- Improved protective effects of American ginseng berry against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity through TNF-α-mediated caspase-3/-8/-9 signaling pathways. [Journal Article]
- PPhytomedicine 2018 Dec 01; 51:128-138
- CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that AGB pretreatment protected liver cells against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity through inhibition of oxidative stress, inflammation responses via TNF-α-mediated caspase-3/-8/-9 signaling pathways.
- Fecal metabolomic dataset of American ginseng-treated DSS mice: Correlation between ginseng enteric inflammation inhibition and its biological signatures. [Journal Article]
- DBData Brief 2018; 21:1403-1408
- Although anti-inflammatory effects of American ginseng metabolites have been investigated at systemic and cellular levels, the biological signatures of ginseng microbial metabolite-induced bioactivit...
Although anti-inflammatory effects of American ginseng metabolites have been investigated at systemic and cellular levels, the biological signatures of ginseng microbial metabolite-induced bioactivities are still unknown. To fill this knowledge gap and to support the findings published in the companion research article entitled "American ginseng microbial metabolites attenuated DSS-induced colitis and abdominal pain" (Wang et al., 2018), we are here to provide datasets of enteric microbiome biotransformation and fecal metabolomics. For the microbiome biotransformation study, data were obtained from C57BL6 mice treated with a broad-spectrum antibiotic metronidazole. After oral administration of ginseng extract, we observed that compound K (CK) was undetectable in metronidazole-treated mouse stools but was detected in stools from vehicle-treated mice, suggesting biotransformation of CK is gut microbial dependent. In the fecal metabolomic study, three small molecules which were associated with gut inflammation were identified. In the DSS mice, the levels of lactate, linoleic acid, and malic acid increased significantly in the model group. After ginseng treatment, the expressions of these metabolites reduced significantly. Thus, the selective fecal endogenous metabolites could be used as biological signatures reflecting severity of enteric inflammation and ginseng treatment outcomes. Our results showed the enteric microbiome plays a key role for CK conversion, and the effects of CK on enteric inflammation can be demonstrated by the metabolomics data.
- The Phytochemistry of Cherokee Aromatic Medicinal Plants. [Review]
- MMedicines (Basel) 2018 Nov 12; 5(4)
- Background: Native Americans have had a rich ethnobotanical heritage for treating diseases, ailments, and injuries. Cherokee traditional medicine has provided numerous aromatic and medicinal plants ...
Background: Native Americans have had a rich ethnobotanical heritage for treating diseases, ailments, and injuries. Cherokee traditional medicine has provided numerous aromatic and medicinal plants that not only were used by the Cherokee people, but were also adopted for use by European settlers in North America. Methods: The aim of this review was to examine the Cherokee ethnobotanical literature and the published phytochemical investigations on Cherokee medicinal plants and to correlate phytochemical constituents with traditional uses and biological activities. Results: Several Cherokee medicinal plants are still in use today as herbal medicines, including, for example, yarrow (Achillea millefolium), black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa), American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius), and blue skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora). This review presents a summary of the traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and biological activities of Cherokee aromatic and medicinal plants. Conclusions: The list is not complete, however, as there is still much work needed in phytochemical investigation and pharmacological evaluation of many traditional herbal medicines.
- First-reported pediatric cases of American ginseng anaphylaxis and allergy. [Journal Article]
- AAAllergy Asthma Clin Immunol 2018; 14:79
- CONCLUSIONS: These cases highlight two different allergic responses to American ginseng in pediatric patients. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of allergy to American ginseng, in addition to the first reported cases of allergy to ginseng in pediatric patients.
- The Increase of Triterpene Saponin Production Induced by Trans-Anethole in Hairy Root Cultures of Panax quinquefolium. [Journal Article]
- MMolecules 2018 Oct 17; 23(10)
- In vitro cultivation is an effective way to increase pharmaceutical production. To increase ginsenoside production in hairy root cultures of American ginseng, the present study uses trans-anethole as...
