- Olanzapine and haloperidol for the treatment of acute symptoms of mental disorders induced by amphetamine-type stimulants: A randomized controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(8):e9786
- CONCLUSIONS: Short-term olanzapine and haloperidol treatments had equivalent efficacies in the treatment of acute symptoms of mental disorders due to ATSs; however, olanzapine administration resulted in relatively earlier disease onset, with less adverse reactions.
- Pirouetting pigs: A large non-primate animal model based on unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning of the nigrostriatal pathway. [Journal Article]
- BRBrain Res Bull 2018 Feb 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Female Göttingen minipigs are susceptible to unilateral dopaminergic degeneration when properly injected unilaterally with sufficient amounts of 6-OHDA in the nigrostriatal pathway. The location of the 6-OHDA injections and thus the accuracy of the employed stereotaxy can be verified in vivo using MRI postoperatively. The injected minipigs display unilateral parkinsonism with a well-defined rotational response to amphetamine that may be ameliated by STN-DBS performed on the lesioned side. The response to apomorphine was, however, not consistent, illustrating that further work on this promising non-primate large animal model is needed, before it is fully similar to the established 6-OHDA models in other species.
- Clinical Outcomes from a 10-Week Follow-Up Psychoeducational Programme for Dual Diagnosis. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dual Diagn 2018 Feb 20; :0
- CONCLUSIONS: Mental health services should focus on integrated approaches via multimodal treatment interventions that encapsulate harm reduction and educational initiatives: Despite the modest sample, the findings have emphasized the importance of a broad range of treatment approaches delivered within a unitary delivery system.
- Efficacy and safety of drugs for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: a network meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- ECEur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2018 Feb 19
- The aim of this study is to gather evidence of head-to-head double-blind randomized-controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of available treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (...
The aim of this study is to gather evidence of head-to-head double-blind randomized-controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of available treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. A systematic review was conducted by two independent reviewers in ten electronic databases (PROSPERO register CRD42016043239). Methodological quality of included studies was evaluated according to the Jadad scale. Network meta-analyses were performed including double-blinded head-to-head trials comparing active allopathic drugs in patients (0-18 years old) diagnosed with ADHD. The results of efficacy and safety of atomoxetine (ATX), bupropion, buspirone (BSP), dexamphetamine, edivoxetine (EDX), guanfacine (GXR), lisdexamfetamine (LDX), methylphenidate (MPH), mixed amphetamine salts, modafinil, pindolol (PDL), reboxetine (RBX), selegiline, and venlafaxine were analyzed using ADDIS software v.1.16.5. Forty-eight trials were identified (n = 4169 participants), of which 12 were used for efficacy analysis and 33 for safety analysis. On the CGI-I scale, the analysis revealed that MPH was more effective than ATX and GXR. For the safety outcomes, according to drug ranks, LDX was more likely to cause sleep disorders (39%) as well as loss of appetite (65%) and behavior problems such as irritability (60%). BSP (71%) and EDX (44%) caused less appetite decrease. For behavioral effects, PDL was considered safest (50%). For any adverse events, RBX (89%) was the safest alternative. The lack of head-to-head trials properly reporting outcomes of interest limited some comparisons. Network meta-analysis offered a broader overview on the available treatments for ADHD, especially for safety issues, and contributes towards evidence gathering and clinical practice decisions. A core outcome set for ADHD should be designed to guide the conduction and report of clinical trials.
- Peripheral Administration of Tetanus Toxin Hc Fragment Prevents MPP+Toxicity In Vivo. [Journal Article]
- NRNeurotox Res 2018 Feb 19
- Several studies have shown that intrastriatal application of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) produces similar biochemical changes in rat to those seen in Parkinson's disease (PD), such as dopamine...
