- Salt-Assisted Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Meconium for Analysis of Cocaine and Amphetamines by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry. [Journal Article]
- MMMethods Mol Biol 2019; 1872:199-209
- Meconium, the first stool of a newborn, can be analyzed to identify prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse. Meconium accumulates in a fetus during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy providing ...
Meconium, the first stool of a newborn, can be analyzed to identify prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse. Meconium accumulates in a fetus during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy providing a wide window of exposure. Identification of in utero drug exposure is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of infants for dependency/withdrawal caused from the exposure. However, testing of meconium samples is often cumbersome and time-consuming. Unlike liquid samples, meconium is a viscous, semisolid, tar-like substance that needs to be individually weighed prior to extraction. Additionally, the meconium matrix is not homogeneous and not easily mixed or extracted. A method for analyzing cocaine and metabolites as well as amphetamines in meconium utilizing ceramic homogenizers prior to salt-assisted liquid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is presented.
- Emulsification microextraction of amphetamine and methamphetamine in complex matrices using an up-to-date generation of eco-friendly and relatively hydrophobic deep eutectic solvent. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chromatogr A 2018 Nov 16; 1576:1-9
- In this study, a new extraction medium based on a quite bio-compatible and bio-degradable deep eutectic solvent comprising choline chloride and phenylethanol (ChCl: Ph-ETOH) was simply and cheaply sy...
In this study, a new extraction medium based on a quite bio-compatible and bio-degradable deep eutectic solvent comprising choline chloride and phenylethanol (ChCl: Ph-ETOH) was simply and cheaply synthesized at room temperature. At the next step, it was effectively utilized at the service of air agitated-emulsification microextraction (AA-EME) of two major amphetamine-type stimulants (ATSs) in human plasma and pharmaceutical wastewater pursued by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). This safe, effective, and rapid enrichment process based on the new low-density DES was easily practicable via a homemade extraction cell possessing a narrow neck and with no extra demand the emulsifier intermediates. Statistical study of main parameters effects using central composite design (CCD) combined with desirability function (DF) demonstrated that pH 12, 250 μL of extraction solvent, 8 air agitation cycles, and 5% of salt amount resulted in maximum extraction efficiencies (63-66%) with DF value close to 0.98. Under optimal conditions, wide linear dynamic ranges (LDRs) of 15.0-2000 and 8.0-3000 ng mL-1 with the determination coefficients (R2s) close to 0.99 were obtainable for amphetamine and methamphetamine, respectively. Low limits of detection (LODs) as well as relative standard deviations (%RSDs, n = 3) were found to be 2.0-5.0 ng mL-1 and 5.7-7.8%, respectively. Also, enrichment factors (EFs) were quantitative in the span of 47-50. On the other hand, satisfactory and accurate assessment at low levels close to therapeutic and toxic domains in human plasma sample and pharmaceutical wastewater was successfully obtained.
- Effects of the second-generation "bath salt" cathinone alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (α-PPP) on behavior and monoamine neurochemistry in male mice. [Journal Article]
- PPsychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Oct 01
- CONCLUSIONS: α-PPP exposure results in persistent changes in exploratory behavior, spatial working memory, and monoamine neurochemistry. This research highlights potential dangers of α-PPP, including potential neurotoxicity, and suggests that the mechanisms underlying the persistent untoward effects of the cathinones may be distinct from those of the amphetamines.
- Increased risk of diseases of the basal ganglia and cerebellum in patients with a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. [Journal Article]
- NNeuropsychopharmacology 2018; 43(13):2548-2555
- Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is marked by an ongoing pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity and involves dysregulated dopaminergic pathways. Dopaminergic agents (i.e., ampheta...
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is marked by an ongoing pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity and involves dysregulated dopaminergic pathways. Dopaminergic agents (i.e., amphetamine and methylphenidate) are thus prescribed to treat ADHD. As little is known regarding long-term consequences of either ADHD or its treatment, the objective of this study was to determine if either alters the risk of diseases of the basal ganglia and cerebellum, including Parkinson's disease. Statewide medical records from 1996 to 2016 were retrieved from the Utah Population Database to conduct a retrospective cohort study. Participants included ADHD patients (International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD-9) diagnosis codes 314.0-314.2, 314.8, 314.9) and 5:1 random sex-matched and age-matched subjects with no ADHD diagnosis history. Both patients and non-ADHD subjects met the following eligibility criteria: (1) no prior diagnosis of Parkinson's disease, secondary parkinsonism, basal ganglia disease, or essential tremor (ICD-9 codes 332.0, 332.1, 333.0, 333.1), (2) born in 1950 or later and age ≥20 years at last follow-up, and (3) no history of substance abuse (illicit drugs or alcohol). Outcomes were measured as time to diagnosis of diseases of the basal ganglia and cerebellum, death, or study-end. A Cox model incorporating a competing risk of death was used to provide hazard ratio estimates. Patients with ADHD (N = 31,769) had a 2.4-fold increased risk of basal ganglia and cerebellum diseases (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0-3.0; P < 0.0001) compared with 158,790 non-ADHD persons, after controlling for sex and age and adjusting for tobacco use and psychotic conditions. In 4960 ADHD patients prescribed psychostimulants, risk of basal ganglia and cerebellum diseases between ages 21 and 49 years was especially pronounced, at 8.6-fold (95% CI: 4.8-15.6; P < 0001). The association of ADHD patients prescribed psychostimulants with higher risk of diseases of the basal ganglia and cerebellum may reflect a more severe ADHD phenotype rather than a direct association between prescribed stimulant use and basal ganglia or cerebellum disorders. Future studies to assess and stratify patient risk so as to inform treatment are warranted.
