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- Sensitivity surveillance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates for several antibacterial agents in Chubu area (2013-2014). [Journal Article]
- JJJpn J Antibiot 2016; 69(5):327-341
- We investigated the susceptibility to antibacterial agents of 186 clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from medical facilities in Gifu, Aichi, Toyama, and Fukui prefectures from Octob...
We investigated the susceptibility to antibacterial agents of 186 clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from medical facilities in Gifu, Aichi, Toyama, and Fukui prefectures from October 2013 to February 2014. MIC₅₀/₉₀ of piperacillin (PIPC), tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC), ceftazidime (CAZ), cefepime (CFPM), imipenem (IPM), meropenem (MEPM), doripenem (DRPM), aztreonam (AZT), ciprofloxacin (CPFX), levofloxacin (LVFX), amikacin (AMK) and colistin (CL) against P aeruginosa was 8/32, 4/32, 2/8, 2/16, 1/32, 0.5/8, 0.25/4, 8/32, 0.25/8, 0.5/16, 4/8 and 1/1pg/mLrespectively. Two strains of multidrug resistant P aeruginosa were isolated (1.1%). They were isolated from the respiratory tract, intra-abdominal, and urinary infection. The susceptible ratio against P aeruginosa derived from intra-abdominal infection for carbapenem was lower than those from respiratory tract and urinary infection. The susceptible ratio against P aeruginosa derived from urinary infection for penicillin, cephem, monobactam, and fluoroquinolone was lower than those from respiratory and intra-abdominal infection. It is meaningful to pay attention to the susceptibility to antibacterial agents in each clinical specimen from infected organ.
- First report of colistin resistance among carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates recovered from hospitalized patients in Egypt. [Journal Article]
- NMNew Microbes New Infect 2018; 26:53-58
- Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen that poses an increasing threat in the health-care community. Colistin is one of the promising options for treatment of multidrug-resistant A. bau...
Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen that poses an increasing threat in the health-care community. Colistin is one of the promising options for treatment of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii. The current study investigated the emergence of colistin resistance among carbapenem-resistant strains of A. baumannii in Egypt. It involved identification of clinically recovered A. baumannii isolates using the VITEK-2 system, and screening of their antimicrobial susceptibilities using broth microdilution techniques. Characterizations of carbapenemase and 16S rRNA methyltransferase genes were performed using PCR. Colistin-resistance determinants were characterized by sequencing. Carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates (n = 40) showed resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, gentamicin and amikacin. Most isolates revealed resistance to ciprofloxacin (95%; n = 38) and co-trimoxazole (92.5%; n = 37). Resistance to tobramycin and doxycycline was 80% (n = 32) and 62.5% (n = 25), respectively. Only two A. baumannii isolates demonstrated colistin resistance. Carbapenemase activity was tested by modified Hodge test and 78% of isolates were positive. All isolates carried blaOXA-51-like genes whereas bla-OXA-23 was detected in 80% (n = 32) of isolates. Among 16S rRNA methylase genes, armA was detected in 22.5% (n = 9) of the isolates. Analyses of lpxA, lpxC, lpxD and pmrCAB genetic sequences suggest that colistin resistance could be attributed to mutations in pmrCAB genes. Alarmingly, colistin resistance was associated with high levels of resistance to other antimicrobials. The current findings represent a serious health-care problem capable of restraining future therapeutic options.
- Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection and Obstinate Biofilm Producers. [Journal Article]
- CJCan J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2018; 2018:7624857
- CONCLUSIONS: High antimicrobial resistance was observed in biofilm producers than non-biofilm producers. Of recommended antimicrobial therapies for CAUTIs, ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate were the least active antibiotics, whereas piperacillin/tazobactam and imipenem were found as the most effectual for gram-negative biofilm producer. Likewise, amoxicillin-clavulanate and tetracycline were the least active antibiotics, whereas vancomycin, fosfomycin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and meropenem were found as the most effective antibiotic for Gram-positive biofilm producer. In the limelight, the activity fosfomycin was commendable against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilm producers.
