- Selective Photoinduced Antibacterial Activity of Amoxicillin-Coated Gold Nanoparticles: From One-Step Synthesis to in Vivo Cytocompatibility. [Journal Article]
- AOACS Omega 2018 Jan 31; 3(1):1220-1230
- Photoinduced antibacterial gold nanoparticles were developed as an alternative for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Thanks to the amoxicillin coating, they possess high in vivo stabili...
Photoinduced antibacterial gold nanoparticles were developed as an alternative for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Thanks to the amoxicillin coating, they possess high in vivo stability, selectivity for the bacteria wall, a good renal clearance, and are completely nontoxic for eukaryotic cells at the bactericidal concentrations. A simple one-step synthesis of amoxi@AuNP is described at mild temperatures using the antibiotic as both reducing and stabilizing agent. Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy proved these novel nano-photosensitizers, with improved selectivity, are bactericidal but showing excellent biocompatibility toward eukaryotic cells at the same dose (1.5 μg/mL) when co-cultures are analyzed. Their stability in biological media, hemocompatibility, and photo-antibacterial effect against sensitive and antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated in vitro, whereas toxicity, renal clearance, and biodistribution were studied in vivo in male Wistar rats. The use of these nanoparticles to treat antibiotic-resistant infections is promising given their high stability and cytocompatibility.
- Antibiotic Resistance Acquisition in the First Week of Life. [Journal Article]
- FMFront Microbiol 2018; 9:1467
- Objectives: The fetus is considered sterile but recent studies have suggested that gut colonization could start before birth. Scarce data are available for the acquisition of resistant Gram-negative...
Objectives: The fetus is considered sterile but recent studies have suggested that gut colonization could start before birth. Scarce data are available for the acquisition of resistant Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) during the first days of life. Several studies have shown that integrons play a major role in antibiotic resistance acquisition. In this work, we studied the dynamics of human intestinal acquisition of GNB and integrons during the first days of life. Methods: Meconium was collected at birth and a stool sample before hospital discharge (days 2 or 3) on 185 term neonates. GNB were searched by culture on each sample and class 1, 2, and 3 integrons from each GNB or directly from samples. Eight risk factors for integron and GNB acquisition were studied. Results: We isolated 228 GNB, 46 from meconium and the remainder from stools. No link was found between GNB isolation and antibiotic exposure during delivery, but antibiotic exposure during labor significantly selected blaTEM-positive amoxicillin-resistant Enterobacteria. Two-thirds of GNB were antibiotic-susceptible and most of the resistant isolates were acquired after birth. Integrons were detected in 18 of the 228 GNB isolates from 3 meconium and 20 stools. Antibiotic administration during delivery and vaginal carriage of Streptococcus agalactiae appeared as risk factors for integron acquisition. Conclusion: Gram-negative bacteria and integrons are mostly acquired after birth during the first days of life even if for some term neonates, meconium was not sterile. Antibiotic administration during delivery is a major risk for integron acquisition and for selection of amoxicillin-resistant Enterobacteria.
- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- An 8-year-old female presents to the emergency department (ED) referred by her primary care provider (PCP) for left-sided neck swelling and murmur. Per patient’s mother, the patient has had left-side...
An 8-year-old female presents to the emergency department (ED) referred by her primary care provider (PCP) for left-sided neck swelling and murmur. Per patient’s mother, the patient has had left-sided neck swelling for 1 month. The patient also experienced subjective fevers, chills, headache, and malaise. Over that same period, mom also noticed about 5 pounds of weight loss and intermittent side pain. Because of these concerns, mom took her daughter to the PCP 2 weeks before ED presentation and was diagnosed with lymphadenitis and started on oral amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and told to follow-up the following week. At the following visit, there was a minimal improvement of the neck swelling, so the patient was switched to oral clindamycin. After a week of being on the clindamycin, the patient presented again to the PCP with minimal improvement of her symptoms. At this visit, the PCP also noticed a new cardiac murmur. Because the patient had failed outpatient antibiotic therapy and had this new heart murmur, the PCP referred the patient to the ED.
