- Effect of phosphate releasing in activated sludge on phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Environ Sci (China) 2018; 67:216-223
- Aluminum and ferric salts are commonly used in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWPTs) for phosphorus (P) removal. In this study, on-site jar tests were conducted to determine the removal of di...
Aluminum and ferric salts are commonly used in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWPTs) for phosphorus (P) removal. In this study, on-site jar tests were conducted to determine the removal of different P species from the fresh samples in the presence and absence of activated sludge (AS) with different doses of alum, poly-aluminum chloride, and ferric chloride at different pH. The soluble P (SP) concentration in the samples was about 0.63mg/L. When the mixed liquor containing AS was treated with 8mg/L of Al, SP could be reduced to 0.13mg/L, while it was reduced to 0.16mg/L with only 1mg/L of Al after sedimentation removal of AS from sample. Chemical analysis determined that AS contained 59.8mg-P/g-TSS and 43.8mg-Al/g-TSS and most of the P was associated with the aluminum hydroxide. We discovered that the phosphate in the AS could readily be released from it, which was mainly responsible for ineffective removal of P to low levels in mixed liquor even with very high alum dose. This study provides new insight into the behavior and fate of P in the wastewater treatment plants that use alum to enhance P removal in the final effluent.
- Environmental evaluation of flocculation efficiency in the separation of the microalgal biomass of Scenedesmus sp. cultivated in full-scale photobioreactors. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2018 May 15; :1-8
- In this paper the environmental evaluation of the separation process of the microalgal biomass Scenedesmus sp. from full-scale photobioreactors was carried out at the Research and Development Nucleus...
In this paper the environmental evaluation of the separation process of the microalgal biomass Scenedesmus sp. from full-scale photobioreactors was carried out at the Research and Development Nucleus for Sustainable Energy (NPDEAS), with different flocculants (iron sulfate - FeCl3, sodium hydroxide - NaOH, calcium hydroxide - Ca(OH)2 and aluminum sulphate Al2(SO4)3, by means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, using the SimaPro 7.3 software. Furthermore, the flocculation efficiency by means of optical density (OD) was also evaluated. The results indicated that FeCl3 and Al2(SO4)3 were highly effective for the recovery of microalgal biomass, greater than 95%. Though, when FeCl3 was used, there was an immediate change in color to the biomass after the orange colored salt was added, typical with the presence of iron, which may compromise the biomass use according to its purpose and Al2(SO4)3 is associated with the occurrence of Alzheimer's disease, restricting the application of biomass recovered through this process for nutritional purposes, for example. Therefore, it was observed that sodium hydroxide is an efficient flocculant, promoting recovery around 93.5% for the ideal concentration of 144 mg per liter. It had the best environmental profile among the compared flocculant agents, since it did not cause visible changes in the biomass or compromise its use and had less impact in relation to acidification, eutrophication, global warming and human toxicity, among others. Thus, the results indicate that it is important to consider both flocculation efficiency aspects and environmental impacts to identify the best flocculants on an industrial scale, to optimize the process, with lower amount of flocculant and obtain the maximum biomass recovery and decrease the impact on the extraction, production, treatment and reuse of these chemical compounds to the environment. However, more studies are needed in order to evaluate energy efficiency of the process coupled with other microalgal biomass recovery technologies. In addition, studies with natural flocculants, other polymers and changes in pH are also needed, as these are produced in a more sustainable way than synthetic organic polymers and have the potential to generate a biomass free of undesirable contaminants.
- Evaluation of the efficacy of a novel porcine circovirus type 2 synthetic peptide vaccine. [Journal Article]
- CJCan J Vet Res 2018; 82(2):146-153
- A novel porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) peptide vaccine comprised of a consensus capsid (Cap) protein domain encoded by open reading frame 2 was developed to control PCV2 infection. The efficacy of ...
