- Enhanced delivery of fixed-dose combination of synergistic antichagasic agents posaconazole-benznidazole based on amorphous solid dispersions. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharm Sci 2018 Apr 18
- Posaconazole (PCZ) and benznidazole (BNZ) are known to show synergetic effect in treating the acute and chronic phases of Chagas disease, a neglected parasitic disease. However, as both compounds are...
Posaconazole (PCZ) and benznidazole (BNZ) are known to show synergetic effect in treating the acute and chronic phases of Chagas disease, a neglected parasitic disease. However, as both compounds are poorly water soluble, the development of amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) of a PCZ/BNZ fixed-dose combination in a water-soluble polymer becomes an attractive option to increase their apparent solubility and dissolution rate, potentially improving their oral bioavailability. The initial approach was to explore solvent evaporated solid dispertion (SD) systems for a PCZ/BNZ 50:50 (wt%) combination at several total drug loading levels (from SD with 10% to 50% drug loading) in water-soluble carriers, including polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K-30) and vinylpyrrolidone-vinyl acetate copolymer (PVPVA 64). Based on comparison of non-sink in vitro dissolution performance, ASD systems based on PVPVA was identified as the most effective carrier for a 50:50 (w/w %) fixed-dose combination of PCZ/BNZ to increase their apparent solubility and dissolution rate, mainly at 10% drug loading, which shows more expressive values of area under the curve (AUC) (7336.04 ± 3.77 min.μL/mL for PCZ and 15,795.02 ± 7.29 min.μL/mL for BNZ). Further characterization with polarized microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and thermal analysis reveals that there exists a threshold drug loading level at about 30% PCZ/BNZ, below which ASDs are obtained and above which a certain degree of crystallinity tends to result. Moreover, infrared spectroscopic analysis reveals the lack of hydrogen bonding interactions between the drugs (PCZ and BNZ) and the polymer (PVPVA) in the ASD, this is also confirmed through molecular dynamics simulations. The molecular modeling results further show that even in the absence of meaningful hydrogen bonding interactions, there is a greater tendency for PVPVA to interact preferentially with PCZ and BNZ through electrostatic interactions thereby contributing to the stability of the system. Thus, the present SD system has the advantage of presenting a fixed-dese combination of two synergistic antichagasic agents PCZ and BNZ together in amorphous form stabilized in the PVPVA matrix with enhanced dissolution, potentially improving their bioavailability and therapeutic activity in treating Chagas disease.
- Morphophysiological changes in the splenic extracellular matrix of Leishmania infantum-naturally infected dogs is associated with alterations in lymphoid niches and the CD4+ T cell frequency in spleens. [Journal Article]
- PNPLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Apr 20; 12(4):e0006445
- The spleen is one of the main affected organs in canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Disorganization of the splenic white pulp (SWP) has been associated with immunosuppression and disease progressio...
The spleen is one of the main affected organs in canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Disorganization of the splenic white pulp (SWP) has been associated with immunosuppression and disease progression. This study aims to assess structural and cellular changes in the splenic extracellular matrix of dogs with CVL, correlating these changes with the parasite load and clinical signs. Splenic fragments were collected from 41 naturally infected animals for parasite load quantification by quantitative PCR, histopathological analysis and immunohistochemistry for CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells; CD21+ B cells; Ki-67+, IFN-γ+, and IL-10+ cells; and the MMP-9 and ADAM-10 enzymes. Laminin, collagen and fibronectin deposition were also evaluated. The animals were grouped according to the level of SWP organization. SWP disorganization was accompanied by a reduction in the quantity of lymphoid follicles/mm2 (p > 0.0001). Animals with moderate to intense SWP disorganization showed more clinical signs (p = 0.021), higher laminin (p = 0.045) and collagen deposition (p = 0.036), higher MMP-9 expression (p = 0.035) and lower numbers of CD4+ T cells (p = 0.027) in the spleen than the animals with organized SWP. These data suggest that splenic structure and function are drastically altered and compromised during CVL.
- A novel nanoluciferase-based system to monitor Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice by bioluminescence imaging. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(4):e0195879
- Chagas disease, caused by the intracellular protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, affects 8-10 million people worldwide and represents a major public health challenge. There is no effective treatment or vacci...
Chagas disease, caused by the intracellular protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, affects 8-10 million people worldwide and represents a major public health challenge. There is no effective treatment or vaccine to control the disease that is characterized by a mild acute phase followed by a chronic life-long infection. Approximately 30% of chronically infected individuals develop cardiac and/or digestive pathologies. T. cruzi can invade a wide variety of nucleated cells, but only persists at specific tissues in the host. However, the mechanisms that determine tissue tropism and the progression of the infection have not been fully described. Identification of infection niches in animal models has been difficult due to the limited quantity of parasite-infected cells and their focal distribution in tissues during the chronic phase. To better understand the course of chronic infections and parasite dissemination, we developed a bioluminescence imaging system based on the use of transgenic T. cruzi Colombiana strain parasites expressing nanoluciferase. Swiss Webster mice were infected with luminescent trypomastigotes and monitored for 126 days. Whole animal in vivo imaging showed parasites predominantly distributed in the abdominal cavity and surrounding areas throughout the infection. Bioluminescence signal reached a peak between 14 to 21 days post infection (dpi) and decreased progressively over time. Total animal luminescence could still be measured 126 dpi while parasites remained undetectable in blood by microscopy in most animals. Ex vivo imaging of specific tissues and organs dissected post-mortem at 126 dpi revealed a widespread parasite distribution in the skeletal muscle, heart, intestines and mesenteric fat. Parasites were also detected in lungs and liver. This noninvasive imaging model represents a novel tool to study host-parasite interactions and to identify parasite reservoirs of chronic Chagas Disease.