- Carbapenemases and Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from Retail Chicken in Peshawar: First Report from Pakistan. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Food Prot 2018 Jul 16; :1339-1345
- We report the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases and carbapenemases in Escherichia coli isolated from retail chicken in Peshawar, Pakistan. One hundred E. coli isolates were recovered from ...
We report the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases and carbapenemases in Escherichia coli isolated from retail chicken in Peshawar, Pakistan. One hundred E. coli isolates were recovered from retail chicken. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out against ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, cephalothin, gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and streptomycin. Phenotypic detection of β-lactamase production was analyzed through double disc synergy test using the antibiotics amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, and aztreonam. Fifty multidrug-resistant isolates were screened for detection of sul1, aadA, cmlA, int, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, blaOXA-10, blaVIM, blaIMP, and blaNDM-1 genes. Resistance to ampicillin, nalidixic acid, kanamycin, streptomycin, cephalothin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, gentamicin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, aztreonam, cefepime, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and chloramphenicol was 92, 91, 84, 73, 70, 67, 53, 48, 40, 39, 37, 36, and 23% respectively. Prevalence of sul1, aadA, cmlA, int, blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaIMP, and blaNDM-1 was 78% ( n = 39), 76% ( n = 38), 20% ( n = 10), 90% ( n = 45), 74% ( n = 37), 94% ( n = 47), 22% ( n = 11), and 4% ( n = 2), respectively. blaSHV, blaOXA-10, and blaVIM were not detected. The coexistence of multiple antibiotic resistance genes in multidrug-resistant strains of E. coli is alarming. Hence, robust surveillance strategies should be developed with a focus on controlling the spread of antibiotic resistance genes via the food chain.
- Corrigendum to "Wastewater treatment for Amoxicillin removal using magnetic adsorbent synthesized by ultrasound process" [Ultrason. Sonochem. 45 (2018) 248-256]. [Published Erratum]
- USUltrason Sonochem 2018 Jul 12
- Multidrug resistance among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae carried in the gut of out-patients from pastoralist communities of Kasese district, Uganda. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(7):e0200093
- CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated high antimicrobial resistance, including multidrug resistance, among E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates from pastoralist out-patients. We recommend a One Health approach to establish the sources and drivers of this problem to inform public health.
- Effect of Antibiotics on Short-Term Growth among Children in Burkina Faso: A Randomized Trial. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Jul 16
- Antibiotics improve both weight and height gain in randomized trials of preschool children with preexisting morbidity. Here, we assess the effect of a short course of three different antibiotics (amo...
Antibiotics improve both weight and height gain in randomized trials of preschool children with preexisting morbidity. Here, we assess the effect of a short course of three different antibiotics (amoxicillin, azithromycin, and cotrimoxazole) on short-term linear and ponderal growth in a population-based sample of preschool children in rural Burkina Faso. We randomized households with at least two children in the Nouna district, Burkina Faso, to a 5-day course of amoxicillin, azithromycin, cotrimoxazole, or placebo. Within each antibiotic-randomized household, one child was randomly assigned to receive the antibiotic and the other to receive the placebo. Weight and height measurements were taken at baseline and 30 days following the last study medication dose. Weight-for-height Z (WHZ), height-for-age Z (HAZ), and weight-for-age Z (WAZ) scoreswere calculated based on the 2006 World Health Organization standards. Of the 124 households and 248 children enrolled, 229 had anthropometry measurements at 1 month and were analyzed. Children randomized to amoxicillin gained significantly more weight compared with both the placebo household (mean difference 317 g, 95% CI: 115-519 g) and placebo sibling (mean difference 315 g, 95% CI: 147-482 g) controls. Growth velocity in g/kg/day, and WHZ and WAZ scores were higher in amoxicillin-treated children compared with placebo households and siblings. There were no differences in weight gain in children randomized to azithromycin or cotrimoxazole compared with placebo households or placebo siblings. There were no differences in height gain or HAZ across any of the study arms. Amoxicillin may have short-term growth-promoting effects in healthy children.
