- Inhibition by general anesthetic propofol of compound action potentials in the frog sciatic nerve and its chemical structure. [Journal Article]
- NSNaunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2018 Dec 05
- Although the intravenous general anesthetic propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) has an ability to inhibit nerve conduction, this has not been fully examined. Various agents inhibit compound action poten...
Although the intravenous general anesthetic propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) has an ability to inhibit nerve conduction, this has not been fully examined. Various agents inhibit compound action potentials (CAPs) in a manner dependent on their chemical structures. To determine propofol's chemical structure that is important in nerve conduction inhibition, we examined the effects of propofol and its related compounds on fast-conducting CAPs recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. Propofol concentration-dependently reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 0.14 mM. A similar inhibition was produced by other phenols, 4-sec-butylphenol and 4-amylphenol (IC50 values: 0.33 and 0.20 mM, respectively). IC50 values for these and more phenols (4-isopropylphenol, 4-tert-butylphenol, and 4-ter-amylphenol; data published previously) were correlated with the logarithm of their octanol-water partition coefficients. A phenol having ketone group (raspberry ketone) and alcohols (3-phenyl-1-propanol and 2-phenylethylalcohol) inhibited CAPs less effectively than the above-mentioned phenols. The local anesthetic (LA) benzocaine reduced CAP peak amplitudes with an IC50 of 0.80 mM, a value larger than that of propofol. When compared with other LAs, propofol activity was close to those of ropivacaine, levobupivacaine, and pramoxine, while benzocaine activity was similar to those of cocaine and lidocaine. It is concluded that propofol inhibits nerve conduction, possibly owing to isopropyl and hydroxyl groups bound to the benzene ring of propofol and to its lipophilicity; propofol's efficacy is comparable to those of some LAs. These results could serve to develop propofol-related agents exhibiting analgesia when applied topically.
- Fenestrations control resting-state block of a voltage-gated sodium channel. [Journal Article]
- PNProc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 05
- Potency of drug action is usually determined by binding to a specific receptor site on target proteins. In contrast to this conventional paradigm, we show here that potency of local anesthetics (LAs)...
Potency of drug action is usually determined by binding to a specific receptor site on target proteins. In contrast to this conventional paradigm, we show here that potency of local anesthetics (LAs) and antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) that block sodium channels is controlled by fenestrations that allow drug access to the receptor site directly from the membrane phase. Voltage-gated sodium channels initiate action potentials in nerve and cardiac muscle, where their hyperactivity causes pain and cardiac arrhythmia, respectively. LAs and AADs selectively block sodium channels in rapidly firing nerve and muscle cells to relieve these conditions. The structure of the ancestral bacterial sodium channel NaVAb, which is also blocked by LAs and AADs, revealed fenestrations connecting the lipid phase of the membrane to the central cavity of the pore. We cocrystallized lidocaine and flecainide with NavAb, which revealed strong drug-dependent electron density in the central cavity of the pore. Mutation of the contact residue T206 greatly reduced drug potency, confirming this site as the receptor for LAs and AADs. Strikingly, mutations of the fenestration cap residue F203 changed fenestration size and had graded effects on resting-state block by flecainide, lidocaine, and benzocaine, the potencies of which were altered from 51- to 2.6-fold in order of their molecular size. These results show that conserved fenestrations in the pores of sodium channels are crucial pharmacologically and determine the level of resting-state block by widely used drugs. Fine-tuning drug access through fenestrations provides an unexpected avenue for structure-based design of ion-channel-blocking drugs.
- Accuracy of the First Stage of Hepatotoxicity Testing with the Use of Drosophila melanogaster Test System. [Journal Article]
- BEBull Exp Biol Med 2018; 166(2):233-236
- The genotoxic effects of heterocyclic compounds were evaluated on the basis of genetic and toxicological characteristics of a biological model of Drosophila melanogaster. Analysis of the viability pa...
