- Lucidumol D, a new lanostane-type triterpene from fruiting bodies of Reishi (Ganoderma lingzhi). [Journal Article]
- NPNat Prod Res 2018 Feb 19; :1-6
- A new lanostane-type triterpenoid, lucidumol D (1) was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lingzhi. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR studies as well as...
A new lanostane-type triterpenoid, lucidumol D (1) was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lingzhi. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR studies as well as mass spectrometry. The cytotoxicity of lucidumol D against proliferation of several cancer cells were assayed by using MTT method and the obtained result suggested selective anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects against MCF-7, HepG2, HeLa, Caco-2, and HCT-116. In comparison to lucidumol C (2) isolated previously by our group, the structure-activity relationship indicated that carbonyl function at C-11 is necessary to enhance the cytotoxicity.
- Nutrient availability of different batches of wheat distiller's dried grains with solubles for turkeys. [Journal Article]
- AAArch Anim Nutr 2018; 72(2):153-161
- Effects of five different batches of wheat distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were used to investigate bioavailability of energy and nutrients for turkeys. The laboratory analysis of the D...
Effects of five different batches of wheat distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were used to investigate bioavailability of energy and nutrients for turkeys. The laboratory analysis of the DDGS showed the largest variations for soluble non-starch polysaccharides, oil and ash. In total, 96 birds were fed one of six mash diets. The basal diet contained per kilogram 535 g wheat and 300 g soya bean meal, corresponding to 247 g crude protein and 12.6 MJ N-corrected apparent metabolisable energy (AMEn). Another five diets contained per kilogram 200 g of each DDGS samples in replacement for basal diet. Each diet was fed to eight pens with two female Premium turkeys following randomisation. The AMEn and the nutrient retention coefficients of the pure DDGS samples were obtained using the substitution method. The AMEn of the DDGS from batch A was higher (p = 0.048) compared to those from batches B and C, but did not differ from DDGS samples D and E. There were no differences in dry matter retention, nitrogen retention and fat digestibility between the DDGS samples tested. The AMEn of the DDGS samples correlated positively (p < 0.05) to the starch (r = 0.895) and the non-soluble non-starch polysaccharides contents (r = 0.940), and the red index of lighting (a) (r = 0.916), respectively. In general, findings from this study indicate bioavailability of energy and most nutrients to be in the range of published data with turkeys, and to vary between batches.
- Estimation of broiler responses to increased dietary methionine hydroxy analogue [DL-2-hydroxy-(4-methylthio) butanoic acid] using linear and nonlinear regression models. [Journal Article]
- PSPoult Sci 2018 Mar 01; 97(3):865-873
- As the first limiting amino acid in corn-soy broiler diets, methionine (Met) is supplemented using commercial synthetic sources as demanded to obtain economic feed formulations. The Met analogue DL-2...
As the first limiting amino acid in corn-soy broiler diets, methionine (Met) is supplemented using commercial synthetic sources as demanded to obtain economic feed formulations. The Met analogue DL-2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMTBA) is largely utilized with that objective. This study intended to obtain responses of broilers fed with increasing levels of HMTBA, from 28 to 42 d, such that economic returns can be calculated. A total of 2,106 Cobb × Cobb 500 one-day-old male broilers was randomly placed in 81 floor pens (2.7 m2 each). Birds were fed conventional starter (zero to 14 d) and grower (14 to 28 d) diets. Starting at 28 d of age, pens of 26 birds were randomly allocated into 9 feed treatments with 9 replications having increasing supplementations with HMTBA (0.00, 0.07, 0.14, 0.21, 0.28, 0.35, 0.42, 0.49 and 0.56%). These were prepared by mixing different proportions of corn-soy dilution and summit diets, which had the same formulated concentration of nutrients and energy [19.7% CP, 0.90% Ca, 0.45% Av. P, 0.95% digestible Lys, and 3,150 kcal/kg AMEn], with the exception of HMTBA [0.56% in the summit but not supplemented in the corn-soy dilution diet (0.52% digestible TSAA)]]. Growth performance was evaluated until 42 d when carcass yield and commercial cuts were evaluated using 6 birds randomly taken from each pen. Body weight gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), proportion of breast fillets, and abdominal fat were adjusted using linear broken-line, exponential asymptotic and quadratic polynomial regression models (P < 0.05). Estimations of maximum responses for supplemented HMTBA by the linear broken-line model were 0.17% for BWG, 0.14% for FCR, and 0.29% for breast fillets. Using exponential and quadratic regressions, optimized HMTBA supplementations were obtained at 0.34 and 0.35% for BWG, 0.20 and 0.33% for FCR, and 0.31 and 0.36% for breast fillets, respectively. Supplemental levels of HMTBA that optimize growth performance and breast meat in male broilers from 28 to 42 d, using different regression models, varied from 0.14 to 0.36%.
