- Characterisation of aqueous waste produced during the clandestine production of amphetamine following the Leuckart route utilising solid-phase extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection. [Journal Article]
- DTDrug Test Anal 2018 Apr 18
- Chemical waste from the clandestine production of amphetamine is of forensic and environmental importance due to its illegal nature which often leads to dumping into the environment. In this study, 2...
Chemical waste from the clandestine production of amphetamine is of forensic and environmental importance due to its illegal nature which often leads to dumping into the environment. In this study, 27 aqueous amphetamine waste samples from controlled Leuckart reactions performed in Germany, the Netherlands, and Poland were characterised to increase knowledge about the chemical composition and physicochemical characteristics of such waste. Aqueous waste samples from different reaction steps were analysed to determine characteristic patterns which could be used for classification. Conductivity, pH, density, ionic load, and organic compounds were determined using different analytical methods. Conductivity values ranged from 1 to over 200 mS/cm, pH values from 0 to 14, and densities from 1.0 to 1.3 g/cm3 . A capillary electrophoresis method with contactless conductivity detection (CE-C4 D) was developed and validated to quantify chloride, sulphate, formate, ammonium, and sodium ions which were the most abundant ions in the investigated waste samples. A solid-phase extraction sample preparation was used prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis to determine the organic compounds. Using the characterisation data of the known samples, it was possible to assign 16 seized clandestine waste samples from an amphetamine production to the corresponding synthesis step. The data also allowed us to draw conclusions about the synthesis procedure and used chemicals. The presented data and methods could support forensic investigations by showing the probative value of synthesis waste when investigating the illegal production of amphetamine. It can also act as starting point to develop new approaches to tackle the problem of clandestine waste dumping.
- [Bonzai, lead and bath salt-poisoning with new and old drugs : Synthetic amphetamines, cathinones, cannabinoids and opioids-an overview]. [Review]
- MKMed Klin Intensivmed Notfmed 2018 Feb 05
- CONCLUSIONS: With the NpSG being in force since the end of 2016, the number of severe intoxications with NPS will probably (not immediately) decrease. It remains to be seen if the increasing number of fatalities will decrease again. Consultation with a poison centre is recommended in cases of suspected intoxication with NPS. Diagnosis and therapy can then be discussed. Toxicological screening may be false negative because many synthetic drugs are not detected in standard analysis. The NPS often require a special analysis.
- Preparative HPLC for large scale isolation, and salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction based method for HPLC-DAD determination of khat (Catha edulis Forsk) alkaloids. [Journal Article]
- CCChem Cent J 2017 Oct 17; 11(1):107
- CONCLUSIONS: The method was found to be simple, cost-effective and provides cleaner chromatogram with good selectivity and reproducibility. The SALLE based protocol provided as good results as the conventional extraction method (ultrasonic assisted extraction followed by solid phase extraction, UAE-SPE) and hence the method can be applicable in forensic and biomedical sectors.
- The GHR-R antagonist JMV 2959 neither induces malaise nor alters the malaise property of LiCl in the adult male rat. [Journal Article]
- PBPhysiol Behav 2018 Jan 01; 183:46-48
- The orexigenic peptide ghrelin (GHR) interacts with ghrelin receptors (GHR-Rs) to modulate brain reinforcement and feeding circuits. Pharmacological inactivation of GHR-Rs via administration of the d...
The orexigenic peptide ghrelin (GHR) interacts with ghrelin receptors (GHR-Rs) to modulate brain reinforcement and feeding circuits. Pharmacological inactivation of GHR-Rs via administration of the drug JMV 2959 attenuates the rewarding/reinforcing effects of several drugs of abuse including alcohol, morphine, amphetamine and nicotine. One view of these results is that inactivation of GHR-Rs taps into brain reinforcement/feeding circuits acted upon by drugs of abuse. An alternate explanation is that JMV 2959 may induce malaise, which in turn may limit reinforcement as well as food ingestion. This is a variable of interest given that nicotine alone can induce malaise which may be enhanced by JMV 2959. In the present study, we assessed the capacity of JMV 2959 to produce malaise using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) task. Adult male rats were allowed to consume a 0.1% sodium saccharin solution and then injected IP with either vehicle, 0.4mg/kg nicotine, 3mg/kg JMV 2959, a combination of 0.4mg/kg nicotine and 3mg/kg JMV 2959, or 32mg/kg lithium chloride (a positive control known to support induction of CTA). Lithium chloride produced a robust avoidance of the saccharin solution in subsequent 2 bottle (water and saccharin) tests, whereas JMV 2959 alone did not induce CTA. The combination of JMV 2959 and nicotine induced a moderate degree of CTA that was similar to that produced by nicotine alone. These results suggest that JMV 2959 is unlikely to limit either reinforcement or food ingestion via induction of malaise.