- Second-line triple therapy in failures with vonoprazan-based triple therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori. [Journal Article]
- BRBiomed Rep 2018; 9(2):169-174
- Gastric acid inhibition during treatment is important for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. A novel potassium-competitive acid blocker, vonoprazan (VPZ), has been demonstr...
Gastric acid inhibition during treatment is important for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. A novel potassium-competitive acid blocker, vonoprazan (VPZ), has been demonstrated to achieve high eradication rates; however, the efficacy of second-line treatment in failures of VPZ-based triple therapy has not been well studied. The aim of the current study was to determine the efficacy of VPZ in a first-line regimen for H. pylori eradication, and the efficacy of a second-line regimen using metronidazole (MTZ) in failures with the first-line regimen. Of 580 subjects enrolled in the study, 524 patients completed first-line treatment (275 patients who received VPZ and 249 patients who received LPZ). First-line regimens consisted of a combination of clarithromycin (CAM) 200 or 400 mg twice a day, amoxicillin (AMPC) 750 mg twice a day, and either LPZ 30 mg or VPZ 20 mg twice a day, administered orally for 7 days. CAM and VPZ/LPZ were replaced with metronidazole (MTZ) 250 mg and rabeprazole 10 mg in the second-line regimens. The eradication of H. pylori was assessed by the H. pylori stool antigen test. The overall first-line eradication rate with VPZ was significantly higher than that with LPZ [91.0% (250/275) vs. 84.7% (211/249), respectively, P=0.030]. The dose of CAM (400 vs. 800 mg) did not affect the eradication rate in either the VPZ or LPZ regimens. The overall eradication rates of the second-line regimens with MTZ did not differ significantly between the VPZ-failure and LPZ-failure groups [87.0% (20/23) vs. 87.9% (29/33), respectively, P=0.700]. Therefore, VPZ was significantly more effective than LPZ for first-line treatment. In patients with failure of first-line eradication therapy, successful results of second-line eradication therapy did not differ between the VPZ- and LPZ-failure groups. In conclusion, VPZ-based triple therapy should be recommended for eradication of H. pylori.
- Comprehensive substrate characterization of 22 antituberculosis drugs for multiple solute carrier (SLC) uptake transporters, in vitro. [Journal Article]
- AAAntimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 Jul 16
- Substrate potential of antituberculosis drugs on SLC transporters are not well characterized to date, despite a well-established understanding of their drug dispositions and pharmacokinetics. In this...
Substrate potential of antituberculosis drugs on SLC transporters are not well characterized to date, despite a well-established understanding of their drug dispositions and pharmacokinetics. In this study, we investigated comprehensively the substrate potentials of the 22 currently available antituberculosis drugs for solute carrier (SLC) family transporter-mediated uptake, using Xenopus laevis oocytes and stably transfected HEK-293 cells in vitro The result suggested that, ethambutol, isoniazid, amoxicillin, and prothionamide act as novel substrates for the SLC transporters. In addition, in the presence of representative transporter inhibitors, the uptake of the antituberculosis drugs was markedly decreased compared with the uptake in the absence of inhibitor, suggesting involvement of the corresponding transporters. A cellular-uptake study was performed and the Km values of ethambutol were found to be 526.1 ± 15.6, 212.0 ± 20.1, 336.8 ± 20.1, and 455.0 ± 28 μM for OCT1, OCT2, OCTN1, and OCTN2, respectively. Similarly, the Km of prothionamide was 805.8 ± 23.4 μM for OCT1, while the Km values of isoniazid and amoxicillin for OAT3 were 233.7 ± 14.1 and 161.4 ± 10.6 μM, respectively. The estimated in vivo drug-drug interaction indexes, from in vitro transporter inhibition kinetics, for verapamil, probenecid, and ibuprofen against ethambutol, prothionamide, isoniazid, and amoxicillin were found to be potential for clinical drug interactions. In conclusion, this is the first study that, demonstrated 22 antituberculosis drugs interactions with transporters. This study will be helpful for mechanistic understanding of the disposition, drug-drug interactions and pharmacokinetics of these antituberculosis drugs.
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- Sensitization to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid may underlie severe rashes in children treated for infectious mononucleosis. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2018 Jul 13