Several studies have shown that intrastriatal application of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) produces similar biochemical changes in rat to those seen in Parkinson's disease (PD), such as dopaminergic terminal degeneration and consequent appearance of motor deficits, making the MPP+lesion a widely used model of parkinsonism in rodents. Previous results from our group have shown a neuroprotective effect of the carboxyl-terminal domain of the heavy chain of tetanus toxin (Hc-TeTx) under different types of stress. In the present study, pretreatment with the intraperitoneal injection of Hc-TeTx in rats prevents the decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the striatum due to injury with MPP+, when applied stereotaxically in the striatum. Similarly, striatal catecholamine contents are restored, as well as the levels of two other dopaminergic markers, the dopamine transporter (DAT) and the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2). Additionally, uptake studies of [3H]-dopamine and [3H]-MPP+reveal that DAT action is not affected by Hc-TeTx, discarding a protective effect due to a reduced entry of MPP+into nerve terminals. Behavioral assessments show that Hc-TeTx pretreatment improves the motor skills (amphetamine-induced rotation, forelimb use, and adjusting steps) of MPP+-treated rats. Our results lead us to consider Hc-TeTx as a potential therapeutic tool in pathologies caused by impairment of dopaminergic innervation in the striatum, as is the case of PD.
- Detailed investigations into the Akabori-Momotani reaction for the synthesis of amphetamine type stimulants: Part 2. [Journal Article]
- FSForensic Sci Int 2018 Feb 06
- The Akabori-Momotani reaction can be used to synthesise pseudoephedrine in 50% yield from N-methylalanine and benzaldehyde. This paper investigates electronic effects of substituted benzaldehydes on ...
The Akabori-Momotani reaction can be used to synthesise pseudoephedrine in 50% yield from N-methylalanine and benzaldehyde. This paper investigates electronic effects of substituted benzaldehydes on the reaction to synthesise amphetamine type stimulants and identifies several new Akabori-Momotani by-products, 1-[(4-methoxybenzyl)(methyl)amino]ethanol (11c), 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,4-dimethyl-1,3-oxazolidine (12c), 1,2,3,4-tetramethyl-5,6-di-(4-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (13c) and 1,2,4,5-tetramethyl-3,6-di-(4-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (14c). This paper also investigates pseudoephedrine and methamphetamine isomeric distribution from the Akabori-Momotani reaction with the aid of molecular modelling to understand why more pseudoephedrine than ephedrine is produced.
- Maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes among illicit drug-using women in an urban setting. [Journal Article]
- TJTaiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2018; 57(1):83-88
- CONCLUSIONS: Compared to urban pregnant women without drug use, women who consumed drugs were younger, had lower level of education, poorer self-care and poorer pregnancy outcomes. ATS was the single most commonly used drug.
- Review of the evidence for the management of co-morbid Tic disorders in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. [Review]
- WJWorld J Clin Pediatr 2018 Feb 08; 7(1):36-42
- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder in children and adolescents, with prevalence ranging between 5% and 12% in the developed countries. Tic ...
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder in children and adolescents, with prevalence ranging between 5% and 12% in the developed countries. Tic disorders (TD) are common co-morbidities in paediatric ADHD patients with or without pharmacotherapy treatment. There has been conflicting evidence of the role of psychostimulants in either precipitating or exacerbating TDs in ADHD patients. We carried out a literature review relating to the management of TDs in children and adolescents with ADHD through a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane databases. No quantitative synthesis (meta-analysis) was deemed appropriate. Meta-analysis of controlled trials does not support an association between new onset or worsening of tics and normal doses of psychostimulant use. Supratherapeutic doses of dextroamphetamine have been shown to exacerbate TD. Most tics are mild or moderate and respond to psychoeducation and behavioural management. Level A evidence support the use of alpha adrenergic agonists, including Clonidine and Guanfacine, reuptake noradrenenaline inhibitors (Atomoxetine) and stimulants (Methylphenidate and Dexamphetamines) for the treatment of Tics and comorbid ADHD. Priority should be given to the management of co-morbid Tourette's syndrome (TS) or severely disabling tics in children and adolescents with ADHD. Severe TDs may require antipsychotic treatment. Antipsychotics, especially Aripiprazole, are safe and effective treatment for TS or severe Tics, but they only moderately control the co-occurring ADHD symptomatology. Short vignettes of different common clinical scenarios are presented to help clinicians determine the most appropriate treatment to consider in each patient presenting with ADHD and co-morbid TDs.
