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Unbound Medicine.
(Amphibia)
112,770 results
  • The thermal ecology and physiology of reptiles and amphibians: A user's guide. [Review]
    J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol. 2020 Jul 08 [Online ahead of print]Taylor EN, Diele-Viegas LM, … Telemeco RS
  • Research on the thermal ecology and physiology of free-living organisms is accelerating as scientists and managers recognize the urgency of the global biodiversity crisis brought on by climate change. As ectotherms, temperature fundamentally affects most aspects of the lives of amphibians and reptiles, making them excellent models for studying how animals are impacted by changing temperatures. As…
  • What Is the Evolutionary Fingerprint in Neutrophil Granulocytes? [Review]
    Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Jun 25; 21(12)Fingerhut L, Dolz G, de Buhr N
  • Over the years of evolution, thousands of different animal species have evolved. All these species require an immune system to defend themselves against invading pathogens. Nevertheless, the immune systems of different species are obviously counteracting against the same pathogen with different efficiency. Therefore, the question arises if the process that was leading to the clades of vertebrates…
  • Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide in the Carotid Body-A History of Forty Years of Research. A Mini Review. [Review]
    Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Jun 30; 21(13)Gonkowski S
  • Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) consists of 28 amino acid residues and is widespread in many internal organs and systems. Its presence has also been found in the nervous structures supplying the carotid body not only in mammals but also in birds and amphibians. The number and distribution of VIP in the carotid body clearly depends on the animal species studied; however, among all the spec…
  • Risk of survival, establishment and spread of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) in the EU. [Journal Article]
    EFSA J. 2018 Apr; 16(4):e05259.EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW), More S, … Gortázar Schmidt C
  • Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) is an emerging fungal pathogen of salamanders. Despite limited surveillance, Bsal was detected in kept salamanders populations in Belgium, Germany, Spain, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, and in wild populations in some regions of Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands. According to niche modelling, at least part of the distribution range of every sal…
  • Scientific Opinion on the state of the science on pesticide risk assessment for amphibians and reptiles. [Journal Article]
    EFSA J. 2018 Feb; 16(2):e05125.EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR), Ockleford C, … Smith RH
  • Following a request from EFSA, the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues developed an opinion on the science to support the potential development of a risk assessment scheme of plant protection products for amphibians and reptiles. The coverage of the risk to amphibians and reptiles by current risk assessments for other vertebrate groups was investigated. Available test methods an…
  • Preliminary evidence for hdv exposure in apparently non-HBV-infected patients. [Journal Article]
    Hepatology. 2020 Jul 06 [Online ahead of print]Chemin I, Pujol FH, … Cosset FL
  • Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defective human virus that lacks the ability to produce its own envelope proteins and is thus dependent on the presence of a helper virus, which provides its surface proteins to produce infectious particles. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) was so far thought to be the only helper virus described to be associated to HDV. However, recent studies showed that divergent HDV-li…
  • Morphological Evidence for an Oral Venom System in Caecilian Amphibians. [Journal Article]
    iScience. 2020 Jun 19 [Online ahead of print]Mailho-Fontana PL, Antoniazzi MM, … Jared C
  • Amphibians are known for their skin rich in glands containing toxins employed in passive chemical defense against predators, different from, for example, snakes that have active chemical defense, injecting their venom into the prey. Caecilians (Amphibia, Gymnophiona) are snake-shaped animals with fossorial habits, considered one of the least known vertebrate groups. We show here that amphibian ca…
  • Niche models at inter- and intraspecific levels reveal hierarchical niche differentiation in midwife toads. [Journal Article]
    Sci Rep. 2020 Jul 02; 10(1):10942.Rodríguez-Rodríguez EJ, Beltrán JF, … Aragón P
  • Variation and population structure play key roles in the speciation process, but adaptive intraspecific genetic variation is commonly ignored when forecasting species niches. Amphibians serve as excellent models for testing how climate and local adaptations shape species distributions due to physiological and dispersal constraints and long generational times. In this study, we analysed the climat…
  • Environmental and host factors shaping the gut microbiota diversity of brown frog Rana dybowskii. [Journal Article]
    Sci Total Environ. 2020 Jun 13; 741:140142.Tong Q, Cui LY, … Wang HB