The genotoxic effects of heterocyclic compounds were evaluated on the basis of genetic and toxicological characteristics of a biological model of Drosophila melanogaster. Analysis of the viability parameters (fertility, progeny mortality) showed that of 6 tested substance, substance No. 3 exhibited minimum toxicity. After application of substances No. 1 and No. 5 in the studied concentrations, the number of survived flies was insufficient for further analysis, which attested to high toxicity of these substances. The intensity of apoptosis was studied in response to substances Nos. 2, 4, and 6. Substance No. 4 proved to be optimal by the parameter toxicity/apoptosis (low toxicity/high apoptosis), while substance No. 3 exhibited low toxicity, which manifested in low apoptosis intensity.
- Influence of hybrid polymeric nanoparticle/thermosensitive hydrogels systems on formulation tracking and in vitro artificial membrane permeation: A promising system for skin drug-delivery. [Journal Article]
- CSColloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 Oct 26; 174:56-62
- In recent years, the development of hybrid drug delivery systems, such as hydrogels and nanoparticles, has gained considerable attention as new formulations for skin-delivery. Meanwhile, transdermal ...
In recent years, the development of hybrid drug delivery systems, such as hydrogels and nanoparticles, has gained considerable attention as new formulations for skin-delivery. Meanwhile, transdermal diffusion synthetic membranes have been used to assess skin permeability to these systems, providing key insights into the relationships between drug and nanoformulations. In this study, benzocaine-loaded poly-ε-caprolactone nanoparticles (BZC:NPs) were synthesized, characterized and incorporated into Poloxamer 407-based hydrogel (PL407). Benzocaine (BZC) was used as a drug model since has been commonly applied as a topical pain reliever in the last years. Hence, we developed a hybrid polymeric nanoparticle/thermosensitive hydrogels system and evaluated the in vitro permeation of the BZC, as well as nanoformulation tracking in an artificial membrane. In vitro permeation study was conducted in a vertical diffusion cell system using a Strat-M® membrane model. BZC:NPs were prepared by coprecipitation method and their physicochemical stability measured before incorporating into the thermosensitive hydrogel. Also, viscosity measurements and sol-gel transition temperature were performed by rheological analysis. Different techniques, including microscopy, were used to tracking the nanoparticles on both receptor medium and synthetic membranes. Results showed high BZC encapsulation efficiency into NPs (93%) and good physicochemical stability before and after hydrogel incorporation. BZC in vitro permeation kinetics from NPs-loaded Poloxamer 407-based hydrogel presented slower permeation profile compared with the BZC: Poloxamer 407-based hydrogel. Also, NPs were observed into the diffusion cells receptor compartment after the in vitro permeation study. These results contribute to a better understanding the interaction between hydrogels, nanoparticles and synthetic membrane, as well as open perspectives for the development of new drug delivery systems for skin.
- Copper(ii) complexes based on quinoline-derived Schiff-base ligands: synthesis, characterization, HSA/DNA binding ability, and anticancer activity. [Journal Article]
- MMedchemcomm 2018 Oct 01; 9(10):1663-1672
- Three copper(ii) complexes, [Cu(L1)(NO3)2] (C1), [Cu(L2)Cl2] (C2) and [Cu(L2)SO4]2·H2O (C3), were designed and synthesized by the reaction of Cu(NO3)2·3H2O, CuCl2·2H2O and CuSO4·5H2O with a quinoline...
Three copper(ii) complexes, [Cu(L1)(NO3)2] (C1), [Cu(L2)Cl2] (C2) and [Cu(L2)SO4]2·H2O (C3), were designed and synthesized by the reaction of Cu(NO3)2·3H2O, CuCl2·2H2O and CuSO4·5H2O with a quinoline-derived Schiff base ligand, L1 or L2, prepared by the condensation of quinoline-8-carbaldehyde with 4-aminobenzoic acid methyl ester or 4-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester (benzocaine). The efficient bindings of the C1-C3 complexes with human serum albumin (HSA) and calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were analyzed by spectroscopy and molecular docking. These complexes could significantly quench the fluorescence of HSA through the static quenching process, and hydrophobic interactions with HSA through the sub-domain IIA and IIIA cavities. The complexes bind to DNA via the intercalative mode and they fit well into the curved contour of the DNA target in the minor groove region. Furthermore, the interaction abilities of the Cu(ii) complexes with HSA/DNA were greater as compared to their corresponding ligands. Interestingly, C1-C3, particularly C3, exhibited more cytotoxicity toward HeLa cells compared to normal HL-7702 cells and three other tumor cell lines (Hep-G2, NCI-H460, and MGC80-3). Their cytotoxicity toward the HeLa cell lines was 1.9-3.5-fold more potent than cisplatin. Further studies indicated that these complexes arrested the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase and promoted tumor cell apoptosis via a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated mitochondrial pathway.
