- Clarithromycin in patients with coronary artery disease. [Journal Article]
- MLMed Lett Drugs Ther 2018 May 21; 60(1547):89-90
- Perioperative Anaphylaxis Including Kounis Syndrome due to Selective Cefazolin Allergy. [Journal Article]
- IAInt Arch Allergy Immunol 2018 Jun 18; :1-5
- CONCLUSIONS: Cefazolin can be responsible for immediate severe allergic reactions in perioperative setting, including KS. Allergological workup is essential for an accurate diagnosis and to explore cross-reactivity between cefazolin and other beta-lactams. Our experience confirmed that patients with IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions to cefazolin can tolerate other beta-lactams. This selective pattern of clinical reactivity may be explained by its particular chemical structure, whose R1 side-chain is different from other beta-lactams.
- Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance in Portugal: Systematic review and meta-analysis. [Review]
- HHelicobacter 2018 Jun 17; :e12493
- CONCLUSIONS: Hp resistance to the most widely used antibiotics is high in Portugal. Accordingly, our results suggest that the best therapeutic strategy for Hp in Portugal may be quadruple therapy with bismuth for adults and triple therapy including AMX plus MTZ or bismuth-based therapy for children.
- Compilation of a Near-Infrared Library for Construction of Quantitative Models of Oral Dosage Forms for Amoxicillin and Potassium Clavulanate. [Journal Article]
- FCFront Chem 2018; 6:184
- The accuracy of quantitative models for near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is dependent upon calibration samples with concentration variations. Conventional sample-collection methods have shortcomings ...
The accuracy of quantitative models for near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is dependent upon calibration samples with concentration variations. Conventional sample-collection methods have shortcomings (especially time-consumption), which creates a "bottleneck" in the application of NIR models for Process Analytical Technology (PAT) control. We undertook a study to solve the problem of sample collection for construction of NIR quantitative models. Amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate oral dosage forms (ODFs) were used as examples. The aim of this study was to find an approach to construct NIR quantitative models rapidly using a NIR spectral library based on the idea of a universal model. The NIR spectral library of amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate ODFs was defined and comprised the spectra of 377 batches of samples produced by 26 domestic pharmaceutical companies, including tablets, dispersible tablets, chewable tablets, oral suspensions, and granules. The correlation coefficient (rT) was used to indicate the similarities of the spectra. The calibration sets of samples were selected from a spectral library according to the median rT of the samples to be analyzed. The rT of the samples selected was close to the median rT. The difference in rT of these samples was 1.0-1.5%. We concluded that sample selection was not a problem when constructing NIR quantitative models using a spectral library compared with conventional methods of determining universal models. Sample spectra with a suitable concentration range in NIR models were collected rapidly. In addition, the models constructed through this method were targeted readily.
- Antibiotic Prophylaxis Against Infective Endocarditis: Widening the Net? [Editorial]
- JACCJ Am Coll Cardiol 2018 Jun 19; 71(24):2741-2743
- Pharmaceuticals residues in selected tropical surface water bodies from Selangor (Malaysia): Occurrence and potential risk assessments. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2018 Jun 11; 642:230-240
- This study investigated the occurrence of nine pharmaceuticals (amoxicillin, caffeine, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, dexamethasone, diclofenac, nitrofurazone, sulfamethoxazole, and triclosan) and t...
This study investigated the occurrence of nine pharmaceuticals (amoxicillin, caffeine, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, dexamethasone, diclofenac, nitrofurazone, sulfamethoxazole, and triclosan) and to evaluate potential risks (human health and ecotoxicological) in Lui, Gombak and Selangor (Malaysia) rivers using commercial competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit assays. Physicochemical properties of these rivers showed the surface samples belong to Class II of Malaysian National Water Quality Standards which requires conventional treatment before consumption. All the pharmaceuticals were detected in all three rivers except for triclosan, dexamethasone and diclofenac which were not detected in few of sampling locations in these three rivers. Highest pharmaceutical concentrations were detected in Gombak river in line of being as one of the most polluted rivers in Malaysia. Ciprofloxacin concentrations were detected in all the sampling locations with the highest at 299.88 ng/L. While triclosan, dexamethasone and diclofenac concentrations were not detected in a few of sampling locations in these three rivers. All these nine pharmaceuticals were within the levels reported previously in literature. Pharmaceutical production, wastewater treatment technologies and treated sewage effluent were found as the potential sources which can be related with pharmaceuticals occurrence in surface water samples. Potential human risk assessment showed low health risk except for ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone. Instead, ecotoxicological risk assessment indicated moderate risks were present for these rivers. Nevertheless, results confirmation using instrumental techniques is needed for higher degree of specificity. It is crucial to continuously monitor the surface water bodies for pharmaceuticals using a cost-effective prioritisation approach to assess sensitive sub-populations risk.