  • Symbiotic microbial communities are common in amphibians, and the composition of gut microbial communities varies with factors such as host phylogeny, life stage, ecology, and diet. However, little is known regarding how amphibians acquire their microbiota or how their growth, development, and environmental factors affect the diversity of their microbiotas. We sampled the gut microbiota during di…
  • Secretion and Function of Pituitary Prolactin in Evolutionary Perspective. [Review]
    Front Neurosci. 2020; 14:621.Dobolyi A, Oláh S, … Cservenák M
  • The hypothalamo-pituitary system developed in early vertebrates. Prolactin is an ancient vertebrate hormone released from the pituitary that exerts particularly diverse functions. The purpose of the review is to take a comparative approach in the description of prolactin, its secretion from pituitary lactotrophs, and hormonal functions. Since the reproductive and osmoregulatory roles of prolactin…
  • Sika deer presence affects the host-parasite interface of a Japanese land leech. [Journal Article]
    Ecol Evol. 2020 Jun; 10(12):6030-6038.Morishima K, Nakano T, Aizawa M
  • Since the 1990s, increasing populations of a blood feeding land leech (Haemadipsa japonica) have become a serious issue in several Japanese prefectures, and it may be caused by the increases in sika deer (Cervus nippon) populations seen over the last quarter of the century. Therefore, this study aimed to reveal the host animal species of H. japonica using iDNA (vertebrate DNA isolated from invert…
  • Beyond the limits: identifying the high-frequency detectors in the anuran ear. [Journal Article]
    Biol Lett. 2020 Jul; 16(7):20200343.Cobo-Cuan A, Grafe TU, Narins PM
  • Despite the predominance of low-frequency hearing in anuran amphibians, a few frog species have evolved high-frequency communication within certain environmental contexts. Huia cavitympanum is the most remarkable anuran with regard to upper frequency limits; it is the first frog species known to emit exclusively ultrasonic signals. Characteristics of the Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions f…
  • Microplastic ingestion by tadpoles of pond-breeding amphibians-first results from Central Europe (SW Poland). [Journal Article]
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 Jun 29 [Online ahead of print]Kolenda K, Kuśmierek N, Pstrowska K
  • Microplastics (MPs) are one of the major threats to aquatic ecosystems. Surprisingly, our knowledge of its occurrence and its impact on the organisms that dwell in small water bodies is still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and chemical composition of MPs in tadpoles of pond-breeding amphibians. In total, 201 tadpoles belonging to 5 species were collected from 8 po…
  • Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in the Canadian environment: Exposure and effects on wildlife. [Review]
    Environ Pollut. 2020 Jun 13; 265(Pt B):114863.Wallace SJ, de Solla SR, … Langlois VS
  • Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) are ubiquitous in the environment. Wildlife (including fish) are chronically exposed to PACs through air, water, sediment, soil, and/or dietary routes. Exposures are highest near industrial or urban sites, such as aluminum smelters and oil sands mines, or near natural sources such as forest fires. This review assesses the exposure and toxicity of PACs to wildl…
  • Spindly leg syndrome in Atelopus varius is linked to environmental calcium and phosphate availability. [Journal Article]
    PLoS One. 2020; 15(6):e0235285.Lassiter E, Garcés O, … Gratwicke B
  • Spindly leg syndrome (SLS) is a relatively common musculoskeletal abnormality associated with captive-rearing of amphibians with aquatic larvae. We conducted an experiment to investigate the role of environmental calcium and phosphate in causing SLS in tadpoles. Our 600-tadpole experiment used a fully-factorial design, rearing Atelopus varius tadpoles in water with either high (80mg/l CaCO3), med…
  • A conservation checklist of the herpetofauna of Morelos, with comparisons with adjoining states. [Journal Article]
    Zookeys. 2020; 941:121-144.Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR
  • Despite being one of the smallest states in Mexico, the high diversity of habitats in Morelos has led to the development of a rich biota made up of a mixture of species typical of the Neovolcanic Axis and the Sierra Madre del Sur. However, recent expansion of cities in Morelos is likely to have consequences for the state's herpetofauna. Here a checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Morelos i…
  • Macroevolutionary patterns of sexual size dimorphism among African tree frogs (Family: Hyperoliidae). [Journal Article]
    J Hered. 2020 Jun 28 [Online ahead of print]Portik DM, Blackburn DC, McGuire JA
  • Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is shaped by multiple selective forces that drive the evolution of sex-specific body size, resulting in male or female-biased SSD. Stronger selection on one sex can result in an allometric body-size scaling relationship consistent with Rensch's rule or its converse. Anurans (frogs and toads) generally display female-biased SSD, but there is variation across clades and…
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