- American ginseng microbial metabolites attenuate DSS-induced colitis and abdominal pain. [Journal Article]
- IIInt Immunopharmacol 2018 Sep 10; 64:246-251
- Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a significant public health problem in the United States. Abdominal pain is a major complaint among individuals with IBD. Successful IBD management not only contro...
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a significant public health problem in the United States. Abdominal pain is a major complaint among individuals with IBD. Successful IBD management not only controls enteric inflammation, but also reduces abdominal discomfort. Recently, increased attention has been focused on alternative strategies for IBD management. HPLC/Q-TOF-MS analysis was employed to evaluate the intestinal microbiome's biotransformation of parent American ginseng compounds into their metabolites. Using a DSS mouse model, the effects of American ginseng microbial metabolites on chemically induced colitis was investigated with disease activity index and histological assessment. Expressions of inflammatory cytokines were determined using real-time PCR and ELISA. Abdominal pain was evaluated using the von Frey filament test. After the gut microbiome's biotransformation, the major metabolites were found to be the compound K and ginsenoside Rg3. Compared with the DSS animal group, American ginseng treatment significantly attenuated experimental colitis, as supported by the histological assessment. The enteric microbiome-derived metabolites of ginseng significantly attenuated the abdominal pain. American ginseng treatment significantly reduced gut inflammation, consistent with pro-inflammatory cytokine level changes. The gut microbial metabolite compound K showed significant anti-inflammatory effects even at low concentrations, compared to its parent ginsenoside Rb1. American ginseng intestinal microbial metabolites significantly reduced chemically-induced colitis and abdominal pain, as mediated by the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Intestinal microbial metabolism plays a critical role in American ginseng mediated colitis management.
- Energy Drinks and Myocardial Infarction. [Journal Article]
- CCureus 2018 May 21; 10(5):e2658
- The popularity and use of energy drinks have accelerated over the past decade and are a health concern worldwide. The key ingredients of energy drinks include caffeine, guarana, taurine, ginseng, and...
The popularity and use of energy drinks have accelerated over the past decade and are a health concern worldwide. The key ingredients of energy drinks include caffeine, guarana, taurine, ginseng, and sugar. Most of the well-known side effects due to consumption of energy drinks include tachycardia, headache, anxiety, and palpitations and are frequently attributed to caffeine. Recently, a few cases of life-threatening cardiovascular events in individuals who overdosed massive quantities of caffeinated energy drinks have been reported. In this case report, we are documenting a case of myocardial infarction in a 25-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with chest pain. The patient had been consuming massive quantities of caffeinated energy drinks daily for the past week. This case report and the few previously documented studies support a possible connection between caffeinated energy drinks and myocardial infarction. The purpose of this case report is to promote awareness in the general population and the medical staff about cardiac mortality due to overdosing of massive quantities of caffeinated energy drinks.
- Anti-fatigue effects of small-molecule oligopeptides isolated from Panax quinquefolium L. in mice. [Journal Article]
- FFFood Funct 2018 Aug 15; 9(8):4266-4273
- American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) was reported to have extensive biological activities and pharmaceutical properties. In most of the studies, the anti-fatigue effects of American ginseng are ...
American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) was reported to have extensive biological activities and pharmaceutical properties. In most of the studies, the anti-fatigue effects of American ginseng are attributed to ginsenoside, and in only a few studies, they have been attributed to oligopeptides. Therefore, the aim of this study was to observe the anti-fatigue effects of small-molecule oligopeptides isolated from Panax quinquefolium L. (QOPs) in mice. At first, mice chosen for the study were randomly divided into four experimental groups; each group of mice was further divided into five subgroups: vehicle control group, whey protein group (450 mg per kg BW), and three groups of QOPs at different doses (225 mg per kg BW, 450 mg per kg BW, and 900 mg per kg BW). Test substances were given by gavage once a day for 30 days. QOPs can significantly prolong the forced swimming time, decrease the serum urea nitrogen (SUN) and blood lactate (BLA) levels, and increase the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and hepatic glycogen content. QOPs also markedly enhanced the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and attenuated the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Notably, QOPs enhanced the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), Na+-K+-ATPase, and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase and increased the mRNA expression of nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in skeletal muscles. These results indicate that treatment with QOPs induces anti-fatigue effects, which may be due to the inhibition of oxidative stress and the improvement of mitochondrial function in skeletal muscles. QOPs can be used as a novel natural agent for relieving physical fatigue.
- Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [BOOK]
- BOOKNational Library of Medicine (US): Bethesda (MD)
- The roots of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius), Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng), and several other species contain steroidal saponins called ginsenosides that are purported to be adaptogens (i.e.,...