- Do Pharmaceuticals Improve Driving in Individuals with ADHD? A Review of the Literature and Evidence for Clinical Practice. [Review]
- CDCNS Drugs 2017; 31(10):857-866
- Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined as a disorder of impaired attention and/or behavioral control. Studies suggest that the condition can dispose individuals to a higher risk o...
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined as a disorder of impaired attention and/or behavioral control. Studies suggest that the condition can dispose individuals to a higher risk of automobile accidents. ADHD symptoms respond to pharmacotherapy in a majority of uncomplicated cases. Evidence on how pharmacotherapies for ADHD impact driving behavior or outcomes could allow clinicians to support on-road safety rationally. We therefore undertook a review to identify the evidence base to date indicating positive or negative effects of pharmacotherapies on driving behavior in individuals with ADHD. Further, we evaluated the level of evidence for these effects, their specificity to ADHD, and how they may inform clinical care. We identified studies involving pharmacotherapy for ADHD that evaluated driving-related activities or outcomes. We then categorized these studies by the mode of measurement used and by the ADHD specificity of the driving behaviors measured. Finally, we extracted themes of interest to clinical practice in pharmacologic intervention. In total, 14 studies, involving 2-61 subjects diagnosed with ADHD, looked at computer-measured, observer-measured, or self-reported driving behavior correlates of pharmacotherapy during simulation or on-road driving. Of these studies, 13 involved psychostimulant agents and two used atomoxetine. All but three investigations (one of methylphenidate, one of mixed amphetamine salts, and one of atomoxetine) found favorable changes in measures such as steering and braking behaviors or reaction to unexpected events. One study found adverse effects on driving at hour 17 following mixed amphetamine salt administration. Four studies compared two pharmacotherapies, and each found differences in measured driving behavior between the therapies. One study explored impact on ADHD-specific driving impairments, and the same study was the only one to explore correlation of clinical measures (ADHD symptoms and self-reported driving behavior) with medication-associated changes-finding dissociation between changes in ADHD symptoms and changes in measured driving measures. While data to date are limited on the ADHD-specific effects of pharmacotherapies used for ADHD on driving, it is clear from our review that these agents have effects on driving-relevant behaviors. Further research is urgently needed to develop an evidence base for clinically predictable effects of pharmacotherapy on driving safety in individuals with ADHD. If possible, clinicians should evaluate the positive and negative effects of pharmacotherapy on driving in their clients.
- Molecularly imprinted polymer-sol-gel tablet toward micro-solid phase extraction: II. Determination of amphetamine in human urine samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2017 Sep 15; 1063:130-135
- Amphetamine selective molecularly imprinted sol-gel polymer tablets, MIP-tablets, for solid-phase microextraction of biofluid samples were prepared. An acetonitrile solution of deuterated amphetamine...
Amphetamine selective molecularly imprinted sol-gel polymer tablets, MIP-tablets, for solid-phase microextraction of biofluid samples were prepared. An acetonitrile solution of deuterated amphetamine template and silane precursor, 3-(propylmethacrylate) trimethoxysilane, was soaked into the pores of polyethylene tablet substrates and polymerized by an acid-catalysed sol-gel process. Application of the resultant MIP-tablets to extract amphetamine from human urine samples followed by LC-MS/MS analysis was investigated. The extraction protocol was optimised with respect to pH of sample, addition of sodium chloride, extraction time, desorption solvent and desorption time. The final analysis method determined amphetamine in human urine with a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.0ng/mL and a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 5ng/mL. Validation demonstrated accuracy of the method was 91.0-104.0% and inter-assay precision was 4.8-8.5% (RSD). Extraction recovery was 80%. The MIP-tablets could be re-used and the same tablet could be employed for more than twenty extractions.