- Synergy of nebulized phage PEV20 and ciprofloxacin combination against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Pharm 2018 Sep 14
- Nebulization is currently used for delivery of antibiotics for respiratory infections. Bacteriophages (or phages) are effective predators of pathogens including Pseudomonas aeruginosa commonly found ...
Nebulization is currently used for delivery of antibiotics for respiratory infections. Bacteriophages (or phages) are effective predators of pathogens including Pseudomonas aeruginosa commonly found in the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). It is known that phages and antibiotics can potentially show synergistic antimicrobial effect on bacterial killing. In the present study, we investigated synergistic antimicrobial effect of phage PEV20 with five different antibiotics against three P. aeruginosa strains isolated from sputum of CF patients. The antibiotics included ciprofloxacin, tobramycin, colistin, aztreonam and amikacin, which are approved by U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for inhaled administration. Phage and antibiotic synergy was determined by assessing bacterial killing performing time-kill studies. Among the different phage-antibiotic combinations, PEV20 and ciprofloxacin exhibited the most synergistic effect. Two phage-ciprofloxacin combinations, containing 1/4 and 1/2 of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin against P. aeruginosa strains FADD1-PA001 (A) and JIP865, respectively were aerosolized using both air-jet and vibrating mesh nebulizers and the synergistic antibacterial activity was maintained after nebulization. Air-jet nebulizer generated droplets with smaller volume median diameters (3.6-3.7 µm) and slightly larger span (2.3-2.4) than vibrating mesh nebulizers (5.1-5.3 µm; 2.1-2.2), achieving a higher fine particle fraction (FPF) of 70%. In conclusion, nebulized phage PEV20 and ciprofloxacin combination shows promising antimicrobial and aerosol characteristics for potential treatment of respiratory tract infections caused by drug-resistant P. aeruginosa.
- Drug susceptibility testing of slowly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria using slomyco test-system. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(9):e0203108
- CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that M. avium and M. intracellulare were more resistant to the majority of the studied drugs than M. kansasii and M. xenopi.
- Activity of plazomicin compared with other aminoglycosides against isolates from European and adjacent countries, including Enterobacteriaceae molecularly characterized for aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes and other resistance mechanisms. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Antimicrob Chemother 2018 Sep 14
- CONCLUSIONS: Plazomicin demonstrated activity against Enterobacteriaceae isolates tested in this study, including isolates carrying AMEs and a high percentage of the carbapenem-non-susceptible isolates. Plazomicin displayed activity against staphylococci.
- The effects of antibiotic type and extender storage method on sperm quality and antibacterial effectiveness in fresh and cooled-stored stallion semen. [Journal Article]
- TTheriogenology 2018 Aug 28; 122:23-29
- Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of antibiotic-containing extender of on sperm quality and control of bacterial growth. In Experiment 1, ejaculates were diluted in extender cont...