- Durable Self-Cleaning Coatings for Architectural Surfaces by Incorporation of TiO₂ Nano-Particles into Hydroxyapatite Films. [Journal Article]
- MMaterials (Basel) 2018 Jan 23; 11(2)
- To prevent soiling of marble exposed outdoors, the use of TiO₂ nano-particles has been proposed in the literature by two main routes, both raising durability issues: (i) direct application to marble ...
To prevent soiling of marble exposed outdoors, the use of TiO₂ nano-particles has been proposed in the literature by two main routes, both raising durability issues: (i) direct application to marble surface, with the risk of particle leaching by rainfall; (ii) particle incorporation into inorganic or organic coatings, with the risk of organic coating degradation catalyzed by TiO₂ photoactivity. Here, we investigated the combination of nano-TiO₂ and hydroxyapatite (HAP), previously developed for marble protection against dissolution in rain and mechanical consolidation. HAP-TiO₂ combination was investigated by two routes: (i) sequential application of HAP followed by nano-TiO₂ ("H+T"); (ii) simultaneous application by introducing nano-TiO₂ into the phosphate solution used to form HAP ("HT"). The self-cleaning ability was evaluated before and after prolonged exposure to simulated rain. "H+T" and "HT" coatings exhibited much better resistance to nano-TiO₂ leaching by rain, compared to TiO₂ alone. In "H+T" samples, TiO₂ nano-particles adhere better to HAP (having flower-like morphology and high specific surface area) than to marble. In "HT" samples, thanks to chemical bonds between nano-TiO₂ and HAP, the particles are firmly incorporated in the HAP coating, which protects them from leaching by rain, without diminishing their photoactivity and without being degraded by them.
- Dietary energy, digestible lysine, and available phosphorus levels affect growth performance, carcass traits, and amino acid digestibility of broilers. [Journal Article]
- PSPoult Sci 2018 Jan 11
- A 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design was used to investigate the interaction effect of dietary digestible lysine (dLys, 9.5, 10.5, 11.5 g/kg), apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn, 12.77, 13.19, 13....
A 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design was used to investigate the interaction effect of dietary digestible lysine (dLys, 9.5, 10.5, 11.5 g/kg), apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn, 12.77, 13.19, 13.61 MJ/kg) and available P (avP, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 g/kg) levels on performance and amino acid (AA) digestibility of Ross 308 male broilers (n = 1,050) from d 14 to 34. The design consisted of 15 treatments each replicated 5 times with 12 birds per replicate. On d 34, 3 birds were sampled from each pen to collect ileal digesta (pooled per pen) to analyze AA. Response surface was fitted by first-, second-, or third-degree polynomial regressions in JMP statistical software v. 12.0.1. Feed intake (FI), weight gain (WG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were affected by dLys (linear and quadratic, P < 0.01), AMEn (linear, P < 0.01) and AMEn × avP (P < 0.01). Increased dLys increased FI but increased AMEn decreased FI in the birds fed the low-avP diet. However, when the avP level in the diet was increased, FI decreased to 13 MJ/kg AMEn and remained constant thereafter. Increased dLys increased WG whereas an increase in AMEn decreased WG in the birds fed the low-avP diet but had no effect on WG in those fed the high-avP diet. Increased dLys decreased FCR whereas increased AMEn decreased FCR in the birds fed the low-avP diet but had no effect on FCR in those fed the high-avP diet. Increased dLys increased breast yield percentage (linear, P < 0.01 and quadratic, P < 0.05) whereas increased AMEn decreased breast yield percentage (linear, P < 0.01). Dietary levels of dLys or avP had positive, linear effects on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of methionine (P < 0.01) and threonine (P < 0.01) but had no effect on other AA (P > 0.05). These results indicate that increasing dLys levels above current industry standard would improve broiler performance irrespective of AMEn or avP levels of the diet.
