- Efficacy of Benzocaine, Eugenol and Menthol as Anesthetics for Freshwater Angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare). [Journal Article]
- JAJ Aquat Anim Health 2018 May 29
- For the production and commercialization of ornamental fish species, it is indispensable to collect biometric data for the selection of animals for trade and genetic improvement of the stock. However...
For the production and commercialization of ornamental fish species, it is indispensable to collect biometric data for the selection of animals for trade and genetic improvement of the stock. However, during handling processes, fishes receive more stress if proper anesthetics are not used. Thus, using appropriate anesthetics is an important tool for minimizing stress in animals. The objective of this study was to determine the effective concentrations of benzocaine, eugenol and menthol for angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) anesthesia and to develop induction and recovery response curves for different concentrations of these anesthetics. A total of 75 fish were exposed to five concentrations of three different anesthetics, benzocaine (60, 85, 110, 135 and 160 mg L-1 ), eugenol (40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 mg L-1 ) and menthol (50, 75, 150, 200 and 250 mg L-1 ) in a completely randomized design. Each concentration (5 fish per concentration) consisted of five replicates and each replicate was represented by a single fish (1 fish per replicate). The results indicate that the tested substances have met the criteria of anesthetic efficiency. The effective concentrations of benzocaine, eugenol and menthol determined to be 89.25 mg L-1 , 90.6 mg L-1 and 92.1 mg L-1 , respectively for the anesthesia of freshwater angelfish. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Comparative Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Topical Administration of Benzocaine and EMLA®on Oral Pain and Tactile Sensitivity. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Dent 2018; 2018:7916274
- CONCLUSIONS: The application of topical anesthetic drugs reduces the discomfort associated with this procedure, mainly until the first 10 minutes. Only the needle penetration sensitivity test showed sufficient sensitivity to reveal a difference in the anesthetic effect between EMLA and benzocaine. This trial is registered with RBR-2N2GSW.
- Reproducibility of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma scaling for renal injury: Methodological issue to avoid misinterpretation. [Letter]
- PUProg Urol 2018; 28(5):239-240
- Comparison of Etomidate, Benzocaine, and MS222 Anesthesia with and without Subsequent Flunixin Meglumine Analgesia in African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus laevis). [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2018 Mar 01; 57(2):202-209
- Often few alternative anesthetics for exotic species are available, due to the small numbers of these animals used in research. In this study, we evaluated the depth and duration of anesthesia in Xen...
Often few alternative anesthetics for exotic species are available, due to the small numbers of these animals used in research. In this study, we evaluated the depth and duration of anesthesia in Xenopus laevis after their immersion in 3 doses of etomidate (15, 22.5, and 30 mg/L) and in 3 doses of benzocaine (0.1%, 0.5%, and 1%) compared with the 'gold standard,' tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222; 2 g/L). We then chose an optimal dose for each alternative anesthetic according to induction time, duration of surgical plane, and time to complete recovery. The optimal etomidate and benzocaine doses (22.5 mg/L and 0.1%, respectively) as well as the MS222 dose were then used to achieve a surgical plane of anesthesia, with the addition of flunixin meglumine (25 or 50 mg/kg) administered in the dorsal lymph sac at the completion of mock oocyte harvest. Efficacy of the analgesic was assessed at 1, 3, 6, and 24 h postoperatively by using acetic acid testing (AAT). Histology of the liver, kidney, and tissues surrounding the dorsal lymph sac was performed at day 3, 14, and 28 in each group of animals. Mild to moderate myocyte degeneration and necrosis were present in tissues surrounding the dorsal lymph sac at both flunixin meglumine doses after etomidate and benzocaine anesthesia. In addition, the 50-mg/kg dose of flunixin meglumine resulted in the death of 5 of the 12 frogs within 24 h, despite an otherwise uneventful anesthetic recovery. In conclusion, benzocaine and etomidate offer alternative anesthetic regimens, according to typical requirements for an anesthetic event. Flunixin meglumine at the 25-mg/kg dose provided analgesic relief at the latest time point during etomidate dosage and at all time points during benzocaine dosage, but further characterization is warranted regarding long-term or repeated analgesic administration.
- Identification and Quantification of Cocaine and Active Adulterants in Coca-Paste Seized Samples: Useful Scientific Support to Health Care. [Journal Article]
- NRNeurotox Res 2018 Mar 13
- Adulteration is a common practice in the illicit drugs market, but the psychoactive and toxic effects provided by adulterants are clinically underestimated. Coca-paste (CP) is a smokable form of coca...
Adulteration is a common practice in the illicit drugs market, but the psychoactive and toxic effects provided by adulterants are clinically underestimated. Coca-paste (CP) is a smokable form of cocaine which has an extremely high abuse liability. CP seized samples are sold adulterated; however, qualitative and quantitative data of CP adulteration in forensic literature is still scarce. Besides, it is unknown if adulterants remain stable when CP is heated. This study was designed to report the chemical content of an extensive series of CP seized samples and to demonstrate the stability (i.e., chemical integrity) of the adulterants heated. To achieve this goal, the following strategies were applied: (1) a CP adulterated sample was heated and its fume was chemically analyzed; (2) the vapor of isolated adulterants were analyzed after heating; (3) plasma levels of animals exposed to CP and adulterants were measured. Ninety percent of CP seized samples were adulterated. Adulteration was dominated by phenacetin and caffeine and much less by other compounds (i.e., aminopyrine, levamisole, benzocaine). In the majority of CP analyzed samples, both cocaine and caffeine content was 30%, phenacetin 20% and the combination of these three components reached 90%. Typical cocaine pyrolysis compounds (i.e., BA, CMCHTs, and AEME) were observed in the volatilized cocaine and CP sample but no pyrolysis compounds were found after isolated adulterants heating. Cocaine, phenacetin, and caffeine were detected in plasma. We provide current forensic data about CP seized samples and demonstrated the chemical integrity of their adulterants heated.
