless of the aeration condition. In comparison to control, dosing only 10mg/L NZVI/Cu0, the phosphorus removal increased sharply both under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, these outcomes were obtained as a result of complete dissolution of bimetallic nanoparticles which formed copper-iron oxides components that are attributed to increasing the phosphorus adsorption rate.
- Does lipidomic serum analysis support the assessment of digestive efficiency in chickens? [Journal Article]
- PSPoult Sci 2018 Oct 16
- The increasing cost of conventional feedstuffs used in poultry diets has bolstered interest in genetic selection for digestive efficiency (DE) to improve the adaptation of the birds to various altern...
The increasing cost of conventional feedstuffs used in poultry diets has bolstered interest in genetic selection for digestive efficiency (DE) to improve the adaptation of the birds to various alternative feedstuffs. However, DE measurement through AMEn is time-consuming and constraining. To simplify selection for DE, the potential of serum composition to predict AMEn was evaluated based on 40 birds from two broiler lines (D+ and D-) divergently selected on the fecal AMEn of a difficult-to-digest wheat-based diet. Differences in serum coloration were suspected between the two lines, and thus a spectrophotometric analysis was carried out, revealing a significant difference in absorption between 430 nm and 516 nm, corresponding to the signature of orange-red lipophilic pigments such as xanthophylls. To go further, the liposoluble fraction of the serum was explored for its lipidome by mass spectrometry. Discriminant analysis revealed that a pattern of 10 metabolites, including zeaxanthin/lutein, can explain 82% of the lipidomic differences between the two lines. Colorimetry combined with lipidomics studies confirmed the relationship between digestive efficiency and serum composition, which opens up new possibilities for using it as a quick and easy proxy of digestive efficiency.
- Dietary starch to lipid ratios influence growth performance, nutrient utilisation and carcass traits in broiler chickens offered diets with different energy densities. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(10):e0205272
- Twelve experimental diets with three levels of energy densities (11.25, 12.38 and 13.50 MJ/kg) and fours levels of starch to lipid ratios (14:1, 12:1, 7:1, 4:1) were offered to 288 male Ross 308 broi...
Twelve experimental diets with three levels of energy densities (11.25, 12.38 and 13.50 MJ/kg) and fours levels of starch to lipid ratios (14:1, 12:1, 7:1, 4:1) were offered to 288 male Ross 308 broiler chickens. All the diets were formulated to contain consistent digestible lysine to metabolisable energy ratios (0.87 g digestible lysine/MJ AMEn) and ideal amino acid ratios. Growth performance was monitored from 7 to 27 days post-hatch and parameters of nutrient utilisation (AME, AMEn, AME:GE ratios, N retention) were determined from 24 to 26 days post-hatch. Apparent protein (N) and starch digestibility coefficients, carcass yield and composition were determined at 27 days post-hatch. There were no interactions between energy densities and starch to lipid ratios on growth performance and carcass weights (P > 0.05). Feed intake was reduced with increased energy densities (P < 0.001). Weight gain and FCR were improved with increased dietary energy densities (P < 0.0001). Starch to lipid ratios linearly increased weight gain (r = 0.448, P = 0.001) and feed intake (r = 0.509, P < 0.001) without influencing FCR (P > 0.75). Both nutrient densities and starch to lipid ratios significantly impacted on carcass weight and yield. Heavier carcass weights and higher yields were observed in broiler chickens offered diets with high nutrient density (P ≤ 0.001). Carcass weight (r = 0.441, P < 0.005) was positively correlated with starch to lipid ratios and this tended to be the case for carcass yield (r = 0.277, P = 0.057) too. However, there were interactions on lipid concentrations in carcass (P < 0.001) as broiler chickens offered diet containing the lowest nutrient density and the highest starch to lipid ratio had the highest lipid carcass concentration of 12.94%. In conclusion, protein and energy need to be considered in tandem in practical diet formulation, especially in diets containing high crystalline amino acid inclusions. The impact of lipid on feed intake and starch on carcass lipid concentrations should also be taken into consideration.
- Evolution of intestinal microbiota and body compartments during spontaneous hyperphagia in the Greylag goose. [Journal Article]
- PSPoult Sci 2018 Oct 04
- The aim of this work was to study the effects of spontaneous hyperphagia on the evolution of intestinal microbiota and body compartments in old goose. From October 25th to November 26th, 5-yr-old bre...