- Effects of lysolecithin supplementation in low-energy diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, viscosity and intestinal morphology of broilers. [Journal Article]
- BPBr Poult Sci 2018 Jan 16; :1-8
- 1. The study aimed to investigate the effect of lysolecithin supplementation in low-energy diets on growth, nutrient digestibility and intestinal mucosa characteristics of broilers. 2. A total of 800...
1. The study aimed to investigate the effect of lysolecithin supplementation in low-energy diets on growth, nutrient digestibility and intestinal mucosa characteristics of broilers. 2. A total of 800 one-d-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were assigned to 4 dietary treatments consisting of 10 replicates of 20 broilers each. Broilers were fed with 4 different diets: (i) HE: positive control group broilers received a diet with unaltered energy; (ii) LE: negative control group broilers received a diet with lower energy of about 0.27 MJ/kg; (iii) LElys500: broilers received a diet similar to LE supplemented with 500 g/tn lysolecithin product (Lysoforte Booster DryTM); and (iv) LElys300: broilers received a diet similar to LE supplemented with 300 g/tn lysolecithin product. The experimental period was 42 d. 3. Body weight gain in treatments HE was higher than LE during the overall experimental period, while LElys500 and LElys300 had intermediate values. Feed conversion ratio was lower in HE and LElys500 than LE group, while the LElys300 had intermediate values. Fat digestibility was improved in both LElys 500 and LElys300 compared to the HE group. Apparent metabolisable energy (AMEn) was higher in HE, LElys500 and LElys300 than LE. Ileum viscosity at 42 d was also affected, being higher in LE group compared to HE. At 28 d mucosal thickness was lower both in LElys500 and LElys300 compared to HE and LE, while no difference occurred between treatment proliferation patterns of duodenal epithelial cells. 4. These findings indicated that lysolecithin supplementation at 500 g/tn of feed in low-energy diets maintained broiler performance. Supplementation of reformulated low-energy diets induced an increase in digesta viscosity. Lysolecithin supplementation resulted in variable alterations in the duodenum mucosal morphology.
- Landmark Article Transforms Traditional View of the Autonomic Nervous System. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Osteopath Assoc 2017 Dec 01; 117(12):735
- Inclusion levels and modes of whole grain incorporation into wheat-based rations differentially influence the performance of broiler chickens. [Journal Article]
- BPBr Poult Sci 2018; 59(1):110-120
- 1. The objective was to compare three whole grain (WG) inclusion levels (7.5, 15 and 30%) offered to broiler chickens by three modes of WG incorporation: (i) pre-pellet WG inclusion, (ii) post-pellet...
