- Effects of a Standard American Diet and an Anti-inflammatory Diet in Male and Female Mice. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pain 2018 Feb 13
- CONCLUSIONS: Obesity may increase susceptibility to chronic pain often due to poor diet. Diet has potential to be used as treatment for pain. The current study investigates the use of a novel translatable diet to act as a preventative (i.e., prior to surgery) or an intervention (i.e., following an injury).Poor diet prolonged recovery from inflammatory injury. Substitution of SAD with AID or REG promoted faster recovery. These findings suggest diet can be used as a non-pharmacological intervention following injury. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Cylindrocarpon destructans/Ilyonectria radicicola-species complex: Causative agent of ginseng root-rot disease and rusty symptoms. [Review]
- JGJ Ginseng Res 2018; 42(1):9-15
- Cylindrocarpon destructans/Ilyonectria radicicola is thought to cause both rusty symptom and root-rot disease of American and Korean ginseng. Root-rot disease poses a more serious threat to ginseng r...
Cylindrocarpon destructans/Ilyonectria radicicola is thought to cause both rusty symptom and root-rot disease of American and Korean ginseng. Root-rot disease poses a more serious threat to ginseng roots than rusty symptoms, which we argue result from the plant defense response to pathogen attack. Therefore, strains causing rotten root are characterized as more aggressive than strains causing rusty symptoms. In this review, we state 1- the molecular evidence indicating that the root-rot causing strains are genetically distinct considering them as a separate species of Ilyonectria, namely I. mors-panacis and 2- the physiological and biochemical differences between the weakly and highly aggressive species as well as those between rusty and rotten ginseng plants. Eventually, we postulated that rusty symptom occurs on ginseng roots due to incompatible interactions with the weakly aggressive species of Ilyonectria, by the established iron-phenolic compound complexes while root-rot is developed by I. mors-panacis infection due to the production of high quantities of hydrolytic and oxidative fungal enzymes which destroy the plant defensive barriers, in parallel with the pathogen growth stimulation by utilizing the available iron. Furthermore, we highlight future areas for study that will help elucidate the complete mechanism of root-rot disease development.
- The Medicinal Usage and Restriction of Ginseng in Britain and America, 1660-1900. [Journal Article]
- UUisahak 2017; 26(3):503-544
- This article demonstrates the medicinal usage of ginseng in the West from 1660 to 1914. Asian[Korea] ginseng was first introduced into England in the early 17th century, and North American ginseng wa...
This article demonstrates the medicinal usage of ginseng in the West from 1660 to 1914. Asian[Korea] ginseng was first introduced into England in the early 17th century, and North American ginseng was found in the early 18th century. Starting from the late 17th century doctors prescribed ginseng to cure many different kinds of ailments and disease such as: fatigue general lethargy, fever, torpidity, trembling in the joints, nervous disorder, laughing and crying hysteria, scurvy, spermatic vessel infection, jaundice, leprosy, dry gripes and constipation, strangury, yellow fever, dysentery, infertility and addictions of alcohol, opium and tobacco, etc. In the mid-18th century Materia Medica began to specify medicinal properties of ginseng and the patent medicines containing ginseng were widely circulated. However, starting in the late 18th century the medicinal properties of ginseng began to be disparaged and major pharmacopoeias removed ginseng from their contents. The reform of the pharmacopoeia, influenced by Linnaeus in botany and Lavoisier in chemistry, introduced nomenclature that emphasized identifying ingredients and active constituents. Western medicine at this period, however, failed to identify and to extract the active constituents of ginseng. Apart from the technical underdevelopment of the period, the medical discourses reveal that the so-called chemical experiment of ginseng were conducted with unqualified materials and without proper differentiation of various species of ginseng.
- Fabrication of fluorescent labeled ginseng polysaccharide nanoparticles for bioimaging and their immunomodulatory activity on macrophage cell lines. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biol Macromol 2018 Apr 01; 109:254-262
- Polysaccharides are a major active component of American ginseng root showing various biological activities including anti-carcinogenic, anti-aging, immunostimulatory and antioxidant effects. Althoug...