- SARM1 deletion restrains NAFLD induced by high fat diet (HFD) through reducing inflammation, oxidative stress and lipid accumulation. [Journal Article]
- BBBiochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 Feb 15
- SARM1 (Sterile alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein 1) is the recently identified TIR domain-containing cytosolic protein, which is involved in toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling transducti...
SARM1 (Sterile alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein 1) is the recently identified TIR domain-containing cytosolic protein, which is involved in toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling transduction. In the present study, the role of SARM1 in high fat diet (HFD)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression was explored. We found that SARM1 was expressed highly in fatty liver. And SARM1-knockout (KO) reduced steatohepatitis and metabolic disorders induced by HFD. SARM1-deletion decreased aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in HFD-fed mice. Additionally, inflammatory response caused by HFD was alleviated by SARM1-deletion through inactivating TLR4/7/9 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways. Of note, SARM1-deletion also reduced the expressions of inflammation-associated molecules in hypothalamus of HFD-fed mice. Furthermore, HFD administration led to oxidative stress in liver of mice, while being decreased in SARM1-KO mice. Moreover, SARM1-ablation improved lipid dyslipidemia by suppressing the mRNA levels of genes, linked to glycolysis, lipogenesis and transcriptional regulation. Insulin resistance was also attenuated by SARM1-deficiency through enhancing the activation of liver Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1)/FOXO1 pathways in HFD-fed mice. Also, SARM1-knockout improved neuropeptide Y (NPY), Pro-Opiomelanocortins (POMC), Agouti-related Protein (AGRP) and Cocaine-and-Amphetamine Responsive Transcript 1 (CART1) expressions in hypothalamus of mice after HFD administration. In vitro, we found that the reduction of inflammatory response, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia induced by SARM1-knockout in primary hepatocytes after fructose stimulation was largely attributed to its suppression to TLR4/7/9. Together, the findings demonstrated that SARM1 might be an effective target for developing effective therapeutic strategies against NAFLD.
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- Comparison of concentrations of drugs between blood samples with and without fluoride additive-important findings for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and amphetamine. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Legal Med 2018 Feb 17
- Fluoride is a common stabilizing agent in forensic toxicology to avoid the frequent problem of degradation of drugs in blood samples especially described for cocaine. In cases only samples with addit...
Fluoride is a common stabilizing agent in forensic toxicology to avoid the frequent problem of degradation of drugs in blood samples especially described for cocaine. In cases only samples with addition of fluoride are available, it is a crucial question if also concentrations of common drugs other than cocaine (amphetamines, opiates and cannabinoids) are affected by fluoride. So far, there are only rare literature data available on discrepant results especially for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). In this study, comparative analysis of positive tested paired routine plasma/serum samples (n = 375), collected at the same time point (one device with and one without fluoride), was carried out with special focus on cannabinoids. Samples were measured with validated routine liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods for THC, 11-hydroxy-THC (THC-OH), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THC-COOH), cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, morphine, codeine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, and results were statistically evaluated. Beside the expected stabilization effect on cocaine and the consequently reduced concentration of ecgonine methyl ester in fluoride samples, benzoylecgonine was elevated compared to respective samples without fluoride. Most importantly, new findings were significantly reduced mean concentrations of THC (- 17%), THC-OH (- 17%), and THC-COOH (- 22%) in fluoride samples. Mean amphetamine concentration was significantly higher in samples with the additive (+ 6%). For the other amphetamine type of drugs as well as for morphine and codeine, no significant differences could be seen. Whenever specified thresholds have been set, such as in most European countries, the use of different blood sample systems may result in a motorist being differently charged or prosecuted. The findings will support forensic toxicologists at the interpretation of results derived from fluoride-stabilized blood samples.