1. The objective was to compare three whole grain (WG) inclusion levels (7.5, 15 and 30%) offered to broiler chickens by three modes of WG incorporation: (i) pre-pellet WG inclusion, (ii) post-pellet WG inclusion as a blend of WG and pelleted concentrate and (iii) post-pellet WG inclusion where WG and pelleted concentrate were provided in separate feed trays against a ground-grain, wheat-based control diet. 2. Ten dietary treatments were offered to 6 replicate cages (6 birds per cage) of male Ross 308 chickens from 7 to 28 d post-hatch. The effects of treatment on relative gizzard weights, gizzard contents, pancreatic weights and pH of gizzard digesta were monitored. Parameters of growth performance, nutrient utilisation (apparent metabolisable energy [AME], metabolisable to gross energy [ME:GE] ratios, nitrogen [N] retention and N-corrected AME [AMEn]), apparent starch and protein (N) digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates in for small intestinal segments and concentrations of free amino acids in plasma taken from the anterior mesenteric vein were determined. 3. Whole grain feeding (WGF) did not influence weight gain, but 30% post-pellet blended and 15 and 30% post-pellet separated treatments significantly depressed (P < 0.05) feed intakes while the 30% post-pellet separated treatment improved (P < 0.01) feed conversion ratios (FCR). WGF regimes significantly increased relative gizzard weights. 4. Overall, WGF generated profound responses in AME, ME:GE ratios, N retention and AMEn that were highly correlated with relative gizzard weights. In general, WGF improved starch and protein (N) digestibilities and again there were some correlations with these outcomes and relative gizzard weights. 5. Post-pellet WG inclusions where WG and pelleted concentrate were offered separately provided chickens with the opportunity to choice feed. Birds showed a preference for the relatively high-protein pelleted concentrate and at 30% WG, this resulted in an improvement in FCR of 7.69% (1.260 versus 1.365; P < 0.001) relative to the ground-grain control diet.
- Apparent metabolizable energy of by-products from the soybean oil industry for broilers: acidulated soapstock, glycerin, lecithin, and their mixture. [Journal Article]
- PSPoult Sci 2018 Jan 01; 97(1):124-130
- A study was conducted to determine the AMEn contents of fat by-products from the soybean oil industry for broiler chickens. A total of 390 slow-feathering Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly ...
A study was conducted to determine the AMEn contents of fat by-products from the soybean oil industry for broiler chickens. A total of 390 slow-feathering Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed into 13 treatments having 6 replicates of 5 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet from placement to 21 d. Experimental corn-soy diets were composed of four fat sources, added at 3 increasing levels each, and were fed from 21 to 28 d. Fat sources utilized were acidulated soybean soapstock (ASS), glycerol (GLY), lecithin (LEC), and a mixture (MIX) containing 85% ASS, 10% GLY and 5% LEC. A 4 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement was used with 4 by-products (ASS, GLY, LEC, or MIX), 3 inclusion levels and 1 basal diet. Each of the four fat by-product sources was included in the diets as follow: 2% of by-products (98% basal + 2% by-product), 4% (96% basal + 4% by-product), or 6% (94% basal + 6% by-product). Birds were submitted to 94, 96, 98, and 100% of ad libitum feed intake; therefore, the differences in AMEn consumption were only due to the added by-product. Total excreta were collected twice daily for 72 h to determine apparent metabolizable energy contents starting at 25 d. The AMEn intake was regressed against feed intake and the slope was used to estimate AMEn values for each fat source. Linear regression equations (P < 0.05) estimated for each by-product were as follow: 7,153X - 451.9 for ASS; 3,916X - 68.2 for GLY; 7,051X - 448.3 for LEC, and 8,515X - 622.3 for MIX. Values of AMEn were 7,153, 3,916, 7,051, and 8,515 kcal/kg DM for ASS, GLY, LEC, and MIX, respectively. The present study generated AMEn for fat by-products data that can be used in poultry feed formulation. It also provides indications that, by adding the 3 by-products in the proportions present in the MIX, considerable economic advantage can be attained.
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- Spiritual Care Communication in Cancer Patients. [Review]
- SOSemin Oncol Nurs 2017; 33(5):517-525
- CONCLUSIONS: Spiritual communication is important throughout cancer care. Nurses can assess and integrate patient and family caregivers' spiritual needs in clinical care by practicing self-awareness and engaging in spiritual care communication strategies.Spirituality is recognized as an essential component of quality care. Spiritual conversations can increase patients' satisfaction with care and improve well-being.