- Efficacy of two different dosages of levofloxacin in curing Helicobacter pylori infection: A Prospective, Single-Center, randomized clinical trial. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Jun 13; 8(1):9045
- Bismuth + proton pump inhibitor (PPI) + amoxicillin + levofloxacin is one of the bismuth quadruple therapy regimens widely used for the eradication of H. pylori infection. The recommended dosage of l...
Bismuth + proton pump inhibitor (PPI) + amoxicillin + levofloxacin is one of the bismuth quadruple therapy regimens widely used for the eradication of H. pylori infection. The recommended dosage of levofloxacin is 500 mg once daily or 200 mg twice daily to eradicate H. pylori infection. The aim of the present open-label, randomized control trial was to compare the effectiveness, safety, and compliance of different dosages of levofloxacin used to cure Helicobacter pylori infection. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive esomeprazole, amoxicillin, colloidal bismuth pectin and levofloxacin 500 mg once/day (group A) or levofloxacin 200 mg twice/day (group B) for 14 days. The primary outcome was the eradication rates in the intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses. Overall, 400 patients were enrolled. The eradication rates in group A and group B were 77.5% and 79.5% respectively, in the ITT analysis, and 82.9% and 86.4%, respectively, in the PP analysis. No significant differences were found between two groups in terms of eradication rate, adverse effects or compliance. Oral levofloxacin 200 mg twice daily was similar in efficacy for eradicating H. pylori infection to oral levofloxacin 500 mg once daily but with lower mean total costs.
- A performance validation of selective screening agars for guiding antimicrobial prophylaxis in patients undergoing prostate biopsy. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Microbiol 2018 Jun 13
- Background and Objectives: A rectal culture-guided antimicrobial prophylaxis strategy may prevent infections after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUSP). The use of selective culture...
Background and Objectives: A rectal culture-guided antimicrobial prophylaxis strategy may prevent infections after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUSP). The use of selective culture media could assist the choice of appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis. The objective of our study was to evaluate the performance of four selective media used for guidance of oral antibiotic prophylaxis in TRUSP.Methods: In this prospective validation study, we used MacConkey media with vancomycin plus one of the following antibiotics: ciprofloxacin (McC3 + CIP/V), trimethoprim (McC3 + TMP/V), fosfomycin (McC3 + FOF/V) or mecillinam/amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (McC3 + MEC/V). First, clinical strains of Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) (n=33), were evaluated for growth on the selective media. Thereafter, rectal swabs (n=97) were randomly collected from residual material of fresh stool samples and plated on a growth control and the four selective media. Recovery of GNB on the growth control and selective media were compared and MICs of the antibiotics used in this study were determined.Results: The sensitivity and specificity of the four selective media amounted respectively to: 90.0% (55.5-99.8%) and 98.7% (93.1-100.0%) for McC3 + CIP/V, 95.7% (85.2-99.5%) and 100.0% (91.6-100.0%) for McC3 + TMP/V, 95.5% (84.5-99.4%) and 97.8% (88.2-99.9%) for McC3 + FOF/V, and 100.0% (76.8-100.0%) and 97.6% (87.4-99.9%) for McC3 + MEC/V.Conclusions: The four selective media were sufficiently sensitive and specific for the identification of ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim, fosfomycin or mecillinam/amoxicillin/clavulanic acid resistant rectal GNB. These media can have added value in streamlining the optimal culture based antibiotic prophylaxis in TRUSP in a non-labor intensive manner.
- Clarithromycin resistance and female gender affect Helicobacter pylori eradication failure in chronic gastritis. [Journal Article]
- KJKorean J Intern Med 2018 Jun 14
- CONCLUSIONS: Clarithromycin resistance and female gender are factors affecting H. pylori eradication failure in patients with chronic gastritis.
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- Survival of antibiotic resistant bacteria following artificial solar radiation of secondary wastewater effluent. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2018 Jun 01; 626:1005-1011
- Urban wastewater treatment plant effluents represent one of the major emission sources of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in natural aquatic environments. In this study, the effect of artificial ...
Urban wastewater treatment plant effluents represent one of the major emission sources of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in natural aquatic environments. In this study, the effect of artificial solar radiation on total culturable heterotrophic bacteria and ARB (including amoxicillin-resistant, ciprofloxacin-resistant, rifampicin-resistant, sulfamethoxazole-resistant, and tetracycline-resistant bacteria) present in secondary effluent was investigated. Artificial solar radiation was effective in inactivating the majority of environmental bacteria, however, the proportion of strains with ciprofloxacin-resistance and rifampicin-resistance increased in the surviving populations. Isolates of Pseudomonas putida, Serratia marcescens, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia nosocomial pathogens were identified as resistant to solar radiation and to at least three antibiotics. Draft genome sequencing and typing revealed isolates carrying multiple resistance genes; where S. maltophilia (resistant to all studied antibiotics) sequence type was similar to strains isolated in blood infections. Results from this study confirm that solar radiation reduces total bacterial load in secondary effluent, but may indirectly increase the relative abundance of ARB.