Polysaccharides are a major active component of American ginseng root showing various biological activities including anti-carcinogenic, anti-aging, immunostimulatory and antioxidant effects. Although their biological activity has been reported by several groups, no research has explored their cellular uptake and biodistribution, owing to the lack of suitable detection techniques in living cells. This work examines a novel, simple and efficient fluorescent labeling procedure of ginseng polysaccharides (PS), in order to examine their cellular distribution using confocal microscopy. This procedure utilized a one-pot strategy with fluorescein-5-thiosemicarbazide (FTSC) to introduce a thiosemicarbazide group onto the aldehyde group at the reducing saccharide end to form a stable amino derivative through reductive amination. This polysaccharide-FTSC derivative was then characterized by GPC, UV, FTIR, photoluminescence and fluorescence microscopy to confirm attachment and any structural changes. The results demonstrated that the labeled ginseng PS nanostructure showed high fluorescence with minimal changes in PS molecular weight. The labeled PS exhibited almost no cytotoxicity effect against tumor induced macrophage cell lines (RAW 264.7) while retaining high immunostimulating activity similar to the non-labeled ginseng PS. Therefore, the developed approach provides a convenient and highly efficient fluorescent labeling procedure for understanding the mechanism of ginseng PS uptake in macrophage cell lines.
- Ginsenoside Rh2 inhibits human A172 glioma cell proliferation and induces cell cycle arrest status via modulating Akt signaling pathway. [Journal Article]
- MMMol Med Rep 2018; 17(2):3062-3068
- Ginsenoside Rh2 (G‑Rh2), the main bioactive component in American ginseng, is known to exert a wide variety of biological activities. Accumulating evidence suggests that G‑Rh2 inhibits cell prolifera...
Ginsenoside Rh2 (G‑Rh2), the main bioactive component in American ginseng, is known to exert a wide variety of biological activities. Accumulating evidence suggests that G‑Rh2 inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis of tumor cells. However, the possible mechanism through which G‑Rh2 exerts its action on malignant glioma cells have not been completely elucidated. The findings of the present study demonstrated that G‑Rh2 decreased the viability of glioma cells in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner, and induced cell cycle arrest. G‑Rh2‑induced cell cycle arrest was accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin‑dependent kinase 4 and Cyclin E. In addition, G‑Rh2 markedly reduced the expression of total‑ RAC‑α serine/threonine‑protein kinase (Akt) and the levels of phosphorylated‑Akt. These findings provide mechanistic details of how G‑Rh2 acts on glioma cells and suggest that G‑Rh2 may function as a potential anti‑cancer drug for glioma treatment.
- Panax quinquefolium saponin inhibits endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis and the associated inflammatory response in chondrocytes and attenuates the progression of osteoarthritis in rat. [Journal Article]
- BPBiomed Pharmacother 2018; 97:886-894
- Treatments for osteoarthritis (OA) seek to restore chondrocyte function and inhibit cell apoptosis. Panax quinquefolium saponin (PQS) is the major active ingredient of Radix panacis quinquefolii (Ame...
Treatments for osteoarthritis (OA) seek to restore chondrocyte function and inhibit cell apoptosis. Panax quinquefolium saponin (PQS) is the major active ingredient of Radix panacis quinquefolii (American ginseng), and has been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in various diseases. However, any potential effect of PQS on the pathological process of OA remains unclear. This work aimed to explore the role of PQS in chondrocytes and to clarify its potential mechanisms. We showed that PQS treatment could protect chondrocytes against endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and associated apoptosis induced by interleukin (IL)-1β. Also, PQS further attenuated triglyceride (TG)-induced ER stress and associated apoptosis. Moreover, PQS may inhibit the ER stress-activated NF-κB pathway and associated inflammatory response in chondrocytes. Finally, PQS abolished rat cartilage degeneration in an in-vivo OA model of the knee joint. Our results indicate that PQS may be a potential novel treatment for OA.