In vitro cultivation is an effective way to increase pharmaceutical production. To increase ginsenoside production in hairy root cultures of American ginseng, the present study uses trans-anethole as an elicitor. The content of nine triterpene saponins was determined: Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, Rd, Rg1, Rg2, Re and Rf. Trans-anethole was found to stimulate saponin synthesis regardless of exposure time (24 and 72 h). Twenty-four hour exposure to 1 μmol trans-anethole in the culture medium resulted in the highest increase of total saponin content (twice that of untreated roots), and optimum accumulation of Rb-group saponins, with ginsenoside Rc dominating (8.45 mg g-1 d.w.). In contrast, the highest mean content of protopanaxatriol derivatives was obtained for 10 μmol trans-anethole. The Re metabolite predominated, reaching a concentration of 5.72 mg g-1 d.w.: a 3.9-fold increase over untreated roots. Elicitation with use of trans-anethole can therefore be an effective method of increasing ginsenoside production in shake flasks.
- Quality Analysis of American Ginseng Cultivated in Heilongjiang Using UPLC-ESI--MRM-MS with Chemometric Methods. [Journal Article]
- MMolecules 2018 Sep 19; 23(9)
- American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) has long been cultivated in China for the function food and medicine. Here, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography was coupled with electrospray ionizatio...
American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) has long been cultivated in China for the function food and medicine. Here, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography was coupled with electrospray ionization and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI--TQ-MS) for simultaneous detection of 22 ginsenosides in American ginseng cultivated in Mudanjiang district of Heilongjiang. The extraction conditions also were optimized by a Box Behnken design experiment. The optimized result was 31.8 mL/g as ratio of liquid to raw materials, 20.3 min of extraction time, and 235.0 W of extraction powers. The quantitative MS parameters for these 22 compounds were rapidly optimized by single factor experiments employing UPLC-ESI--multiple reaction monitoring or multiple ion monitoring (MRM/MIM) scans. Furthermore, the established UPLC-ESI--MRM-MS method showed good linear relationships (R² > 0.99), repeatability (RSD < 3.86%), precision (RSD < 2.74%), and recovery (94⁻104%). This method determined 22 bioactive ginsenosides in different parts of the plant (main roots, hairy roots, rhizomes, leaves, and stems) and growth years (one year to four years) of P. quinquefolium. The highest total content of the 22 analytes was in the hairy roots (1.3 × 10⁵ µg/g) followed by rhizomes (7.1 × 10⁴ µg/g), main roots (6.5 × 10⁴ µg/g), leaves (4.2 × 10⁴ µg/g), and stems (2.4 × 10⁴ µg/g). Finally, chemometric methods, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLS-DA), were successfully used to classify and differentiate American ginseng attributed to different growth years. The proposed UPLC-ESI--MRM-MS coupled with HCA and PLS-DA methods was elucidated to be a simple and reliable method for quality evaluation of American ginseng.
- American ginseng microbial metabolites attenuate DSS-induced colitis and abdominal pain. [Journal Article]
- IIInt Immunopharmacol 2018; 64:246-251
- Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a significant public health problem in the United States. Abdominal pain is a major complaint among individuals with IBD. Successful IBD management not only contro...
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a significant public health problem in the United States. Abdominal pain is a major complaint among individuals with IBD. Successful IBD management not only controls enteric inflammation, but also reduces abdominal discomfort. Recently, increased attention has been focused on alternative strategies for IBD management. HPLC/Q-TOF-MS analysis was employed to evaluate the intestinal microbiome's biotransformation of parent American ginseng compounds into their metabolites. Using a DSS mouse model, the effects of American ginseng microbial metabolites on chemically induced colitis was investigated with disease activity index and histological assessment. Expressions of inflammatory cytokines were determined using real-time PCR and ELISA. Abdominal pain was evaluated using the von Frey filament test. After the gut microbiome's biotransformation, the major metabolites were found to be the compound K and ginsenoside Rg3. Compared with the DSS animal group, American ginseng treatment significantly attenuated experimental colitis, as supported by the histological assessment. The enteric microbiome-derived metabolites of ginseng significantly attenuated the abdominal pain. American ginseng treatment significantly reduced gut inflammation, consistent with pro-inflammatory cytokine level changes. The gut microbial metabolite compound K showed significant anti-inflammatory effects even at low concentrations, compared to its parent ginsenoside Rb1. American ginseng intestinal microbial metabolites significantly reduced chemically-induced colitis and abdominal pain, as mediated by the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Intestinal microbial metabolism plays a critical role in American ginseng mediated colitis management.