- Analytical evidence to show letters impregnated with novel psychoactive substances are a means of getting drugs to inmates within the UK prison service. [Journal Article]
- ACAnn Clin Biochem 2018 Jan 01; :4563218767462
- Introduction Novel psychotropic substances also known as legal highs are a major concern in UK prisons, fuelling violence and putting a strain on resources for inmates requiring medical treatment for...
Introduction Novel psychotropic substances also known as legal highs are a major concern in UK prisons, fuelling violence and putting a strain on resources for inmates requiring medical treatment for adverse effects. We provide a clinical toxicology service including routine screening for novel psychoactive substances. In 2015, we were approached by Her Majesty Prison Service search dog training team to advise on which novel psychoactive substances to target, and again in 2016 to further provide analytical support to test five letters which the dogs positively identified for novel psychotropic substances during routine searches of prison mail rooms. Here we provide the first analytical confirmation that letters sent to inmates are being used to smuggle novel psychotropic substances into UK prisons. Results Novel psychotropic substances were detected on all five letters and these included the stimulants ethylphenidate, methiopropamine and methoxiphenidaine, the sedative etizolam and the third generation synthetic cannabinoids 5F-AKB-48, AB-FUBINACA, MDMB-CHMICA. Other compounds detected include the class A drug cocaine, class B drug methylphenidate and the cutting agents lignocaine, benzocaine and procaine. Conclusion Novel psychotropic substances smuggled into UK prisons is a major safety and security concern. By analytically confirming letters sent to inmates do contain novel psychotropic substances, we have produced categorical evidence to support anecdotal suggestions that novel psychotropic substances are entering UK prisons in this manner.
- Comment on Amézquita et al. (2017) "Conspicuousness, color resemblance, and toxicity in geographically diverging mimicry: The pan-Amazonian frog Allobates femoralis". [Journal Article]
- EEvolution 2018; 72(4):1009-1014
- Amézquita et al. (2017) recently concluded that species of the Allobates femoralis group are toxic to mice at levels equivalent to syntopic alkaloid-containing poison frogs, which they attributed to ...
Amézquita et al. (2017) recently concluded that species of the Allobates femoralis group are toxic to mice at levels equivalent to syntopic alkaloid-containing poison frogs, which they attributed to the presence of alkaloids in skin secretions. However, the chemical composition of skin secretions was not analyzed, and here we present additional data supporting the absence of alkaloids in skin secretions of the Allobates femoralis group. Instead, we suggest the observed toxicity was caused by the anesthetic benzocaine, which was applied to the buccal cavity to euthanize frogs prior to skin removal. We show that orally administered benzocaine is rapidly incorporated into the skin of species that sequester and do not sequester alkaloids, which casts doubt on the conclusion that Allobates femoralis group skin secretions are toxic and makes the results of experiments with alkaloid-containing species of Adelphobates and Ameerega uninterpretable. To prevent experimental errors and misinterpretations in studies of amphibian chemical defense, we encourage researchers to test the chemical composition of samples prior to experimentation, include all necessary controls to detect false positives, conduct small pilot studies for new methods, and consider the limitations of particular methods and their ability to address the intended research questions.
- Erythema of the penis after use of a latex condom - latex allergy or something else? [Journal Article]
- CDContact Dermatitis 2018; 78(2):168-169
- Effect of benzocaine and propranolol on phospholipid-based bilayers. [Journal Article]
- PCPhys Chem Chem Phys 2017 Dec 06; 19(47):32057-32071
- Cell membranes play a fundamental role in protecting the cell from its surroundings, in addition to hosting many proteins with fundamental biological tasks. A study of drug/lipid interactions is a ne...
Cell membranes play a fundamental role in protecting the cell from its surroundings, in addition to hosting many proteins with fundamental biological tasks. A study of drug/lipid interactions is a necessary and important step in fully clarifying the role and action mechanism of active ingredients, and shedding light on possible complications caused by drug overdosage. In this paper, the influence of benzocaine and propranolol drugs on the structure of l-α-phosphatidylcholine-based membranes has been investigated by means of neutron reflectivity, grazing incidence small angle neutron scattering, and small/ultra-small angle neutron scattering. Investigations allowed discovering a stiffening of the membranes and the formation of stalks, caused by the presence of benzocaine. On the other hand, disordered bilayers (lamellar powders) and highly curved structures were found in the presence of propranolol. The results obtained may be rationalized in terms of the molecular structures of drugs and may serve as a starting point for explaining the toxic behavior in long-term and overdosage scenarios.
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- What are pharmacists recommending for infant teething treatment? [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2018 Jan - Feb; 58(1):79-83.e1
- CONCLUSIONS: Despite warnings, the majority of pharmacists would still inappropriately recommend a benzocaine-containing product for treatment of infant teething. Further education is warranted to ensure that all pharmacists, health care providers, and consumers are aware of the potential harm of benzocaine use in infants.