- Targeting of dopamine transporter to filopodia requires an outward-facing conformation of the transporter. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2017 Jul 14; 7(1):5399
- Dopamine transporter (DAT) has been shown to accumulate in filopodia in neurons and non-neuronal cells. To examine the mechanisms of DAT filopodial targeting, we used quantitative live-cell fluoresce...
Dopamine transporter (DAT) has been shown to accumulate in filopodia in neurons and non-neuronal cells. To examine the mechanisms of DAT filopodial targeting, we used quantitative live-cell fluorescence microscopy, and compared the effects of the DAT inhibitor cocaine and its fluorescent analog JHC1-64 on the plasma membrane distribution of wild-type DAT and two non-functional DAT mutants, R60A and W63A, that do not accumulate in filopodia. W63A did not bind JHC1-64, whereas R60A did, although less efficiently compared to the wild-type DAT. Molecular dynamics simulations predicted that R60A preferentially assumes an outward-facing (OF) conformation through compensatory intracellular salt bridge formation, which in turn favors binding of cocaine. Imaging analysis showed that JHC1-64-bound R60A mutant predominantly localized in filopodia, whereas free R60A molecules were evenly distributed within the plasma membrane. Cocaine binding significantly increased the density of R60A, but not that of W63A, in filopodia. Further, zinc binding, known to stabilize the OF state, also increased R60A concentration in filopodia. Finally, amphetamine, that is thought to disrupt DAT OF conformation, reduced the concentration of wild-type DAT in filopodia. Altogether, these data indicate that OF conformation is required for the efficient targeting of DAT to, and accumulation in, filopodia.
- Mixed-amphetamine salts expectancies among college students: Is stimulant induced cognitive enhancement a placebo effect? [Journal Article]
- DADrug Alcohol Depend 2017 Sep 01; 178:302-309
- CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that although non-medical use of stimulants does not enhance cognition, expectancies prominently influence cognitive performance. Participants who believed they received active medication both subjectively rated themselves as performing better and objectively performed better on a minority of subtests, independent of medication state.
- Monoaminergic toxicity induced by cathinone phthalimide: An in vitro study. [Journal Article]
- NLNeurosci Lett 2017 Aug 10; 655:76-81
- Bath salts, or synthetic cathinones, have cocaine-like or amphetamine-like properties and induce psychoactive effects via their capacity to modulate serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA). Structurally d...
Bath salts, or synthetic cathinones, have cocaine-like or amphetamine-like properties and induce psychoactive effects via their capacity to modulate serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA). Structurally distinct synthetic cathinones are continuously being generated to skirt existing drug laws. One example of these modified compounds is cathinone phthalimide (CP), which has already appeared on the global market. The lack of toxicological studies on the effects of CP on monoaminergic systems led to the development of the present study in order to generate an acute toxicity profile for CP, and to clarify whether it primarily affects both dopamine and serotonin, like the synthetic cathinones mephedrone and methylone, or primarily affects dopamine, like 3, 4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). For the first time, the toxicity profile of CP (10μM-1000μM) is reported. In pheochromocytoma cells, exposure to CP induced cell death, and altered mitochondrial function, as well as intracellular DA and 5-HT levels; at the same time, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels remained unaffected. This seems to indicate that CP functions like mephedrone or methylone. The role of CP metabolites, the effect of CP induced hyperthermia on neurotoxicity, and its ability to traverse the blood-brain barrier warrant further consideration.
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- Ecstasy induces reactive oxygen species, kidney water absorption and rhabdomyolysis in normal rats. Effect of N-acetylcysteine and Allopurinol in oxidative stress and muscle fiber damage. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2017; 12(7):e0179199
- CONCLUSIONS: Results showed that Ec induced an increase in AQP2 expression, evidencing another mechanism that might contribute to cause rapid hyponatremia. In addition, they showed that NAC and Allo protected against OS, but only Allo decreased rhabdomyolysis and hyperthermia.