- A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial on Clinical Efficacy of Topical Agents in Reducing Pain and Frequency of Recurrent Aphthous Ulcers. [Journal Article]
- ODOpen Dent J 2018; 12:700-713
- CONCLUSIONS: The selected topical treatment modality can deliver cheap, effective and safe drug therapy which benefits the patient in refining their regular activities and everyday events of life.
- Efficacy and safety of a triple active sore throat lozenge in the treatment of patients with acute pharyngitis: Results of a multi-centre, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group trial (DoriPha). [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Clin Pract 2018; 72(12):e13272
- CONCLUSIONS: The strength of this randomised controlled trial lies in the endpoint of complete remission after 3 days p.i.d., especially in the light of other trials addressing acute pharyngitis. The results of this study show a significant benefit of the study drug over placebo in the treatment of acute pharyngitis. Local treatment with the fixed combination (0.5 mg tyrothricin, 1.0 mg benzalkonium chloride, and 1.5 mg benzocaine) provides a rapid analgesic effect and is effective in relieving both severe throat pain as well as difficulty in swallowing associated with acute pharyngitis leading to a 64% improved complete remission within 72 hours. The triple active combination is a suitable treatment option for patients in the self-management of acute pharyngitis and sore throat.
- Desire for lasting long in bed led to contact allergic dermatitis and subsequent superficial penile gangrene: a dreadful complication of benzocaine-containing extended-pleasure condom. [Journal Article]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2018 Sep 27; 2018
- Office-Based Anesthetic and Oral Surgical Management of a Child With Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy Type IV: A Case Report. [Journal Article]
- APAnesth Prog 2018; 65(3):181-186
- Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV (HSAN IV), or congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis, is an exceptionally rare genetic disorder that results in the complete loss of pain...
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV (HSAN IV), or congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis, is an exceptionally rare genetic disorder that results in the complete loss of pain and temperature sensation as well as anhidrosis. Anesthetic management of these patients can be difficult because of significantly increased risks during general anesthesia. Literature on perioperative anesthetic management is typically written in the context of a hospital setting. As such, our case presents a unique report on the anesthetic management of a HSAN IV patient who presented for extraction of 2 teeth in an office-based setting. In determining how to safely manage the procedure, we decided against general anesthesia as we lacked the facilities and equipment to safely handle previously reported complications. We were successful in providing sedation with nitrous oxide in oxygen and applying 20% benzocaine topical ointment on the surgical site in lieu of administering general anesthesia. We had an anesthesiologist present and obtained intravenous access prior to the surgery to help manage any complications. This report provides support that simple dental extractions can be accomplished safely in the HSAN IV patient in the office-based setting, thereby avoiding unnecessary risk.
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- Diffusion ordered NMR spectroscopy measurements as screening method of potential reactions of API and excipients in drug formulations. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pharm Biomed Anal 2019 Jan 05; 162:41-46
- In the development of new pharmaceutical formulations it is important to consider the possible interactions between the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and excipients which is a well-known pro...
In the development of new pharmaceutical formulations it is important to consider the possible interactions between the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and excipients which is a well-known problem. The objective of the work presented here was to investigate such reactions by means of diffusion ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY). The known reaction of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and the excipient citric acid was studied. Three reaction products have been verified by DOSY, 1H NMR and HPLC measurements. Despite a poor separation in the DOSY diagram, the reaction products could be assign due to the processing of thoughtful selected parts of the signals. The reaction of 5-ASA with formic acid and benzocaine with dibutyl phthalate was also studied by means of DOSY experiments.