- TGF-β Polymorphisms Are a Risk Factor for Chagas Disease. [Journal Article]
- DMDis Markers 2018; 2018:4579198
- Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is an important mediator in Chagas disease. Furthermore, patients with higher TGF-β1 serum levels show a worse clinical outcome. Gene polymorphism may account f...
Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is an important mediator in Chagas disease. Furthermore, patients with higher TGF-β1 serum levels show a worse clinical outcome. Gene polymorphism may account for differences in cytokine production during infectious diseases. We tested whether TGFB1 polymorphisms could be associated with Chagas disease susceptibility and severity in a Brazilian population. We investigated five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (-800 G>A, -509 C>T, +10 T>C, +25 G>C, and +263 C>T). 152 patients with Chagas disease (53 with the indeterminate form and 99 with the cardiac form) and 48 noninfected subjects were included. Genotypes CT and TT at position -509 of the TGFB1 gene were more frequent in Chagas disease patients than in noninfected subjects. Genotypes TC and CC at codon +10 of the TGFB1 gene were also more frequent in Chagas disease patients than in noninfected subjects. We found no significant differences in the distribution of the studied TGFB1 polymorphisms between patients with the indeterminate or cardiac form of Chagas disease. Therefore, -509 C>T and +10 T>C TGFB1 polymorphisms are associated with Chagas disease susceptibility in a Brazilian population.
- Evaluation of trypanocidal and antioxidant activities of a selected series of 3-amidocoumarins. [Journal Article]
- MCMed Chem 2018 Apr 18
- CONCLUSIONS: Compound 2 is the most active of this series, being also non-cytotoxic against murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Electrochemical and radical scavenging experiments were carried out, providing new information about the profile of the best derivatives, and the potential therapeutic application of the new 3-amidocoumarins.
- Neglected disease, neglected populations: the fight against Cryptococcus and cryptococcosis. [Journal Article]
- MIMem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2018; 113(7):e180111
- Trypanosoma cruzi transcriptome during axenic epimastigote growth curve. [Journal Article]
- MIMem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2018; 113(5):e170404
- BACKGROUND Trypanosoma cruzi is an important protozoan parasite and the causative agent of Chagas disease. A critical step in understanding T. cruzi biology is the study of cellular and molecular fe...
BACKGROUND Trypanosoma cruzi is an important protozoan parasite and the causative agent of Chagas disease. A critical step in understanding T. cruzi biology is the study of cellular and molecular features exhibited during its growth curve. OBJECTIVES We aimed to acquire a global view of the gene expression profile of T. cruzi during epimastigote growth. METHODS RNA-Seq analysis of total and polysomal/granular RNA fractions was performed along the 10 days T. cruzi epimastigote growth curve in vitro, in addition to cell viability and cell cycle analyses. We also analysed the polysome profile and investigated the presence of granular RNA by FISH and western blotting. FINDINGS We identified 1082 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 220 were modulated in both fractions. According to the modulation pattern, DEGs were grouped into 12 clusters and showed enrichment of important gene ontology (GO) terms. Moreover, we showed that by the sixth day of the growth curve, polysomal content declined greatly and the RNA granules content appeared to increase, suggesting that a portion of mRNAs isolated from the sucrose gradient during late growth stages was associated with RNA granules and not only polyribosomes. Furthermore, we discuss several modulated genes possibly involved in T. cruzi growth, mainly during the stationary phase, such as genes related to cell cycle, pathogenesis, metabolic processes and RNA-binding proteins.
- Epicardial adipose tissue and metabolic syndrome: An update protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(16):e0387
- CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review will provide evidence to assess whether there is a strong association of EAT and MetS, and its components.
- [Costs of Chagas' disease screening test in blood donors in two Colombian blood banks, 2015]. [Journal Article]
- BBiomedica 2018 Mar 15; 38(1):61-68
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results are an important input for the planning of services and cost-effectiveness studies for screening tests for Chagas' disease in Colombian blood banks.
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- [Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in Latin American migrants in transit through the México- USA border]. [Journal Article]
- BBiomedica 2018 Mar 15; 38(1):54-60
- CONCLUSIONS: Non-endemic countries receiving migrants from endemic areas should enhance or develop better health policies to prevent transfusion-transmitted Chagas or congenital parasite transmission.