- Evaluation of Antibiotic Treatment on the Duration of Hospitalization of Patients with Erysipelas and Bacterial Cellulitis. [Journal Article]
- DTDermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2018 Dec 07
- CONCLUSIONS: Based on our evaluation of 59 subjects with either erysipelas or bacterial cellulitis, combination therapy with amoxicillin + clavulanic acid appears to be linked with the shortest stay in the hospital. We suggest that this combination therapy should be considered as a first-line treatment for patients hospitalized due to erysipelas or bacterial cellulitis, if other factors did not preclude the use of this therapy.
- Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Salmonella Serovars Isolated from Slaughtered Cattle in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. [Journal Article]
- BRBiomed Res Int 2018; 2018:9794869
- Salmonella is one of the top causes of foodborne bacterial illnesses in humans. The primary sources of human Salmonella infection are food producing animals such as cattle, poultry, and swine. A cros...
Salmonella is one of the top causes of foodborne bacterial illnesses in humans. The primary sources of human Salmonella infection are food producing animals such as cattle, poultry, and swine. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence and to determine the serovar distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Salmonella spp. isolated from fecal (n=567) and carcass swab (n=159) samples of slaughtered cattle at Addis Ababa Abattoir Enterprise and Kara'alo PLC, Abattoirs, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia between January 2014 and April 2015. Salmonella isolation was conducted according to Global Foodborne Infections Network Laboratory Protocol and isolates were confirmed by genus specific PCR and serotyped by slide agglutination test. Susceptibility of the isolates to 17 antimicrobials was testedusing the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Out of the total 726 samples examined, 27 (3.7%) were positive for Salmonella. Salmonella was detected in 4.1% (23/567) fecal and 2.5% (4/159) carcass swab samples. Twelve different serovars were identified and the most predominant serovars were S. Dublin (n=10, 35.7%) and S. Virchow (n=5, 17.9%), followed by S. Braendrerup, S. Haifa, and S. Saintpaul which were isolated from 2 samples each (7.1%). All of the Salmonella isolates investigated were resistant or intermediately resistant to four or more of the 17 drugs tested. High resistance rate was recorded to streptomycin 25 (89.3%), cephalothin 20 (71.4%), ampicillin 19 (67.9%), and amoxicillin+clavulanic acid 19 (67.9%). Resistance to five or more antimicrobials was detected in 20 (71.5%) of the isolates. Multidrug resistance to more than 7 antimicrobials was detected in 5 (17.9%) of the isolates. Isolation of such multidrug resistant strains of Salmonella from slaughtered cattle poses a major public health concern. These findings imply the need for a strict biosecurity and regulation of antimicrobial use across the country.
- Detection, characterization, and antibiogram of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase Escherichia coli isolated from bovine milk samples in West Bengal, India. [Journal Article]
- VWVet World 2018; 11(10):1423-1427
- CONCLUSIONS: More than 50% of the E. coli strains prevalent in the bovine milk samples were positive for ESBL production and are resistant to most of the common antimicrobials which may be alarming for human health.
- Use of the TRH Stimulation Test to Assess Long Term Changes of Thyroid Function in an Olympic Athlete. [Journal Article]
- CSCurr Sports Med Rep 2018; 17(12):454-456
- This case report presents the utility of the thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation test for assessing endocrine disease in athletes. On two occasions, 4 years apart (1992 and 1996), a TRH stimu...
This case report presents the utility of the thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation test for assessing endocrine disease in athletes. On two occasions, 4 years apart (1992 and 1996), a TRH stimulation test was performed to corroborate clinical symptoms and observation. On the first occasion, the patient's symptoms were not attributed to thyroid disease. He was treated for a sinus infection with amoxicillin/clavulanate 500 mg three times per day for 1 wk. On the second occasion, thyroid disease was confirmed and treatment with 100-μg L-thyroxine was initiated. Baseline screening and TRH stimulation testing were used at both assessment time points. Baseline screen for TSH was 2.2 and 1.2 uUI·mL and stimulated TSH was at 15.2 uUI·mL at 30 min and 30.6 uUI·mL at 45 min for the first (1992) and second (1996) assessment, respectively. Patient was positive on the second visit for antithyroglobulin antibodies at 70 IU·mL (normal, 0-59 IU·mL). Three months postdiagnosis, TSH was 0.66 uIU·mL and the patient was asymptomatic. At the most recent visit, 20 years and 4 months later, no symptomology was reported and TSH was 0.55 uIU·mL A greater understanding of the interaction between stress and end organ function is warranted in occupations undergoing unique stressors.