The aim of this work was to study the effects of spontaneous hyperphagia on the evolution of intestinal microbiota and body compartments in old goose. From October 25th to November 26th, 5-yr-old breeding Greylag Landaise geese (106 males and 106 females) were fed with grass during 1 mo (G period). From November 26th (0 d) the birds had ad libitum access to pellets (AMEn: 10.5 MJ/kg, CP: 18.9 g/kg; spontaneous fattening (SF) period). Some birds were killed at -31 d (n = 24; 50/50 sex ratio), 0 d (n = 48), 14 (n = 46), 22 d (n = 46), and 70 d (n = 48) after the start of G period to measure body traits. For microbial analysis, 10 of the samples per sex at 0 d, 14 d, and 70 d were selected to be representative of body traits. Between 0 and 22 d, liver weight increased from 98 g to 194 g in males and from 89 g to 199 g in females (P < 0.001). Liver weight decreased between 22 and 70 d from 194 to 174 g in males and from 199 to 163 g in females (P < 0.001). Irrespective of the diet (G or SF period) and the sex of the bird, the two major phyla were Proteobacteria (49%) and Firmicutes (48%). Bacteroidetes represented around 3.0% of the sequences. At order level, Firmicutes were dominated by Clostridiales (33% of total sequences) and Lactobacillales (13% of total sequences) and Proteobacteria were dominated by Campylobacteriales (34% of total sequences). Finally, Bacteroidetes were dominated by Bacteroidales. SF and sex did not change the microbial diversity but sparse partial least squares discriminant analysis allowed us to highlight discriminant operational taxonomic unit between experimental groups. In conclusion, our result showed that changes in the body compartments of old geese during spontaneous hyperphagia depend on the sex of the birds, but not so much in gut microbial composition. Further investigations are necessary to understand the functional microbiota and highlight the role of gut microbiota in hepatic steatosis induced with hyperphagia in geese.
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- Enhancing nutrient utilization of broiler chickens through supplemental enzymes. [Journal Article]
- PSPoult Sci 2018 Oct 04
- The objective was to determine effects of adding phytase, amylase, and a cocktail of non-starch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes (NSPase) individually or in combinations to corn-soybean meal-based di...
The objective was to determine effects of adding phytase, amylase, and a cocktail of non-starch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes (NSPase) individually or in combinations to corn-soybean meal-based diet for broilers on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients and dietary AMEn value. Four hundred and eighty male broiler chicks were divided into 80 groups and fed 8 diets in a completely randomized design (10 groups/diet) from day 15 to 21 of age. The diets were basal diet unsupplemented or supplemented with phytase (1,500 FTU/kg; Ronozyme HiPhos), amylase (80 KNU/kg, Ronozyme HiStarch), and NSPase (75 g/metric ton, Ronozyme Multigrain) individually or in all possible combinations. The basal diet contained the phytase at 1,000 FTU/kg, and was formulated to meet the NRC (1994) recommended nutrient requirements for broiler chickens except for ME, Ca, and non-phytate P, which were reduced by 150 kcal/kg, 0.18%, and 0.15%, respectively. Addition of phytase to the basal diet increased (P < 0.05) AID of P from 40.4 to 59.3%. Addition of amylase, NSPase or a combination of amylase and NSPase to the phytase-supplemented basal diet further increased (P < 0.05) AID of P to 63.4, 69.9, and 67.3%, respectively. Addition of phytase, amylase or a combination of amylase and NSPase to the basal diet did not affect dietary AMEn value. However, addition of NSPase alone or a combination of phytase and amylase or of phytase and NSPase to the basal diet improved (P < 0.05) dietary AMEn value from 3,203 to 3,339, 3,309 or 3,289 kcal/kg, respectively. In conclusion, it is more beneficial (with regard to AID of P and dietary AMEn) to add amylase and NSPase to phytase-supplemented diets for broilers. Because the basal diet contained phytase at 1,000 FTU/kg, the increase in AID of P due to supplemental phytase (1,500 FTU/kg) indicates that supplemental phytase at 2,500 FTU/kg is more beneficial with regard to improving AID of P than supplemental phytase at 1,000 FTU/kg.