- Effective antimicrobial activity of rifabutin against multidrug-resistant Helicobacter pylori. [Journal Article]
- HHelicobacter 2018 Sep 19; :e12531
- CONCLUSIONS: In vitro antimicrobial effectiveness of RFB on MDR H. pylori including those with resistance to both MTZ and CLR was demonstrated. However, RFB efficacy decreased as the number of antibiotics responsible for MDR increased. Considering that RFB inhibits both extra- and intracellular H. pylori, it can be suggested as an effective antibiotic against of MDR H. pylori.
- Meningococcal Pneumonia in a Young Healthy Male. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Infect Dis 2018; 2018:2179097
- A 23-year-old male presented to the emergency department with one-day history of right-sided pleuritic chest pain, haemoptysis, and fever. In the emergency department, the blood pressure was 140/60 m...
A 23-year-old male presented to the emergency department with one-day history of right-sided pleuritic chest pain, haemoptysis, and fever. In the emergency department, the blood pressure was 140/60 mmHg, heart rate 89/min, body temperature 40°C, respiratory rates 20 breaths/min, and oxygen saturation 98% in room air. Physical examination revealed rales and bronchial breathing in the right infrascapular region. Laboratory analysis showed raised white blood cell counts and elevated inflammation markers. Chest X-ray showed right lower lobe consolidation. Intravenous(IV) ceftriaxone and doxycycline were started for the management of community-acquired pneumonia as per the local guideline. Later, on admission, blood culture was positive for Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis). Ceftriaxone was continued for 4 days, and the patient was discharged while being on oral amoxicillin (1 gm TDS) for another 3 days. He remained well during the outpatient follow-up.
- First report of colistin resistance among carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates recovered from hospitalized patients in Egypt. [Journal Article]
- NMNew Microbes New Infect 2018; 26:53-58
- Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen that poses an increasing threat in the health-care community. Colistin is one of the promising options for treatment of multidrug-resistant A. bau...
Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen that poses an increasing threat in the health-care community. Colistin is one of the promising options for treatment of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii. The current study investigated the emergence of colistin resistance among carbapenem-resistant strains of A. baumannii in Egypt. It involved identification of clinically recovered A. baumannii isolates using the VITEK-2 system, and screening of their antimicrobial susceptibilities using broth microdilution techniques. Characterizations of carbapenemase and 16S rRNA methyltransferase genes were performed using PCR. Colistin-resistance determinants were characterized by sequencing. Carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates (n = 40) showed resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, gentamicin and amikacin. Most isolates revealed resistance to ciprofloxacin (95%; n = 38) and co-trimoxazole (92.5%; n = 37). Resistance to tobramycin and doxycycline was 80% (n = 32) and 62.5% (n = 25), respectively. Only two A. baumannii isolates demonstrated colistin resistance. Carbapenemase activity was tested by modified Hodge test and 78% of isolates were positive. All isolates carried blaOXA-51-like genes whereas bla-OXA-23 was detected in 80% (n = 32) of isolates. Among 16S rRNA methylase genes, armA was detected in 22.5% (n = 9) of the isolates. Analyses of lpxA, lpxC, lpxD and pmrCAB genetic sequences suggest that colistin resistance could be attributed to mutations in pmrCAB genes. Alarmingly, colistin resistance was associated with high levels of resistance to other antimicrobials. The current findings represent a serious health-care problem capable of restraining future therapeutic options.
- Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection and Obstinate Biofilm Producers. [Journal Article]
- CJCan J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2018; 2018:7624857
- CONCLUSIONS: High antimicrobial resistance was observed in biofilm producers than non-biofilm producers. Of recommended antimicrobial therapies for CAUTIs, ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate were the least active antibiotics, whereas piperacillin/tazobactam and imipenem were found as the most effectual for gram-negative biofilm producer. Likewise, amoxicillin-clavulanate and tetracycline were the least active antibiotics, whereas vancomycin, fosfomycin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and meropenem were found as the most effective antibiotic for Gram-positive biofilm producer. In the limelight, the activity fosfomycin was commendable against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilm producers.
- Outpatient Antibiotic Prescribing for Older Adults in the United States: 2011 to 2014. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Geriatr Soc 2018 Sep 17
- CONCLUSIONS: On average, in 2014, U.S. adults aged 65 and older received enough outpatient antibiotic courses for every older adult to receive at least 1. Quinolones and azithromycin are potential targets for assessing the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in this population. Interventions to improve use targeting internists and family physicians in the South Census region might have the potential to have the greatest effect.
- [Near-drowning associated Aeromonas pneumonia]. [Journal Article]
- RMRev Mal Respir 2018 Sep 13
- CONCLUSIONS: Rapid respiratory deterioration following near-drowning should raise the suspicion of pulmonary infection with the bacteria usually found in the respiratory tract during ventilation but without overlooking the possibility of unusual organisms, particularly Aeromonas.It is usuallysensitive to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. Ideally, Aeromonas should be sought in pulmonary aspirates and samples of the water where immersion occurred.
