- Metformin as a radiation modifier; implications to normal tissue protection and tumor sensitization. [Journal Article]
- CCCurr Clin Pharmacol 2018 Oct 25
- Nowadays, ionizing radiation is used for several applications in medicine, industry, agriculture, and nuclear power generation. Besides the beneficial roles of ionizing radiation, there are some conc...
Nowadays, ionizing radiation is used for several applications in medicine, industry, agriculture, and nuclear power generation. Besides the beneficial roles of ionizing radiation, there are some concerns for accidental exposure to radioactive sources. The threat posed by its use in terrorism is of global concern. Furthermore, there are several side effects to normal organs for patients had undergone radiation treatment for cancer. Hence, modulation of radiation response in normal tissues was one of the most important aims of radiobiology. Although, so far, several agents have been investigated for protection and mitigation of radiation injury. Agents such as amifostine may lead to severe toxicity, while others may interfere with radiation therapy outcomes as a result of tumor protection. Metformin is a natural agent that is well known as an anti-diabetic drug. It has shown some antioxidant effects and enhances DNA repair capacity, thereby ameliorating cell death following exposure to radiation. Moreover, through targeting endogenous ROS production within cells, it can mitigate radiation injury. This could potentially make it an effective radiation countermeasure. In contrast to other radioprotectors, metformin has shown modulatory effects through induction of several genes such as AMPK, which suppresses reduction/oxidation (redox) reactions, protects cells from accumulation of unrepaired DNA, and attenuates initiation of inflammation and fibrotic pathways. Interestingly, these properties of metformin can sensitize cancer cells to radiotherapy. In this article, we aimed to review interesting properties of metformin such as radioprotection, radiomitigation and radiosensitization, which could make it an interesting adjuvant for clinical radiotherapy, as well as an interesting candidate for mitigation of radiation injury after a radiation disaster.
- Amifostine- and chemoradiotherapy-related esophagitis in small cell lung cancer: a single institutional series and literature update. [Journal Article]
- LCLung Cancer (Auckl) 2018; 9:79-84
- CONCLUSIONS: In this modern retrospective series of thoracic chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of stage 3 small cell lung cancer, amifostine that was delivered subcutaneously postponed the onset of esophagitis.
- Radio-protective dosimetry of Pangasius sutchi as a biomarker, against gamma radiation dosages perceived by genotoxic assays. [Journal Article]
- EEEcotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Nov 30; 164:629-640
- Exposure to ionizing radiation is harmful to any living organism. It may cause varying levels of genetic mutation or ultimately death. Synthetic compounds have been used to counteract the hazardous e...
Exposure to ionizing radiation is harmful to any living organism. It may cause varying levels of genetic mutation or ultimately death. Synthetic compounds have been used to counteract the hazardous effect of radiation on the live cells, but the possibility of these synthetic compounds being harmful to the organism being treated also exists. Herbal formulations are thus being explored as a possible alternative for the synthetic radioprotectant. Induction of DNA damage in fishes caused by ionizing radiation and its protection by phytocompounds is a hardly studied topic. In this study, we analyzed the radioprotective effect of Gymnema sylvestre leaves extract (GS) and its active compound gymnemagenin (GG) against different doses of gamma radiation (60Co) on the freshwater fish Pangasius sutchi. The radioprotective efficacy was assessed by micronuclei and alkaline comet assays. The freshwater fish P. sutchi was pre-treated with intramuscular injection (IM) of amifostine (83.3 mg/kg of B.W.), GS (25 mg/kg of B.W.) and GG (0.3 mg/kg of B.W.), 1 h prior to the gamma radiation. The fishes were exposed to LD30, LD50 and LD70 of gamma radiation and the protection activities were assessed by analyzing the number of micronuclei (MN) and erythrocytic abnormalities in the blood after 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days after exposure. Compared to the irradiated fishes, frequency of erythrocytic abnormalities were decreased in response to the radio-protection in the amifostine treated groups for all three doses of gamma radiation (LD70 - 77.62%), (LD50 - 80.11%) and (LD30 - 82.30%); GS (LD70 - 62.66%), (LD50 - 69.74%) and (LD30 - 70.81%); and GG (LD70 - 49.42%), (LD50 - 53.43%) and (LD30 - 58.42%). Similarly, a significant radio-protective effect in terms of decremented DNA damage was observed using the comet assay after post exposure. The percentage of protection noted for amifostine was (LD70 - 58.68%), (LD50 - 64.52%) and (LD30 - 74.40%); GS (LD70 - 53.84%), (LD50 - 59.02%) and (LD30 - 65.97%); GG (LD70 - 49.85%), (LD50 - 52.56%) and (LD30 - 64.30%). From the current study, we can conclude that the radioprotective efficacy of the GS is similar to the synthetic compound (amifostine) and also greater than the bioactive compound (GG). The synergetic effect of the plant extract which leads to a better protection than the bioactive compound must be further studied. MN and Comet assays can easily identify the damage due to radiation exposure and thus can be used as predictive biomarkers for aquatic organisms exposed to radiation.
- Radioprotective effect of epimedium on neurogenesis and cognition after acute radiation exposure. [Journal Article]
- NRNeurosci Res 2018 Aug 23
- The radioprotective effect of herb epimedium (or yin yang huo) extract (5 g/kg, oral administration daily for 4 weeks) on neurogenesis and cognition after acute radiation exposure with 5.5 Gy was eva...