A novel porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) peptide vaccine comprised of a consensus capsid (Cap) protein domain encoded by open reading frame 2 was developed to control PCV2 infection. The efficacy of the vaccine was evaluated against a commercial baculovirus-expressed recombinant PCV2 subunit vaccine based on the Cap protein. The amino acid sequence of this Cap protein was designed based on the alignment of amino acid sequences from different isolates from Europe, North America, and Asia. The vaccine was evaluated in either phosphate-buffered saline or adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide, cobalt oxide, or liposome. Overall the PCV2 peptide vaccine was less efficacious against PCV2 challenge compared with the commercial PCV2 vaccine. The peptide vaccine was the most efficacious when liposome was used as an adjuvant, significantly (P < 0.05) reducing viremia while increasing the levels of neutralizing antibodies and interferon-γ secreting cells. This suggests, in the presence of liposome, the peptide vaccine was able to elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses.
- Curdlan sulfate-O-linked quaternized chitosan nanoparticles: potential adjuvants to improve the immunogenicity of exogenous antigens via intranasal vaccination. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Nanomedicine 2018; 13:2377-2394
- CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, these results suggest that CS/O-HTCC nanoparticles are ideal vaccine adjuvants for soluble antigens used in intranasal or mucosal vaccination.
- Generation and characterization of a bivalent protein boost for future clinical trials: HIV-1 subtypes CR01_AE and B gp120 antigens with a potent adjuvant. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(4):e0194266
- The RV144 Phase III clinical trial with ALVAC-HIV prime and AIDSVAX B/E subtypes CRF01_AE (A244) and B (MN) gp120 boost vaccine regime in Thailand provided a foundation for the future development of ...
The RV144 Phase III clinical trial with ALVAC-HIV prime and AIDSVAX B/E subtypes CRF01_AE (A244) and B (MN) gp120 boost vaccine regime in Thailand provided a foundation for the future development of improved vaccine strategies that may afford protection against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Results from this trial showed that immune responses directed against specific regions V1V2 of the viral envelope (Env) glycoprotein gp120 of HIV-1, were inversely correlated to the risk of HIV-1 infection. Due to the low production of gp120 proteins in CHO cells (2-20 mg/L), cleavage sites in V1V2 loops (A244) and V3 loop (MN) causing heterogeneous antigen products, it was an urgent need to generate CHO cells harboring A244 gp120 with high production yields and an additional, homogenous and uncleaved subtype B gp120 protein to replace MN used in RV144 for the future clinical trials. Here we describe the generation of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines stably expressing vaccine HIV-1 Env antigens for these purposes: one expressing an HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE A244 Env gp120 protein (A244.AE) and one expressing an HIV-1 subtype B 6240 Env gp120 protein (6240.B) suitable for possible future manufacturing of Phase I clinical trial materials with cell culture expression levels of over 100 mg/L. The antigenic profiles of the molecules were elucidated by comprehensive approaches including analysis with a panel of well-characterized monoclonal antibodies recognizing critical epitopes using Biacore and ELISA, and glycosylation analysis by mass spectrometry, which confirmed previously identified glycosylation sites and revealed unknown sites of O-linked and N-linked glycosylations at non-consensus motifs. Overall, the vaccines given with MF59 adjuvant induced higher and more rapid antibody (Ab) responses as well as higher Ab avidity than groups given with aluminum hydroxide. Also, bivalent proteins (A244.AE and 6240.B) formulated with MF59 elicited distinct V2-specific Abs to the epitope previously shown to correlate with decreased risk of HIV-1 infection in the RV144 trial. All together, these results provide critical information allowing the consideration of these candidate gp120 proteins for future clinical evaluations in combination with a potent adjuvant.
- Defluoridation using novel chemically treated carbonized bone meal: batch and dynamic performance with scale-up studies. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Apr 25
- Novel defluoridating adsorbent was synthesized by chemical treatment of carbonized bone meal using aluminum sulfate and calcium oxide. Precursor for chemical treatment was prepared by partial carboni...