- Synthesis and Characterization of the Selective, Reversible PKCβ Inhibitor (9 S)-9-[(Dimethylamino)methyl]-6,7,10,11-tetrahydro-9 H,18 H-5,21:12,17-dimethenodibenzo[ e,k]pyrrolo[3,4- h][1,4,13]oxadiazacyclohexadecine-18,20(19 H)-dione, Ruboxistaurin (LY333531). [Journal Article]
- ACACS Chem Neurosci 2018 Sep 11
- The demonstrated role of PKCβ in mediating amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux, which regulates amphetamine-induced dopamine transporter trafficking and activity, has promoted the research use of...
The demonstrated role of PKCβ in mediating amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux, which regulates amphetamine-induced dopamine transporter trafficking and activity, has promoted the research use of the selective, reversible PKCβ inhibitor (9 S)-9-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-6,7,10,11-tetrahydro-9 H,18 H-5,21:12,17-dimethenodibenzo[ e,k]pyrrolo[3,4- h][1,4,13]oxadiazacyclohexadecine-18,20(19 H)-dione, ruboxistaurin. Despite the interest in development of ruboxistaurin as the mesylate monohydrate (Arxxant) for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy, macular edema, and nephoropathy, several crucial details in physicochemical characterization were erroneous or missing. This report describes the synthesis and full characterization of ruboxistaurin free base (as a monohydrate), including X-ray crystallography to confirm the absolute configuration, and of the mesylate salt, isolated as a hydrate containing 1.5 mol of water per mole.
- Maximal strength training improves musculoskeletal health in amphetamine users in clinical treatment. [Journal Article]
- OIOsteoporos Int 2018; 29(10):2289-2298
- CONCLUSIONS: MST improved force generating capacity and skeletal health at sites prone to bone loss in amphetamine users, and advocate that MST should be implemented as a clinical strategy to restore the patients' musculoskeletal health.
- Varenicline treatment for methamphetamine dependence: A randomized, double-blind phase II clinical trial. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- DADrug Alcohol Depend 2018 08 01; 189:30-36
- CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that 1 mg varenicline BID was not an effective treatment for MA dependence among treatment-seeking MA-dependent volunteers.
- Characterisation of aqueous waste produced during the clandestine production of amphetamine following the Leuckart route utilising solid-phase extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection. [Journal Article]
- DTDrug Test Anal 2018; 10(9):1368-1382
- Chemical waste from the clandestine production of amphetamine is of forensic and environmental importance due to its illegal nature which often leads to dumping into the environment. In this study, 2...
Chemical waste from the clandestine production of amphetamine is of forensic and environmental importance due to its illegal nature which often leads to dumping into the environment. In this study, 27 aqueous amphetamine waste samples from controlled Leuckart reactions performed in Germany, the Netherlands, and Poland were characterised to increase knowledge about the chemical composition and physicochemical characteristics of such waste. Aqueous waste samples from different reaction steps were analysed to determine characteristic patterns which could be used for classification. Conductivity, pH, density, ionic load, and organic compounds were determined using different analytical methods. Conductivity values ranged from 1 to over 200 mS/cm, pH values from 0 to 14, and densities from 1.0 to 1.3 g/cm3 . A capillary electrophoresis method with contactless conductivity detection (CE-C4 D) was developed and validated to quantify chloride, sulphate, formate, ammonium, and sodium ions which were the most abundant ions in the investigated waste samples. A solid-phase extraction sample preparation was used prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis to determine the organic compounds. Using the characterisation data of the known samples, it was possible to assign 16 seized clandestine waste samples from an amphetamine production to the corresponding synthesis step. The data also allowed us to draw conclusions about the synthesis procedure and used chemicals. The presented data and methods could support forensic investigations by showing the probative value of synthesis waste when investigating the illegal production of amphetamine. It can also act as starting point to develop new approaches to tackle the problem of clandestine waste dumping.
- [Bonzai, lead and bath salt-poisoning with new and old drugs : Synthetic amphetamines, cathinones, cannabinoids and opioids-an overview]. [Review]
- MKMed Klin Intensivmed Notfmed 2018 Feb 05
- CONCLUSIONS: With the NpSG being in force since the end of 2016, the number of severe intoxications with NPS will probably (not immediately) decrease. It remains to be seen if the increasing number of fatalities will decrease again. Consultation with a poison centre is recommended in cases of suspected intoxication with NPS. Diagnosis and therapy can then be discussed. Toxicological screening may be false negative because many synthetic drugs are not detected in standard analysis. The NPS often require a special analysis.
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- Preparative HPLC for large scale isolation, and salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction based method for HPLC-DAD determination of khat (Catha edulis Forsk) alkaloids. [Journal Article]
- CCChem Cent J 2017 Oct 17; 11(1):107
- CONCLUSIONS: The method was found to be simple, cost-effective and provides cleaner chromatogram with good selectivity and reproducibility. The SALLE based protocol provided as good results as the conventional extraction method (ultrasonic assisted extraction followed by solid phase extraction, UAE-SPE) and hence the method can be applicable in forensic and biomedical sectors.