- Third-generation cephalosporin and carbapenem resistance in Streptococcus mitis/oralis. Results from a nationwide registry in the Netherlands. [Letter]
- CMClin Microbiol Infect 2018 Dec 04
- We investigated the prevalence of beta-lactam resistance and the relationship between penicillin MIC and (1) amoxicillin/ampicillin, (2) third-generation cephalosporin and (3) carbapenem resistance i...
We investigated the prevalence of beta-lactam resistance and the relationship between penicillin MIC and (1) amoxicillin/ampicillin, (2) third-generation cephalosporin and (3) carbapenem resistance in the Netherlands. From the database of the Dutch national surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance (ISIS-AR) the first S. mitis/ oralis isolate per patient that was tested for penicillin resistance between 2013 and 2017, was included. We observed third-generation cephalosporin resistance in less than 8% of isolates and meropenem resistance in less than 1.3% isolates. For amoxicillin/ampicillin susceptible isolates median penicillin MIC was 0.047mg/L (IQR 0.023-0.094; n=327), for intermediate isolates 0.75mg/L (IQR 0.38-1.0; n=34) and for resistant isolates 2.0mg/L (IQR 1.0-4.0; n=29). For cefotaxime/ceftriaxone susceptible isolates median penicillin MIC as determined by gradient test was 0.064 mg/L (IQR 0.032-0.19; n=463), whereas for cefotaxime/ceftriaxone resistant isolates it was 2.0 mg/L (IQR 1.0-4.0; n=57). Penicillin MICs of the meropenem-resistant isolates were 8 and 32 mg/L (gradient test, n=2) and >4 mg/L (automated MIC determination, n=1). We conclude that for mitis group streptococci in the Netherlands, broad-spectrum beta-lactam resistance should be taken into account. Not all laboratories routinely test viridans group streptococci for broad-spectrum beta-lactam agents. Elevated penicillin MICs should prompt additional cephalosporin and carbapenem susceptibility testing.
- How to assure access of essential RMNCH medicines by looking at policy and systems factors: an analysis of countdown to 2015 countries. [Journal Article]
- BHBMC Health Serv Res 2018 Dec 07; 18(1):952
- CONCLUSIONS: This analysis highlights country deficiencies in policies and systems, such as incoherent policy guidelines, problems in product registration, lack of logistics data, and central-level stock-outs that may affect access to essential RMNCH commodities. To tackle these deficiencies, countries need to integrate commodity-related indicators into other health monitoring activities to improve service quality.
- An audit of antimicrobial prescribing by dental practitioners in the north east of England and Cumbria. [Journal Article]
- BOBMC Oral Health 2018 Dec 10; 18(1):206
- CONCLUSIONS: In most cases, when an antimicrobial was prescribed, practitioners used the correct choice of agents and usually prescribed these at the correct dose. However, some evidence of suboptimal prescribing practices when compared to the Faculty of General Dental Practitioner guidelines were identified. The audit has identified training needs across the region and aided the development of Continued Professional Development sessions. Further work to identify barriers and facilitators for improving antimicrobial prescribing and determining appropriate methods to improve clinical practice are required.
- Antibiotic prescriptions to adults with acute respiratory tract infections by Italian general practitioners. [Journal Article]
- IDInfect Drug Resist 2018; 11:2199-2205
- CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed a very high frequency of nonevidence-based prescription of antibiotics at the primary care level. Future improvement programs should focus on development of evidence-based guidelines, access to postgraduate training, and better availability of diagnostic tools.
- Non-standard treatment for uncomplicated Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital infections: a systematic review. [Journal Article]
- BOBMJ Open 2018 Dec 04; 8(12):e023808
- CONCLUSIONS: The paucity of existing data highlights the need for further adequately powered studies to evaluate rifalazil, delayed release doxycycline, levofloxacin and other agents for the treatment of uncomplicated CT infections.
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- Antibiotic resistance of Enterobacteriaceae causing urinary tract infections in elderly patients living in the community and in the nursing home: a retrospective observational study. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Antimicrob Chemother 2018 Nov 30
- CONCLUSIONS: Elderly people in nursing homes had a risk around 40% higher than their community-dwelling peers of having antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae cultured from their urine samples. Antibiotic stewardship and infection prevention and control programmes should be implemented in nursing homes.