- AFM-detected apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells induced by American ginseng root water extract. [Journal Article]
- MMicron 2018; 104:1-7
- American ginseng as a common and traditional herbal medicine has been used in cancer treatment for many years. However, the effect of American ginseng on the cancer cell response (i.e. apoptosis) has...
American ginseng as a common and traditional herbal medicine has been used in cancer treatment for many years. However, the effect of American ginseng on the cancer cell response (i.e. apoptosis) has not been fully understood yet. Previous studies demonstrated that cellular apoptosis was associated with the changes of mechanical and morphological properties. Therefore, in this study, mechanical and morphological characterizations were carried out by both atomic force microscope (AFM) and inverted optical microscope to investigate the apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (SMMC-7721) cells affected by American ginseng root water extract (AGRWE). The results showed that the cells treated with AGRWE exhibited significantly larger surface roughness, height and elastic modulus values than control group. Moreover, those parameters were upregulated under the higher concentration of AGRWE and longer culture time. Consequently, it indicates that the mechanical and morphological properties can be used as the apoptotic characteristics of SMMC-7721 cells. Also, the increased surface roughness and elastic modulus of cells under the AGRWE treatment have shown that the apoptosis of SMMC-7721 cells can be enhanced by AGRWE. This will provide an important implication for hepatocelluar carcinoma treatment and drug development.
- Correction to: Role of intestinal microbiome in American ginseng-mediated colon cancer prevention in high fat diet-fed AOM/DSS mice. [Published Erratum]
- CTClin Transl Oncol 2017 Oct 13
- This article was originally published with the wrong title.
This article was originally published with the wrong title.
- Supplementation of American ginseng berry extract mitigated cisplatin-evoked nephrotoxicity by suppressing ROS-mediated activation of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem Toxicol 2017; 110:62-73
- Nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin in 30% of all cisplatin treated patients seriously limits its clinical implication as a widely used anticancer agent, and may even cause patients to alter or give ...
Nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin in 30% of all cisplatin treated patients seriously limits its clinical implication as a widely used anticancer agent, and may even cause patients to alter or give up cisplatin therapy. The purpose of this study is to test a protective effect of American ginseng berry extract (AGBE) on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. In this study, the histopathological changes and elevated levels of serum creatinine (CRE) and urea nitrogen (BUN) caused by cisplatin were significantly diminished by AGBE treatment. Oxidative stress caused by cisplatin, evidenced by increases in kidney tissues malondialdehyde (MDA) content, cytochrome P450 E1 (CYP2E1), renal 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) levels and decreases of glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) contents, was significantly ameliorated by AGBE pretreatment. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were inhibited by AGBE treatment, suggesting a suppression of inflammatory response. Additionally, AGBE clearly inhibited cisplatin-induced activations of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathways. Supplementation of cisplatin-intoxicated mice with AGBE also significantly reduced apoptotic protein levels of Bax, cleaved caspase-3, cytochrome c and increased anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These findings highlight nephroprotective effect of AGBE against cisplatin-evoked nephrotoxicity through ROS-mediated MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways.
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- UPLC Orbitrap HRMS Analysis of Panax quinquefolium L. for Authentication of Panax Genus with Chemometric Methods. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chromatogr Sci 2018 Jan 01; 56(1):25-35
- Ginsenosides in Panax quinquefolium L. were determined using developed ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS) method with electrospray ioniza...
Ginsenosides in Panax quinquefolium L. were determined using developed ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS) method with electrospray ionization and orbitrap MS analyzer in negative ionization mode. Optimal UPLC separation was achieved using a mixture of acetonitrile and water with 0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase in linear gradient elution. The MS parameters were optimized for reliable detection with enhanced selectivity and sensitivity, and improved identification and quantification of ginsenosides. The applicability of this method was demonstrated on ginsenosides from Panax quinquefolium L. (American ginseng), Panax ginseng (Chinese ginseng) and Panax notoginseng (Sanchi) roots and products. The differences between Chinese and Northern American Panax quinquefolium L., main roots and hair roots, and products from different pharmacy were investigated. The results were also confirmed by principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminatory analysis. It indicated that the strategy can be extended to rapid and accurate authentication of Panax genus.