- Chemical Differentiation and Quantitative Analysis of Different Types of Panax Genus Stem-Leaf Based on a UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap/MS Combined with Multivariate Statistical Analysis Approach. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anal Methods Chem 2018; 2018:9598672
- Two quantitative methods (-ESI full scan and -ESI PRM MS) were developed to analyze ginsenosides in ginseng stem-leaf by using UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap/MS. By means of -ESI PRM MS method, the content...
Two quantitative methods (-ESI full scan and -ESI PRM MS) were developed to analyze ginsenosides in ginseng stem-leaf by using UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap/MS. By means of -ESI PRM MS method, the contents of eighteen ginsenosides in Asian ginseng stem-leaf (ASGSL) and American ginseng stem-leaf (AMGSL) were analyzed. The principal component analysis (PCA) model was built to discriminate Asian ginseng stem-leaf (ASGSL) from American ginseng stem-leaf (AMGSL) based on -ESI PRM MS data, and six ginsenosides (F11, Rf, R2, F1, Rb1, and Rb3) were obtained as the markers. To further explore the differences between cultivated ginseng stem-leaf and forest ginseng stem-leaf, the partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model was built based on -ESI full scan data. And twenty-six markers were selected to discriminate cultivated ginseng stem-leaf (CGSL) from forest ginseng stem-leaf (FGSL). This study provides reliable and effective methods to quantify and discriminate among different types of ginseng stem-leaf in the commercial market.
- Effects of compound K, an enteric microbiome metabolite of ginseng, in the treatment of inflammation associated colon cancer. [Journal Article]
- OLOncol Lett 2018; 15(6):8339-8348
- Ginsenoside Rb1, a major component of different ginseng species, can be bioconverted into compound K by gut microbiota, and the latter possess much stronger cancer chemopreventive potential. However,...
Ginsenoside Rb1, a major component of different ginseng species, can be bioconverted into compound K by gut microbiota, and the latter possess much stronger cancer chemopreventive potential. However, while the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer is closely associated with gut inflammation, to date, the effects of compound K on inflammation-linked cancer chemoprevention have not been reported. In the present study, liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis was applied to evaluate the biotransformation of Rb1 in American ginseng by human enteric microflora. The in vitro inhibitory effects of Rb1 and compound K were compared using the HCT-116 and HT-19 human colorectal cancer cell lines by a MTS assay. Cell cycle and cell apoptosis were assayed using flow cytometry. Using ELISA, the anti-inflammatory effects of Rb1 and compound K were compared for their inhibition of interleukin-8 secretion in HT-29 cells, induced by lipopolysaccharide. The results revealed that compound K is the major intestinal microbiome metabolite of Rb1. When compared with Rb1, compound K had significantly stronger anti-proliferative effects in HCT-116 and HT-29 cell lines (P<0.01). Compound K significantly arrested HCT-116 and HT-29 cells in the G1 phase, and induced cell apoptosis (P<0.01). By contrast, Rb1 did not markedly influence the cell cycle or apoptosis. Furthermore, compound K exerted significant anti-inflammatory effects even at low concentrations (P<0.05), while Rb1 did not have any distinct effects. The data obtained from the present study demonstrated that compound K, an intestinal microbiome metabolite of Rb1, may have a potential clinical value in the prevention of inflammatory-associated colorectal cancer.
- Effects of Ginseng Supplementation and Endurance-Exercise in the Artery-Specific Vascular Responsiveness of Diabetic and Sedentary Rats. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Physiol 2018; 9:460
- This study examined the effects of 12 weeks North-American ginseng supplementation, exercise training, and sedentary behavior on vascular responses in type I diabetic rats. The following hypotheses w...
