- Erythema of the penis after use of a latex condom - latex allergy or something else? [Journal Article]
- CDContact Dermatitis 2018; 78(2):168-169
- Effect of benzocaine and propranolol on phospholipid-based bilayers. [Journal Article]
- PCPhys Chem Chem Phys 2017 Dec 06; 19(47):32057-32071
- Cell membranes play a fundamental role in protecting the cell from its surroundings, in addition to hosting many proteins with fundamental biological tasks. A study of drug/lipid interactions is a ne...
Cell membranes play a fundamental role in protecting the cell from its surroundings, in addition to hosting many proteins with fundamental biological tasks. A study of drug/lipid interactions is a necessary and important step in fully clarifying the role and action mechanism of active ingredients, and shedding light on possible complications caused by drug overdosage. In this paper, the influence of benzocaine and propranolol drugs on the structure of l-α-phosphatidylcholine-based membranes has been investigated by means of neutron reflectivity, grazing incidence small angle neutron scattering, and small/ultra-small angle neutron scattering. Investigations allowed discovering a stiffening of the membranes and the formation of stalks, caused by the presence of benzocaine. On the other hand, disordered bilayers (lamellar powders) and highly curved structures were found in the presence of propranolol. The results obtained may be rationalized in terms of the molecular structures of drugs and may serve as a starting point for explaining the toxic behavior in long-term and overdosage scenarios.
- What are pharmacists recommending for infant teething treatment? [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2018 Jan - Feb; 58(1):79-83.e1
- CONCLUSIONS: Despite warnings, the majority of pharmacists would still inappropriately recommend a benzocaine-containing product for treatment of infant teething. Further education is warranted to ensure that all pharmacists, health care providers, and consumers are aware of the potential harm of benzocaine use in infants.
- Mucociliary transport, differential white blood cells, and cyto-genotoxicity in peripheral erythrocytes in fish from a polluted urban pond. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2018; 25(3):2683-2690
- The present study evaluated the water quality of a polluted pond through the analysis of in vitro mucociliary transport, hematological parameters, and biomarkers of cyto-genotoxicity in the Nile tila...
The present study evaluated the water quality of a polluted pond through the analysis of in vitro mucociliary transport, hematological parameters, and biomarkers of cyto-genotoxicity in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Blood and mucus samples were collected from ten specimens from the polluted pond and from ten specimens from a control area. The fish were anesthetized with 3% benzocaine, mucus was collected directly from the gills, and blood was drawn from the caudal artery. Blood smears were stained using the May-Grünwald Giemsa process for the differential leukocyte counts and to determine the frequency of leukocytes, thrombocytes, erythroblasts, micronuclei, and nuclear abnormalities. The results revealed low transportability in vitro, a high percentage of monocytes and eosinophils, and increased frequency of leukocytes and nuclear abnormalities in fish from the polluted pond. However, the frequency of thrombocytes and erythroblasts and the percentage of lymphocytes and neutrophils were significantly lower. It is possible to conclude that changes in fish are due to poor water quality and that these non-destructive biomarkers can be used for the biomonitoring of aquatic environments vulnerable to contamination.
- Benzocaine-Induced Methemoglobinemia. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Emerg Med 2017; 53(6):912-913
- Assessment of metal sensitizer potency with the reconstructed human epidermis IL-18 assay. [Journal Article]
- TToxicology 2018 Jan 15; 393:62-72
- According to the new EU Medical Devices (MDR) legislation coming into effect in 2017, manufactures will have to comply with higher standards of quality and safety for medical devices in order to meet...
According to the new EU Medical Devices (MDR) legislation coming into effect in 2017, manufactures will have to comply with higher standards of quality and safety for medical devices in order to meet common safety concerns regarding such products. Metal alloys are extensively used in dentistry and medicine (e.g. orthopedic surgery and cardiology) even though clinical experience suggests that many metals are sensitizers. The aim of this study was to further test the applicability domain of the in vitro reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) IL-18 assay developed to identify contact allergens and in doing so: i) determine whether different metal salts, representing leachables from metal alloys used in medical devices, could be correctly labelled and classified; and ii) assess the ability of different salts for the same metal to penetrate the skin stratum corneum. Twenty eight chemicals including 15 metal salts were topically exposed to RhE. Nickel, chrome, gold, palladium were each tested in two different salt forms, and titanium in 4 different salt forms. Metal salts were labelled (YES/NO) as sensitizer if a threshold of more than 5 fold IL18 release was reached. The in vitro estimation of expected sensitization induction level (potency) was assessed by interpolating in vitro EC50 and IL-18 SI2 with LLNA EC3 and human NOEL values from standard reference curves generated using DNCB (extreme) and benzocaine (weak). Metal salts, in contrast to other chemical sensitizers and with the exception of potassium dichromate (VI) and cobalt (II) chloride, were not identified as contact allergens since they only induced a small or no increase in IL-18 production. This finding was not related to a lack of stratum corneum skin penetration since EC50 values (decrease in metabolic activity; MTT assay) were obtained after topical RhE exposure to 8 of the 15 metal salts. For nickel, gold and palladium salts, differences in EC50 values between two salts for the same metal could not be attributed to differences in molarity or valency. For chrome salts the difference in EC50 values may be explained by different valencies (VI vs. III), but not by molarity. In general, metal salts were classified as weaker sensitizers than was indicated from in vivo LLNA EC3 and NOEL data. Our in vitro results show that metals are problematic chemicals to test, in line with the limited number of standardized human and animal studies, which are not currently considered adequate to predict systemic hypersensitivity or autoimmunity, and despite clinical experience, which clearly shows that many metals are indeed a risk to human health.
- Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is an applicable immersion anesthetic in the axolotl with potential uses in hemodynamic and neurophysiological experiments. [Journal Article]
- RRegeneration (Oxf) 2017; 4(3):124-131
- The Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is an important model species in regenerative biology. Traditionally, axolotls are anesthetized using benzocaine or MS-222, both of which act to inhibit volt...
The Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is an important model species in regenerative biology. Traditionally, axolotls are anesthetized using benzocaine or MS-222, both of which act to inhibit voltage gated sodium channels thereby preventing action potential propagation. In some neurophysiological experiments this is not desirable; therefore we tested propofol as an alternative anesthetic in the axolotl. We evaluated benzocaine, MS-222, and propofol's cardiovascular effects, effects on action potential propagation in the spinal cord, and gross limb regenerative effects. We found that propofol is applicable as a general anesthetic in the axolotl allowing for neurophysiological experiments and yielding a stable anesthesia with significantly less cardiovascular effect than both benzocaine and MS-222. Additionally, propofol did not affect gross limb regeneration. In conclusion we suggest the consideration of propofol as an alternative immersion anesthetic to benzocaine and MS-222.
- Lack of Methemoglobin Elevations After Topical Applications of Benzocaine Alone or Benzocaine Plus Tetracaine to the Oral Mucosa. [Journal Article]
- CTClin Ther 2017; 39(10):2103-2108
- CONCLUSIONS: Recommended doses of benzocaine or benzocaine combined with tetracaine when applied to the cheek mucosa do not induce even clinically insignificant elevations in methemoglobin levels. Metered dosing, such as that used in this study, can help avoid this overdose phenomena with these drugs. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02908620.
- Untrapping Kinetically Trapped Ions: The Role of Water Vapor and Ion-Source Activation Conditions on the Gas-Phase Protomer Ratio of Benzocaine Revealed by Ion-Mobility Mass Spectrometry. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2017; 28(12):2580-2587
- The role of water vapor in transforming the thermodynamically preferred species of protonated benzocaine to the less favored protomer was investigated using helium-plasma ionization (HePI) in conjunc...
The role of water vapor in transforming the thermodynamically preferred species of protonated benzocaine to the less favored protomer was investigated using helium-plasma ionization (HePI) in conjunction with ion-mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS). The IM arrival-time distribution (ATD) recorded from a neat benzocaine sample desorbed to the gas phase by a stream of dry nitrogen and ionized by HePI showed essentially one peak for the O-protonated species. However, when water vapor was introduced to the enclosed ion source, within a span of about 150 ms the ATD profile changed completely to one dominated by the N-protonated species. Under spray-based ionization conditions, the nature and composition of the solvents have been postulated to play a decisive role in defining the manifested protomer ratios. In reality, the solvent vapors present in the ion source (particularly the ambient humidity) indirectly dictate the gas-phase ratio of the protomers. Evidently, the gas-phase protomer ratio established at the confinement of the ions is readjusted by the ion-activation that takes place during the transmission of ions to the vacuum. Although it has been repeatedly stated that ions can retain a "memory" of their solution structures because they can be kinetically trapped, and thereby represent their solution-based stabilities, we show that the initial airborne ions can undergo significant transformations in the transit through the intermediate vacuum zones between the ion source and the mass detector. In this context, we demonstrate that the kinetically trapped N-protomer of benzocaine can be untrapped by reducing the humidity of the enclosed ion source. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.
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- Inclusion of fluorophores in cyclodextrins: a closer look at the fluorometric determination of association constants by linear and nonlinear fitting procedures. [Journal Article]
- MAMethods Appl Fluoresc 2017 Dec 13; 6(1):013001
- The author discusses methods for the fluorometric determination of affinity constants by linear and nonlinear fitting methods. This is outlined in particular for the interaction between cyclodextrins...
The author discusses methods for the fluorometric determination of affinity constants by linear and nonlinear fitting methods. This is outlined in particular for the interaction between cyclodextrins and several anesthetic drugs including benzocaine. Special emphasis is given to the limitations of certain fits, and the impact of such studies on enzyme-substrate interactions are demonstrated. Both the experimental part and methods of analysis are well suited for students in an advanced lab.