The roots of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius), Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng), and several other species contain steroidal saponins called ginsenosides that are purported to be adaptogens (i.e., to increase endurance and improve memory). Ginseng has no specific uses during breastfeeding. Ginseng is generally well tolerated in adults and is "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The most common side effects include headache, hypertension, diarrhea, sleeplessness, skin rash, and vaginal bleeding. Ginseng decreases the blood levels of some drugs, such as warfarin, and enhances the effect of sedating drugs. With long-term use, nervousness, diarrhea, confusion, depression or depersonalization may occur. Gynecomastia and breast pain have been reported. No data exist on the safety and efficacy of ginseng in nursing mothers or infants. Because of its possible estrogenic activity and lack of information during breastfeeding, many sources recommend that ginseng not be used during lactation. Dietary supplements do not require extensive pre-marketing approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Manufacturers are responsible to ensure the safety, but do not need to prove the safety and effectiveness of dietary supplements before they are marketed. Dietary supplements may contain multiple ingredients, and differences are often found between labeled and actual ingredients or their amounts. A manufacturer may contract with an independent organization to verify the quality of a product or its ingredients, but that does not certify the safety or effectiveness of a product. Because of the above issues, clinical testing results on one product may not be applicable to other products. More detailed information about dietary supplements is available elsewhere on the LactMed Web site.
- Chemical Differentiation and Quantitative Analysis of Different Types of Panax Genus Stem-Leaf Based on a UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap/MS Combined with Multivariate Statistical Analysis Approach. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anal Methods Chem 2018; 2018:9598672
- Two quantitative methods (-ESI full scan and -ESI PRM MS) were developed to analyze ginsenosides in ginseng stem-leaf by using UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap/MS. By means of -ESI PRM MS method, the content...
Two quantitative methods (-ESI full scan and -ESI PRM MS) were developed to analyze ginsenosides in ginseng stem-leaf by using UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap/MS. By means of -ESI PRM MS method, the contents of eighteen ginsenosides in Asian ginseng stem-leaf (ASGSL) and American ginseng stem-leaf (AMGSL) were analyzed. The principal component analysis (PCA) model was built to discriminate Asian ginseng stem-leaf (ASGSL) from American ginseng stem-leaf (AMGSL) based on -ESI PRM MS data, and six ginsenosides (F11, Rf, R2, F1, Rb1, and Rb3) were obtained as the markers. To further explore the differences between cultivated ginseng stem-leaf and forest ginseng stem-leaf, the partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model was built based on -ESI full scan data. And twenty-six markers were selected to discriminate cultivated ginseng stem-leaf (CGSL) from forest ginseng stem-leaf (FGSL). This study provides reliable and effective methods to quantify and discriminate among different types of ginseng stem-leaf in the commercial market.
- Effects of compound K, an enteric microbiome metabolite of ginseng, in the treatment of inflammation associated colon cancer. [Journal Article]
- OLOncol Lett 2018; 15(6):8339-8348
- Ginsenoside Rb1, a major component of different ginseng species, can be bioconverted into compound K by gut microbiota, and the latter possess much stronger cancer chemopreventive potential. However,...
Ginsenoside Rb1, a major component of different ginseng species, can be bioconverted into compound K by gut microbiota, and the latter possess much stronger cancer chemopreventive potential. However, while the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer is closely associated with gut inflammation, to date, the effects of compound K on inflammation-linked cancer chemoprevention have not been reported. In the present study, liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis was applied to evaluate the biotransformation of Rb1 in American ginseng by human enteric microflora. The in vitro inhibitory effects of Rb1 and compound K were compared using the HCT-116 and HT-19 human colorectal cancer cell lines by a MTS assay. Cell cycle and cell apoptosis were assayed using flow cytometry. Using ELISA, the anti-inflammatory effects of Rb1 and compound K were compared for their inhibition of interleukin-8 secretion in HT-29 cells, induced by lipopolysaccharide. The results revealed that compound K is the major intestinal microbiome metabolite of Rb1. When compared with Rb1, compound K had significantly stronger anti-proliferative effects in HCT-116 and HT-29 cell lines (P<0.01). Compound K significantly arrested HCT-116 and HT-29 cells in the G1 phase, and induced cell apoptosis (P<0.01). By contrast, Rb1 did not markedly influence the cell cycle or apoptosis. Furthermore, compound K exerted significant anti-inflammatory effects even at low concentrations (P<0.05), while Rb1 did not have any distinct effects. The data obtained from the present study demonstrated that compound K, an intestinal microbiome metabolite of Rb1, may have a potential clinical value in the prevention of inflammatory-associated colorectal cancer.
- Effects of Ginseng Supplementation and Endurance-Exercise in the Artery-Specific Vascular Responsiveness of Diabetic and Sedentary Rats. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Physiol 2018; 9:460
- This study examined the effects of 12 weeks North-American ginseng supplementation, exercise training, and sedentary behavior on vascular responses in type I diabetic rats. The following hypotheses w...