This study examined the effects of 12 weeks North-American ginseng supplementation, exercise training, and sedentary behavior on vascular responses in type I diabetic rats. The following hypotheses were tested: (1) ginseng supplementation would result in improved vascular responsiveness and sensitivity; (2) exercise training would result in further improvement in these vascular responses; (3) control rats with no access to exercise would show a depressed vascular response compared to control rats that were not exposed to a sedentary lifestyle. Groups: non-diabetic sedentary control (CS), sedentary diabetic (DS), sedentary diabetic with ginseng supplementation (DS+GS), diabetic with ginseng supplementation and high-intensity endurance exercise (D+GS+EX), and control not exposed to sedentary behavior (C). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin. Arteries were excised, cleaned, and mounted onto a myography system. Percent vasorelaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) (10-8 M ACh to 10-4 M ACh) of the carotid artery was similar in CS (57 ± 31%), C (66 ± 35%), DS (58 ± 36%), D+GS+Ex (71 ± 37%), and DS+GS (64 ± 37%) (p > 0.05). Percent vasorelaxation of the aorta was smaller in CS (23 ± 17%) compared to C (46 ± 35%), DS (60 ± 40%), D+GS+Ex (64 ± 40%), and DS+GS (56 ± 39%) (p < 0.05), and smaller in C compared to D+GS+Ex (p < 0.05). In the femoral, the percent vasorelaxation was reduced in DS (18 ± 16%) compared to all the other conditions (CS, 43 ± 22%; C, 79 ± 28%; D+GS+Ex, 55 ± 27%; DS+GS, 45 ± 26%; p < 0.05), but larger in C compared to the other conditions (CS, DS, D+GS+Ex, DS+GS; p < 0.05). Diabetes and sedentary lifestyle have detrimental effects on vascular responses that are evident in the femoral arteries of the diabetic rats. Ginseng supplementation restored the loss of sensitivity, with no added vascular protection of exercise training.
- Comparison of Serum Metabolite Changes of Radiated Mice Administered with Panax quinquefolium from Different Cultivation Regions Using UPLC-Q/TOF-MS Based Metabolomic Approach. [Journal Article]
- MMolecules 2018 Apr 26; 23(5)
- Chemometric analysis of bioactive compounds revealed that American ginsengs (AGs) from different cultivation regions of China had a difference in quality, which indicates their possible pharmacologic...
Chemometric analysis of bioactive compounds revealed that American ginsengs (AGs) from different cultivation regions of China had a difference in quality, which indicates their possible pharmacological difference. A UPLC-Q/TOF-MS-based untargeted metabolomic approach was used to uncover serum metabolite changes in radiated mice pre-administered with AG root decoctions from seven cultivation regions and to further assess their quality difference. OPLS-DA revealed that 51 metabolites (ESI−) and 110 (ESI⁺) were differentially expressed in sera between the control and the radiated model mice. Heatmap analysis further revealed that AG could not reverse most of these radiation-altered metabolites, which indicates dietary supplement of AG before cobalt radiation had the weak potential to mediate serum metabolites that were altered by the sub-lethal high dose radiation. In addition, 83 (ESI−) and 244 (ESI⁺) AG altered metabolites were detected in radiated mice under radiation exposure. Both OPLS-DA on serum metabolomes and heatmap analysis on discriminant metabolites showed that AGs from different cultivation regions differentially influenced metabolic alterations in radiated mice, which indicates AGs from different cultivation regions showed the pharmacological difference in modulation of metabolite changes. AGs from Shandong, Shanxi, and Beijing provinces had more similar pharmacological effects than AGs from USA, Canada, Jilin, and Heilongjiang. Finally, 28 important potential biomarkers were annotated and assigned onto three metabolic pathways including lipid, amino acid, and energy metabolisms.
- Ginseng as a Treatment for Fatigue: A Systematic Review. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Altern Complement Med 2018 Apr 06
- CONCLUSIONS: Ginseng is a promising treatment for fatigue. Both American and Asian ginseng may be viable treatments for fatigue in people with chronic illness. Because of ginseng's widespread use, a critical need exists for continued research that is methodologically stronger and that includes more diverse samples before ginseng is adopted as a standard treatment option for fatigue.
- Genome and evolution of the shade-requiring medicinal herb Panax ginseng. [Journal Article]
- PBPlant Biotechnol J 2018 Mar 31
- Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, reputed as the king of medicinal herbs, has slow growth, long generation time, low seed production and complicated genome structure that hamper its study. Here, we unveil t...
Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, reputed as the king of medicinal herbs, has slow growth, long generation time, low seed production and complicated genome structure that hamper its study. Here, we unveil the genomic architecture of tetraploid P. ginseng by de novo genome assembly, representing 2.98 Gbp with 59 352 annotated genes. Resequencing data indicated that diploid Panax species diverged in association with global warming in Southern Asia, and two North American species evolved via two intercontinental migrations. Two whole genome duplications (WGD) occurred in the family Araliaceae (including Panax) after divergence with the Apiaceae, the more recent one contributing to the ability of P. ginseng to overwinter, enabling it to spread broadly through the Northern Hemisphere. Functional and evolutionary analyses suggest that production of pharmacologically important dammarane-type ginsenosides originated in Panax and are produced largely in shoot tissues and transported to roots; that newly evolved P. ginseng fatty acid desaturases increase freezing tolerance; and that unprecedented retention of chlorophyll a/b binding protein genes enables efficient photosynthesis under low light. A genome-scale metabolic network provides a holistic view of Panax ginsenoside biosynthesis. This study provides valuable resources for improving medicinal values of ginseng either through genomics-assisted breeding or metabolic engineering.
- Panax quinquefolius saponin inhibits endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis and neurite injury and improves functional recovery in a rat spinal cord injury model. [Journal Article]
- BPBiomed Pharmacother 2018; 102:212-220
- The treatment goal in spinal cord injury (SCI) is to repair neurites and suppress cell apoptosis. Panax quinquefolius saponin (PQS) is the major active ingredient of American ginseng and has been dem...
The treatment goal in spinal cord injury (SCI) is to repair neurites and suppress cell apoptosis. Panax quinquefolius saponin (PQS) is the major active ingredient of American ginseng and has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic roles in various diseases. However, the potential effect of PQS on the pathological process of acute SCI remains unknown. This work tested the effects of PQS on acute SCI and clarified its potential mechanisms. PQS treatment ameliorated the damage to spinal tissue and improved the functional recovery after SCI. PQS treatment inhibited endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the associated apoptosis after acute SCI. PQS further abolished the triglyceride (TG)-induced ER stress and associated apoptosis in neuronal cultures. PQS appears to inhibit the ER-stress-induced neurite injury in PC12 cells. Our results suggest that PQS is a novel therapeutic agent for acute central nervous system injury.
- Efficacy and safety of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) extract on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a double-blind, randomized, cross-over clinical trial. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Nutr 2018 Feb 24
- CONCLUSIONS: AG extract added to conventional treatment provided an effective and safe adjunct in the management of T2DM. Larger studies using physiologically standardized ginseng preparations are warranted to substantiate the present findings and to demonstrate therapeutic effectiveness of AG. CLINICALTRIALS.
- Effects of a Standard American Diet and an anti-inflammatory diet in male and female mice. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pain 2018 Feb 13
- CONCLUSIONS: Poor diet prolonged recovery from inflammatory injury. Substitution of SAD with AID or REG promoted faster recovery. These findings suggest diet can be used as a non-pharmacological intervention following injury.Obesity may increase susceptibility to chronic pain often due to poor diet. Diet has potential to be used as treatment for pain. This study investigates the use of a novel translatable diet to act as a preventative (i.e. prior to surgery) or an intervention (i.e. following an injury).
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- Cylindrocarpon destructans/Ilyonectria radicicola-species complex: Causative agent of ginseng root-rot disease and rusty symptoms. [Review]
- JGJ Ginseng Res 2018; 42(1):9-15
- Cylindrocarpon destructans/Ilyonectria radicicola is thought to cause both rusty symptom and root-rot disease of American and Korean ginseng. Root-rot disease poses a more serious threat to ginseng r...
Cylindrocarpon destructans/Ilyonectria radicicola is thought to cause both rusty symptom and root-rot disease of American and Korean ginseng. Root-rot disease poses a more serious threat to ginseng roots than rusty symptoms, which we argue result from the plant defense response to pathogen attack. Therefore, strains causing rotten root are characterized as more aggressive than strains causing rusty symptoms. In this review, we state 1- the molecular evidence indicating that the root-rot causing strains are genetically distinct considering them as a separate species of Ilyonectria, namely I. mors-panacis and 2- the physiological and biochemical differences between the weakly and highly aggressive species as well as those between rusty and rotten ginseng plants. Eventually, we postulated that rusty symptom occurs on ginseng roots due to incompatible interactions with the weakly aggressive species of Ilyonectria, by the established iron-phenolic compound complexes while root-rot is developed by I. mors-panacis infection due to the production of high quantities of hydrolytic and oxidative fungal enzymes which destroy the plant defensive barriers, in parallel with the pathogen growth stimulation by utilizing the available iron. Furthermore, we highlight future areas for study that will help elucidate the complete mechanism of root-rot disease development.