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of antibiotic-containing extender of on sperm quality and control of bacterial growth. In Experiment 1, ejaculates were diluted in extender containing no antibiotics, potassium penicillin G-amikacin disulfate (PEN-AMIK), ticarcillin disodium-potassium clavulanate (TICAR-CLAV), piperacillin sodium/tazobactam sodium (PIP-TAZ), or meropenem (MERO). In freshly extended semen, only slight differences were detected among some antibiotic treatments for total sperm motility, curvilinear velocity, and viable acrosome-intact sperm (P < 0.05). In cool-stored semen, slight differences were also detected among certain antibiotic treatments for curvilinear velocity and chromatin integrity (P < 0.05). In Experiment 2, ejaculates were diluted in extender and subjected to no bacterial spiking, or inoculated with lower or higher doses of K. pneumoniae or P. aeruginosa. Following cooled storage of semen, colony forming units/ml (CFU/mL) were less in PEN-AMIK (706 ± 244) and MERO (1576 ± 1076) treatment groups than in TICAR-CLAV (4678 ± 1388) or PIP-TAZ (8108 ± 3198) treatment groups (P < 0.05). The CFU/mL were lower in all antibiotic-containing treatment groups than the control group (18478 ± 4374; P < 0.05). The percentage of culture plates containing no bacterial growth in unspiked semen was greater in PEN-AMIK (75%) than PIP-TAZ (15%) or TICAR-CLAV (20%; P < 0.05). The percentages of culture plates containing no bacterial growth in semen spiked with a lower doses of K. pneumoniae or P. aeruginosa were higher in PEN-AMIK (70% and 50%, respectively) then in all other treatment groups (0-40% and 0-15% for K. pneumonia and P. aeruginosa, respectively; P < 0.05); however, complete control of bacterial load was only modest even with PEN-AMIK. In both experiments, freezing and thawing extender prior to use did not have any appreciable detrimental effect on sperm quality or antibiotic efficacy. In summary, all antibiotics tested had minimal effects on measures of sperm quality in fresh or cool-stored semen extenders; however, PEN-AMIK, followed by MERO, yielded the best results in terms of antimicrobial efficacy. None of the antibiotic types controlled bacterial growth, in comparison with the antibiotic-free control group, when extended semen was spiked with a high concentration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cooled storage of extended semen reduced bacterial growth in comparison with freshly extended semen.
- Amikacin Liposome Inhalation Suspension for Treatment-Refractory Lung Disease Caused by Mycobacterium avium Complex (CONVERT): A Prospective, Open-Label, Randomized Study. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Sep 14
- Rationale Improved therapeutic options are needed for patients with treatment-refractory nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease caused by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Objectives To evaluate ...
Rationale Improved therapeutic options are needed for patients with treatment-refractory nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease caused by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of daily amikacin liposome inhalation suspension (ALIS) added to standard guideline-based therapy (GBT) in patients with refractory MAC lung disease. Methods Adults with amikacin-susceptible MAC lung disease and MAC-positive sputum cultures despite ≥6 months of stable GBT were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive ALIS with GBT (ALIS+GBT) or GBT alone. Once-daily ALIS was supplied in single-use vials delivering 590 mg amikacin to the nebulizer. The primary endpoint was culture conversion, defined as 3 consecutive monthly MAC-negative sputum cultures by month 6. Measurements and Main Results Enrolled patients (ALIS+GBT, n=224; GBT-alone, n=112) were a mean 64.7 years old and 69.3% female. Most had underlying bronchiectasis (62.5%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (14.3%), or both (11.9%). Culture conversion was achieved by 65 of 224 patients (29.0%) with ALIS+GBT and 10 of 112 (8.9%) with GBT alone (OR, 4.22; 95% CI [2.08, 8.57]; P<0.001). Patients in the ALIS+GBT arm vs GBT alone were more likely to achieve conversion (hazard ratio, 3.90; 95% CI, [2.00, 7.60]). Respiratory adverse events (primarily dysphonia, cough, and dyspnea) were reported in 87.4% of patients receiving ALIS+GBT and 50.0% receiving GBT alone; serious treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 20.2% and 17.9% of patients, respectively. Conclusions Addition of ALIS to GBT for treatment-refractory MAC lung disease achieved significantly greater culture conversion by month 6 than GBT alone, with comparable rates of serious adverse events. Clinical trial registration available at www.clinicaltrials.gov, ID NCT02344004.
- Treatment correlates of successful outcomes in pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: an individual patient data meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- LctLancet 2018 Sep 08; 392(10150):821-834
- CONCLUSIONS: Although inferences are limited by the observational nature of these data, treatment outcomes were significantly better with use of linezolid, later generation fluoroquinolones, bedaquiline, clofazimine, and carbapenems for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. These findings emphasise the need for trials to ascertain the optimal combination and duration of these drugs for treatment of this condition.
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- Efficacy of intraventricular amikacin treatment in pan-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa postsurgical meningitis. [Journal Article]
- IDInfect Drug Resist 2018; 11:1369-1372
- CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation of the antibiotic concentration and the bactericidal activity in cerebrospinal fluid may contribute to the choice of the drug in cases of multidrug-resistant meningitis.