- Energy Drinks and Myocardial Infarction. [Journal Article]
- CCureus 2018 May 21; 10(5):e2658
- The popularity and use of energy drinks have accelerated over the past decade and are a health concern worldwide. The key ingredients of energy drinks include caffeine, guarana, taurine, ginseng, and...
The popularity and use of energy drinks have accelerated over the past decade and are a health concern worldwide. The key ingredients of energy drinks include caffeine, guarana, taurine, ginseng, and sugar. Most of the well-known side effects due to consumption of energy drinks include tachycardia, headache, anxiety, and palpitations and are frequently attributed to caffeine. Recently, a few cases of life-threatening cardiovascular events in individuals who overdosed massive quantities of caffeinated energy drinks have been reported. In this case report, we are documenting a case of myocardial infarction in a 25-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with chest pain. The patient had been consuming massive quantities of caffeinated energy drinks daily for the past week. This case report and the few previously documented studies support a possible connection between caffeinated energy drinks and myocardial infarction. The purpose of this case report is to promote awareness in the general population and the medical staff about cardiac mortality due to overdosing of massive quantities of caffeinated energy drinks.
- Anti-fatigue effects of small-molecule oligopeptides isolated from Panax quinquefolium L. in mice. [Journal Article]
- FFFood Funct 2018 Aug 15; 9(8):4266-4273
- American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) was reported to have extensive biological activities and pharmaceutical properties. In most of the studies, the anti-fatigue effects of American ginseng are ...
American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) was reported to have extensive biological activities and pharmaceutical properties. In most of the studies, the anti-fatigue effects of American ginseng are attributed to ginsenoside, and in only a few studies, they have been attributed to oligopeptides. Therefore, the aim of this study was to observe the anti-fatigue effects of small-molecule oligopeptides isolated from Panax quinquefolium L. (QOPs) in mice. At first, mice chosen for the study were randomly divided into four experimental groups; each group of mice was further divided into five subgroups: vehicle control group, whey protein group (450 mg per kg BW), and three groups of QOPs at different doses (225 mg per kg BW, 450 mg per kg BW, and 900 mg per kg BW). Test substances were given by gavage once a day for 30 days. QOPs can significantly prolong the forced swimming time, decrease the serum urea nitrogen (SUN) and blood lactate (BLA) levels, and increase the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and hepatic glycogen content. QOPs also markedly enhanced the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and attenuated the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Notably, QOPs enhanced the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), Na+-K+-ATPase, and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase and increased the mRNA expression of nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in skeletal muscles. These results indicate that treatment with QOPs induces anti-fatigue effects, which may be due to the inhibition of oxidative stress and the improvement of mitochondrial function in skeletal muscles. QOPs can be used as a novel natural agent for relieving physical fatigue.
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- Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [BOOK]
- BOOKNational Library of Medicine (US): Bethesda (MD)
- The roots of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius), Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng), and several other species contain steroidal saponins called ginsenosides that are purported to be adaptogens (i.e.,...
The roots of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius), Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng), and several other species contain steroidal saponins called ginsenosides that are purported to be adaptogens (i.e., to increase endurance and improve memory). Ginseng has no specific uses during breastfeeding. Ginseng is generally well tolerated in adults and is "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The most common side effects include headache, hypertension, diarrhea, sleeplessness, skin rash, and vaginal bleeding. Ginseng decreases the blood levels of some drugs, such as warfarin, and enhances the effect of sedating drugs. With long-term use, nervousness, diarrhea, confusion, depression or depersonalization may occur. Gynecomastia and breast pain have been reported. No data exist on the safety and efficacy of ginseng in nursing mothers or infants. Because of its possible estrogenic activity and lack of information during breastfeeding, many sources recommend that ginseng not be used during lactation. Dietary supplements do not require extensive pre-marketing approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Manufacturers are responsible to ensure the safety, but do not need to prove the safety and effectiveness of dietary supplements before they are marketed. Dietary supplements may contain multiple ingredients, and differences are often found between labeled and actual ingredients or their amounts. A manufacturer may contract with an independent organization to verify the quality of a product or its ingredients, but that does not certify the safety or effectiveness of a product. Because of the above issues, clinical testing results on one product may not be applicable to other products. More detailed information about dietary supplements is available elsewhere on the LactMed Web site.