- Determination of milk/plasma ratio and milk and plasma pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin after intramuscular administration in lactating cows. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vet Pharmacol Ther 2018 Sep 15
- This study was conducted to determine the passage ratio of amoxicillin into milk and its pharmacokinetics in milk and plasma after intramuscular administration. Five healthy dairy cows (Holstein, wei...
This study was conducted to determine the passage ratio of amoxicillin into milk and its pharmacokinetics in milk and plasma after intramuscular administration. Five healthy dairy cows (Holstein, weighing 450-500 kg, aged 2-4 years) were used in this study. They received single intramuscular amoxicillin at a dose of 14 mg/kg body weight. Blood and milk samples were collected prior to drug administration (0); after 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90 min; and 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 hr after administration. The plasma and milk concentrations of amoxicillin were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The passage ratio of amoxicillin into milk and plasma was determined using both AUC-based calculation and milk and plasma concentrations at sampling times; it was calculated 0.46 and 0.52, respectively. The terminal half-life and mean residence time of amoxicillin were 6.05 and 8.60 hr in plasma and 2.62 and 5.35 hr in milk, respectively. The Cmax2 levels of amoxicillin in plasma and milk were measured as 1,096 and 457 ng/ml, respectively. It was observed that amoxicillin exhibited a secondary peak in plasma and milk. This study was the first to report on the passage ratio of amoxicillin into milk in lactating cows.
- Evaluation of the ability of colistin, amoxicillin (components of Potencil® ), and fluoroquinolones to attenuate bacterial endotoxin- and Shiga exotoxin-mediated cytotoxicity-In vitro studies. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vet Pharmacol Ther 2018 Sep 15
- Escherichia coli is one of the major pathogens in humans and animals causing localized and systemic infections, which often lead to acute inflammation, watery diarrhea, and hemorrhagic colitis. Bacte...
Escherichia coli is one of the major pathogens in humans and animals causing localized and systemic infections, which often lead to acute inflammation, watery diarrhea, and hemorrhagic colitis. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Shiga exotoxins (Stx) are mostly responsible for such clinical signs. Therefore, highly effective treatment of E. coli infections should include both eradication of bacteria and neutralization of their toxins. Here, for the first time, we compared the in vitro ability of common antibiotics to decrease LPS- and Stx-mediated cytotoxicity: colistin, amoxicillin (used separately or combined), enrofloxacin, and its metabolite ciprofloxacin. Three experimental scenarios were realized as follows: (a) the direct effect of antibiotics on endotoxin, (b) the effect of antibiotic treatment on LPS-mediated cytotoxicity in an experiment mimicking "natural infection," (c) the effect of antibiotics to decrease Stx2e-mediated cytotoxicity. Two cell lines, A549 and Vero cells, were used to perform cytotoxic assays with the methyl tetrazolium (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase leakage (LDH) methods, respectively. Colistin and amoxicillin, especially used in combination, were able to attenuate LPS toxic effect, which was reflected by increase in A549 cell viability. In comparison with other antibiotics, the combination of colistin and amoxicillin exhibited the highest boster or additive effect in protecting cells against LPS- and Stx2e-induced toxicity. In summary, in comparison with fluoroquinolones, the combination of colistin and amoxicillin at concentrations similar to those achieved in plasma of treated animals exhibited the highest ability to attenuate LPS- and Stx2e-mediated cytotoxicity.
- Home intravenous versus oral antibiotics following appendectomy for perforated appendicitis in children: a randomized controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- PSPediatr Surg Int 2018 Sep 14
- CONCLUSIONS: Oral antibiotics had equivalent outcomes and incurred fewer charges than IV antibiotics following appendectomy for perforated appendicitis.
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- Oral Fluoroquinolones and Risk of Fibromyalgia. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Clin Pharmacol 2018 Sep 14
- The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently included a black box warning on fibromyalgia like symptoms with fluoroquinolones (FQs) but no large epidemiologic study is to date available. We un...
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently included a black box warning on fibromyalgia like symptoms with fluoroquinolones (FQs) but no large epidemiologic study is to date available. We undertook a case-control study using a random sample of 9,053,240 subjects obtained from the PharMetrics Plus health claims database in the United States. Cases received at least two fibromyalgia diagnoses coded by a rheumatologist matched to a ten randomly selected controls. After identifying 5,148 cases of fibromyalgia and 51,480 controls, the adjusted rate ratio of fibromyalgia for use of any fluoroquinolones, amoxicillin, and azithromycin were 1.63 (95% CI:1.41-1.87), 1.64 (95% CI: 1.46-1.85), and 1.68 (95% CI, 1.49-1.89) respectively. The adjusted RR for any use of FQ compared to any use of amoxicillin or azithromycin was 0.99 (95% CI:0.83-1.18) and azithromycin is 0.97 (95%CI:0.82-1.16) respectively. The risk of fibromyalgia with FQs is similar to that with amoxicillin and azithromycin.