Novel defluoridating adsorbent was synthesized by chemical treatment of carbonized bone meal using aluminum sulfate and calcium oxide. Precursor for chemical treatment was prepared by partial carbonization of raw bone meal at 550 °C for 4 h. Maximum fluoride removal capacity was 150 mg/g when carbonized bone meal (100 g/L) was treated with aluminum sulfate (500 g/L) and calcium oxide (15 g/L). Morphological analysis revealed formation of a coating layer consisting of aluminum compounds on the precursor surface. This was verified by stretching frequency of aluminum hydroxide (602 cm-1) in the infrared spectra. Presence of hydroxylapatite (2θ = 30° and 2θ = 24°) and aluminum mineral phases (2θ = 44°) in the adsorbent were identified from the X-ray diffractograms. Adsorption capacity decreased from 150 mg/g (30 °C) to 120 mg/g (50 °C) indicating exothermic adsorption. Adsorption experiments under batch kinetic mode were simulated using shrinking core model. Effective fluoride diffusivity in the adsorbent and the mass transfer coefficient were estimated as 5.8 × 10-12 m2/s and 9 × 10-4 m/s, respectively. Desorption was maximum at basic pH and desorption efficiency was decreased by 31% after third cycle. Dynamic filtration with artificially fluoride-spiked solution showed that the empty bed contact time for a packed column with equal weight of carbonized and chemically treated adsorbent was 4.7 min and number of bed volumes treated (till WHO limit of 1.5 mg/L) was 340 for a column of 3-cm diameter and 18-cm length. The system was successfully tested using contaminated groundwater from an affected area. Fixed-bed column experiments were simulated from the first principles using convective pore diffusion-adsorption model for both synthetic solution and contaminated groundwater. Axial dispersion coefficient was found to be one order of magnitude less than the pore diffusivity indicating dominance of fluoride diffusion within porous network of adsorbent. The developed adsorbent exhibited antibacterial property as well.
- Alum/Toll-Like Receptor 7 Adjuvant Enhances the Expansion of Memory B Cell Compartment Within the Draining Lymph Node. [Journal Article]
- FIFront Immunol 2018; 9:641
- Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective health interventions and, with the exception of water sanitization, no other action has had such a major effect in mortality reduction. Combined with oth...
Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective health interventions and, with the exception of water sanitization, no other action has had such a major effect in mortality reduction. Combined with other approaches, such as clean water, better hygiene, and health education, vaccination contributed to prevent millions of cases of deaths among children under 5 years of age. New or improved vaccines are needed to fight some vaccine-preventable diseases that are still a threat for the public health globally, as reported also in the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2012. Adjuvants are substances that enhance the effectiveness of vaccination, but despite their critical role for the development of novel vaccines, very few of them are approved for use in humans. Aluminum hydroxide (Alum) is the most common adjuvant used in vaccines administered in millions of doses around the world to prevent several dangerous diseases. The development of an improved version of Alum can help to design and produce new or better vaccines. Alum/toll-like receptor (TLR)7 is a novel Alum-based adjuvant, currently in phase I clinical development, formed by the attachment of a benzonaphthyridine compound, TLR7 agonist, to Alum. In preclinical studies, Alum/TLR7 showed a superior adjuvant capacity, compared to Alum, in several disease models, such as meningococcal meningitis, anthrax, staphylococcus infections. None of these studies reported the effect of Alum/TLR7 on the generation of the B cell memory compartment, despite this is a critical aspect to achieve a better immunization. In this study, we show, for the first time, that, compared to Alum, Alum/TLR7 enhances the expansion of the memory B cell compartment within the draining lymph node (LN) as result of intranodal sustained proliferation of antigen-engaged B cells and/or accumulation of memory B cells. In addition, we observed that Alum/TLR7 induces a recruitment of naïve antigen-specific B cells within the draining LN that may help to sustain the germinal center reaction. Our data further support Alum/TLR7 as a new promising adjuvant, which might contribute to meet the expectations of the GVAP for 2020 and beyond.
- Parenterally Administered Norovirus GII.4 Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Formulated with Aluminum Hydroxide or Monophosphoryl Lipid A Adjuvants Induces Systemic but Not Mucosal Immune Responses in Mice. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Immunol Res 2018; 2018:3487095
- Norovirus (NoV) is a main cause of acute gastroenteritis across all ages worldwide. NoV vaccine candidates currently in clinical trials are based on noninfectious highly immunogenic virus-like partic...
Norovirus (NoV) is a main cause of acute gastroenteritis across all ages worldwide. NoV vaccine candidates currently in clinical trials are based on noninfectious highly immunogenic virus-like particles (VLPs) delivered intramuscularly (IM). Since NoV is an enteric pathogen, it is likely that mucosal immunity has a significant role in protection from infection in the intestine. Due to the fact that IM delivery of NoV VLPs does not generate mucosal immunity, we investigated whether NoV genotype GII.4 VLPs coadministered with aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3) or monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) would induce mucosal antibodies in mice. Systemic as well as mucosal IgG and IgA antibodies in serum and intestinal and nasal secretions were measured. As expected, strong serum IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a antibodies as well as a dose sparing effect were induced by both Al(OH)3 and MPLA, but no mucosal IgA antibodies were detected. In contrast, IN immunization with GII.4 VLPs without an adjuvant induced systemic as well as mucosal IgA antibody response. These results indicate that mucosal delivery of NoV VLPs is needed for induction of mucosal responses.