This study examined the effects of 12 weeks North-American ginseng supplementation, exercise training, and sedentary behavior on vascular responses in type I diabetic rats. The following hypotheses were tested: (1) ginseng supplementation would result in improved vascular responsiveness and sensitivity; (2) exercise training would result in further improvement in these vascular responses; (3) control rats with no access to exercise would show a depressed vascular response compared to control rats that were not exposed to a sedentary lifestyle. Groups: non-diabetic sedentary control (CS), sedentary diabetic (DS), sedentary diabetic with ginseng supplementation (DS+GS), diabetic with ginseng supplementation and high-intensity endurance exercise (D+GS+EX), and control not exposed to sedentary behavior (C). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin. Arteries were excised, cleaned, and mounted onto a myography system. Percent vasorelaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) (10-8 M ACh to 10-4 M ACh) of the carotid artery was similar in CS (57 ± 31%), C (66 ± 35%), DS (58 ± 36%), D+GS+Ex (71 ± 37%), and DS+GS (64 ± 37%) (p > 0.05). Percent vasorelaxation of the aorta was smaller in CS (23 ± 17%) compared to C (46 ± 35%), DS (60 ± 40%), D+GS+Ex (64 ± 40%), and DS+GS (56 ± 39%) (p < 0.05), and smaller in C compared to D+GS+Ex (p < 0.05). In the femoral, the percent vasorelaxation was reduced in DS (18 ± 16%) compared to all the other conditions (CS, 43 ± 22%; C, 79 ± 28%; D+GS+Ex, 55 ± 27%; DS+GS, 45 ± 26%; p < 0.05), but larger in C compared to the other conditions (CS, DS, D+GS+Ex, DS+GS; p < 0.05). Diabetes and sedentary lifestyle have detrimental effects on vascular responses that are evident in the femoral arteries of the diabetic rats. Ginseng supplementation restored the loss of sensitivity, with no added vascular protection of exercise training.
- Comparison of Serum Metabolite Changes of Radiated Mice Administered with Panax quinquefolium from Different Cultivation Regions Using UPLC-Q/TOF-MS Based Metabolomic Approach. [Journal Article]
- MMolecules 2018 Apr 26; 23(5)
- Chemometric analysis of bioactive compounds revealed that American ginsengs (AGs) from different cultivation regions of China had a difference in quality, which indicates their possible pharmacologic...
Chemometric analysis of bioactive compounds revealed that American ginsengs (AGs) from different cultivation regions of China had a difference in quality, which indicates their possible pharmacological difference. A UPLC-Q/TOF-MS-based untargeted metabolomic approach was used to uncover serum metabolite changes in radiated mice pre-administered with AG root decoctions from seven cultivation regions and to further assess their quality difference. OPLS-DA revealed that 51 metabolites (ESI−) and 110 (ESI⁺) were differentially expressed in sera between the control and the radiated model mice. Heatmap analysis further revealed that AG could not reverse most of these radiation-altered metabolites, which indicates dietary supplement of AG before cobalt radiation had the weak potential to mediate serum metabolites that were altered by the sub-lethal high dose radiation. In addition, 83 (ESI−) and 244 (ESI⁺) AG altered metabolites were detected in radiated mice under radiation exposure. Both OPLS-DA on serum metabolomes and heatmap analysis on discriminant metabolites showed that AGs from different cultivation regions differentially influenced metabolic alterations in radiated mice, which indicates AGs from different cultivation regions showed the pharmacological difference in modulation of metabolite changes. AGs from Shandong, Shanxi, and Beijing provinces had more similar pharmacological effects than AGs from USA, Canada, Jilin, and Heilongjiang. Finally, 28 important potential biomarkers were annotated and assigned onto three metabolic pathways including lipid, amino acid, and energy metabolisms.
- Ginseng as a Treatment for Fatigue: A Systematic Review. [Review]
- JAJ Altern Complement Med 2018; 24(7):624-633
- CONCLUSIONS: Ginseng is a promising treatment for fatigue. Both American and Asian ginseng may be viable treatments for fatigue in people with chronic illness. Because of ginseng's widespread use, a critical need exists for continued research that is methodologically stronger and that includes more diverse samples before ginseng is adopted as a standard treatment option for fatigue.
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- Genome and evolution of the shade-requiring medicinal herb Panax ginseng. [Journal Article]
- PBPlant Biotechnol J 2018 Mar 31
- Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, reputed as the king of medicinal herbs, has slow growth, long generation time, low seed production and complicated genome structure that hamper its study. Here, we unveil t...
Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, reputed as the king of medicinal herbs, has slow growth, long generation time, low seed production and complicated genome structure that hamper its study. Here, we unveil the genomic architecture of tetraploid P. ginseng by de novo genome assembly, representing 2.98 Gbp with 59 352 annotated genes. Resequencing data indicated that diploid Panax species diverged in association with global warming in Southern Asia, and two North American species evolved via two intercontinental migrations. Two whole genome duplications (WGD) occurred in the family Araliaceae (including Panax) after divergence with the Apiaceae, the more recent one contributing to the ability of P. ginseng to overwinter, enabling it to spread broadly through the Northern Hemisphere. Functional and evolutionary analyses suggest that production of pharmacologically important dammarane-type ginsenosides originated in Panax and are produced largely in shoot tissues and transported to roots; that newly evolved P. ginseng fatty acid desaturases increase freezing tolerance; and that unprecedented retention of chlorophyll a/b binding protein genes enables efficient photosynthesis under low light. A genome-scale metabolic network provides a holistic view of Panax ginsenoside biosynthesis. This study provides valuable resources for improving medicinal values of ginseng either through genomics-assisted breeding or metabolic engineering.