The radioprotective effect of herb epimedium (or yin yang huo) extract (5 g/kg, oral administration daily for 4 weeks) on neurogenesis and cognition after acute radiation exposure with 5.5 Gy was evaluated in Balb/c mice by behavioral tests and immunohistochemical study. The results indicated that epimedium extract could improve animal weight loss, locomotor activity and spatial learning and memory which are similar to pre-irradiation intraperitoneal injection (100 mg/kg) of amifostine phosphate, a well- known radioprotective drug. Immunohistochemical study showed that epimedium extract prevented the loss of proliferation cells, newly generated neurons, and interneurons in the hilus, in particular, the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. It suggests that herb epimedium may be a promising radio-neuro-protective drug to prevent radiation-induced neuropsychological disorders.
- The Efficacy of Amifostine against Multiple-Dose Doxorubicin-Induced Toxicity in Rats. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2018 Aug 12; 19(8)
- Amifostine is well known cytoprotector which is efficient when administered before a wide range of antineoplastic agents. The aim of our study was to investigate amifostine effects on doxorubicin-ind...
Amifostine is well known cytoprotector which is efficient when administered before a wide range of antineoplastic agents. The aim of our study was to investigate amifostine effects on doxorubicin-induced toxic changes in rats. Amifostine (75 mg/kg ip) was given 30 min before each dose of doxorubicin (cumulatively 20 mg/kg ip, for 28 days). The animals' whole-body, liver, and kidney weight, serum biochemical examination, as well as microscopic examination of bone marrow, peripheral blood, liver, and kidney, were done on day 56 of the study. Hepatic and renal alterations were carefully quantified by semiquantitative grading scales-hepatic and renal damage score, respectively. In amifostine-pretreated rats, the number of peripheral blood leukocytes was significantly higher in comparison to doxorubicin-only treated group, preferentially protecting neutrophils. In the same group of rats, hepatic and renal alterations associated with polymorphonuclear cell infiltrates were significantly less severe than those observed in animals receiving only doxorubicin. Our results showed that amifostine successfully protected rats against multiple-dose doxorubicin-induced toxicity by complex, and still not fully elucidated mechanisms of action.
- Monoterpene's multiple free radical scavenging capacity as compared with the radioprotective agent cysteamine and amifostine. [Journal Article]
- BMBioorg Med Chem Lett 2018 Oct 01; 28(18):3031-3033
- Monoterpenes are major active components of lavender, thyme, and mint. The X-ray radioprotective activity of pure monoterpenes is attributed to their scavenging ability against active species, but so...
Monoterpenes are major active components of lavender, thyme, and mint. The X-ray radioprotective activity of pure monoterpenes is attributed to their scavenging ability against active species, but so far no firm evidence has been demonstrated. The objective of this study is to quantitatively determine antioxidant abilities of monoterpenes and collate it with radioprotective activity. Using multiple free-radical scavenging (MULTIS) method, we have determined the scavenging abilities of monoterpenes (linalool, thymol, and menthol) against six active species. A previous study has shown that the monoterpene linalool is a radioprotector for cellular systems, therefore, its scavenging ability was compared with known radioprotective agents such as cysteamine and amifostine. Results indicated that the monoterpene menthol but not linalool is a potent scavenger of reactive oxygen species and its scavenging magnitude is comparable to cysteamine and amifostine. This paper is first to show a correlation between ROS scavenging ability and radioprotective action.
- Dimethyl Sulfoxide Prevents Radiation-induced Oral Mucositis through Facilitating DNA Double-strand Break Repair in Epithelial Stem Cell. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 Aug 06
- CONCLUSIONS: DMSO prevents the loss of proliferative lingual epithelial stem and progenitor cells upon irradiation by facilitating of DNA DSBs repair, thereby protecting from radiation-induced mucositis without tumor protection. Given its high efficacy and low toxicity, DMSO could be a potential treatment option to prevent radiation-induced oral mucositis.
- Effectiveness and safety of different amifostine regimens: Preliminary results of a phase II multicenter randomized controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- CJChin J Cancer Res 2018; 30(3):307-314
- CONCLUSIONS: Amifostine of everyday regimen could reduce mucositis in NPC patients who received IMRT, though it also had the possibility to cause more hypocalcemia.
- Application of Multifunctional Nanomaterials in Radioprotection of Healthy Tissues. [Review]
- AHAdv Healthc Mater 2018; 7(20):e1800421
- Radiotherapy has been extensively used in clinic for malignant tumors treatment. However, a severe challenge of it is that the ionizing radiation needed to kill tumors inevitably causes damage to sur...
Radiotherapy has been extensively used in clinic for malignant tumors treatment. However, a severe challenge of it is that the ionizing radiation needed to kill tumors inevitably causes damage to surrounding normal tissues. Although some of the molecular radioprotective drugs, such as amifostine, have been used as clinical adjuvants to radio-protect healthy tissues, their shortcomings such as short systemic circulation time and fast biological clearing from the body largely hinder the sustained bioactivity. Recently, with the rapid development of nanotechnology in the biological field, the multifunctional nanomaterials not only establish powerful drug delivery systems to improve the molecular radioprotective drugs' biological availability, but also open a new route to develop neozoic radioprotective agents because some nanoparticles possess intrinsic radioprotective abilities. Therefore, considering these overwhelming superiorities, this review systematically summarizes the advances in healthy tissue radioprotection applications of multifunctional nanomaterials. Furthermore, this review also points out a perspective of nanomaterial designs for radioprotection applications and discusses the challenges and future outlooks of the nanomaterial-mediated radioprotection.
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- Effect of Amifostine on Sperm DNA Fragmentation and Testes after Radioiodine Treatment. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vet Res 2017; 61(4):509-515
- CONCLUSIONS: All histopathological parameters and some spermatological parameters showed that RAI therapy caused statistically significant damage of testicular tissue and this damage was reduced by amifostine.