- Synthesis, characterization and working mechanism of a novel sustained-release-type fluid loss additive for seawater cement slurry. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Colloid Interface Sci 2018 Apr 04; 524:434-444
- Synthetic polymer fluid loss additive (FLA), an important type of admixture, was broadly applied in modern well cementation. However, the filter loss volume and fluidity of cement pastes containing p...
Synthetic polymer fluid loss additive (FLA), an important type of admixture, was broadly applied in modern well cementation. However, the filter loss volume and fluidity of cement pastes containing polymer-FLA would deteriorate remarkably when sea water was used in mixing slurries instead of fresh water. In this study, a novel sustained-release-type fluid loss additive(S-FLA) was synthesized by means of anion-exchange intercalation reaction between an anionic type-copolymer and a calcium/aluminum type-Layered Double Hydroxide (Ca/Al-LDH). Based on the fluidity and compressive strength of experiments, it was found that in seawater mixing conditions, this composite material not only utilized its sustained release effect to significantly improve retention fluidity performance, but also the seed crystal effect of the Ca/Al-LDH effectively alleviated the declining in compressive strength of the slurries caused by the carboxyl group in the polymer. More interestingly, the realization of the slow release function increased actual adsorption capacity of the anionic polymer on the surface of cement hydrated particles, which made its controlling water loss effect was also better than that of the conventional FLA. The above advantages of this hybrid materials created the possibility to surmount the negative effect of electrolytes present in seawater, so as to provide some useful references for its practical application in the offshore well cement.
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- [Different aluminum adjuvants significantly enhances the effect of immunization on Brucella Omp31]. [Journal Article]
- XBXi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2018; 34(2):123-128
- Objective To investigate the effect of aluminum phosphate (AP) and aluminum hydroxide (AH) as adjuvants on Brucella outer membrane protein 31 (Omp31) in inducing humoral and cellular immune responses...
Objective To investigate the effect of aluminum phosphate (AP) and aluminum hydroxide (AH) as adjuvants on Brucella outer membrane protein 31 (Omp31) in inducing humoral and cellular immune responses and immune protection. Methods AP and AH adjuvants were prepared and separately mixed with Brucella Omp31 protein to measure the adsorption rates. The AP- and AH-absorbed Omp31 protein were intraperitoneally injected into BLAB/c mice at 0, 2, and 4 weeks, and meanwhile, unabsorbed Omp31 protein and PBS were used as controls. The levels of serum IgG, IgG1, IgG2a and genital tract secretion sIgA were determined by ELISA at 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Spleen cells were collected for culture at 6 weeks, and the cells were stimulated by Omp31 for 48 hours followed by the analysis of IFN-γ and IL-10 levels in the supernatants by ELISA, and the determination of lymphocyte proliferation by CCK-8 assay. The mice were challenged with Brucella at 6 weeks, and bacterial content in spleen tissue was determined 1 and 2 weeks later. Results AP and AH could absorb over 70% and 85% of the Omp31 protein, respectively, for solutions at all the tested concentrations. ELISA suggested that serum IgG, IgG1, IgG2a and genital tract sIgA levels peaked 2 weeks after the last immunization for both AP and AH groups, and antibody level was higher in the AP and AH groups than the control groups, and higher in the AH group than in the AP group. CCK-8 assay showed that the proliferating rate of lymphocytes induced by the AH group was significantly higher than that by the AP group, and the AH group also showed significantly higher IFN-γ level in the supernatant than the AP group, but no significant difference in IL-10 level. The AH group had remarkably lower bacterial load in the spleen than the AP group 2 weeks after challenged by Brucella 16M strain. Conclusion Both AP and AH adjuvants effectively enhanced immunogenicity and immune protection of the Brucella Omp31 protein, and AH was superior to AP in this respect.