- Clinical evidences supporting the Src/c-Abl pathway as potential therapeutic target in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. [Letter]
- JNJ Neurol Sci 2018 Aug 11; 393:80-82
- Safety, Feasibility of Intravenous and Intrathecal Injection of Autologous Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Open Label Phase I Clinical Trial. [Journal Article]
- CJCell J 2019; 20(4):592-598
- CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that IV and IT transplantation of BM-derived stromal cells is safe and feasible (Registration numbers: NCT01759797 and NCT01771640).
- Preliminary Observation about Alteration of Proteins and Their Potential Functions in Spinal Cord of SOD1 G93A Transgenic Mice. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biol Sci 2018; 14(10):1306-1320
- The protein abnormality participates in the development of ALS that meets with the widespread approval from major researchers. However, these currently found abnormal proteins aren't far enough to ex...
The protein abnormality participates in the development of ALS that meets with the widespread approval from major researchers. However, these currently found abnormal proteins aren't far enough to explain all pathogenesis of ALS. Therefore, the search of novel abnormal proteins participated in the pathogenesis of ALS is very necessary. In this study, we screened, compared and analyzed the differentially expressed proteins in the spinal cord of the SOD1 G93A transgenic and wild-type (WT) mice applying the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and the bioinformatics methods. The results revealed the details of significantly differentially expressed proteins between the SOD1 G93A transgenic and WT mice, and the damaged and/or regulated cellular components, molecular functions and biological processes and the significant enrichment pathways of these proteins. Our study comprehensively described the details of the possible abnormal proteins participated in the pathogenesis of SOD1 G93A transgenic mice, extensively explored their possible molecular mechanisms how to play the role in the development in this animal model, and provided some evidences and clues for further and deeply studying the relationship between the abnormal proteins and the pathogenesis of ALS in the other animal models and ALS patients.
- How did Lou Gehrig get Lou Gehrig's disease? Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in manure, soil, dirt, dust and grass and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (motor neurone disease) clusters in football, rugby and soccer players. [Journal Article]
- MHMed Hypotheses 2018; 119:1-5
- There are several suspected infectious causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or motor neurone disease including HIV-1 and species of Brucella, Cyanobacteria and Schistosoma. The increased rat...
There are several suspected infectious causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or motor neurone disease including HIV-1 and species of Brucella, Cyanobacteria and Schistosoma. The increased rates and clusters of ALS in amateur and professional outdoor sports players including rugby, football and soccer players suggest a microorganism present in the grass, dirt and dust they play on and in may be a causative factor. The probable zoonosis Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is heavily excreted in an infected domestic ruminant's feces or manure and is extensively distributed throughout the soil in countries where MAP infection of domestic livestock is longstanding. Like other zoonotic pathogens, MAP can be transmitted to humans by inhalation of aerosolized pathogen-contaminated soil, by direct contact of pathogen-contaminated grass, dirt and dust with mucus membranes lining the nose or mouth or through abrasions and cuts in the skin. Outdoor sports players may develop ALS after multiple oral, nasal or subcutaneous doses of MAP present in the dirt, dust and grass of their playing fields.
- C9orf72-mediated ALS and FTD: multiple pathways to disease. [Review]
- NRNat Rev Neurol 2018 Aug 17
- The discovery that repeat expansions in the C9orf72 gene are a frequent cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) has revolutionized our understanding of these di...
The discovery that repeat expansions in the C9orf72 gene are a frequent cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) has revolutionized our understanding of these diseases. Substantial headway has been made in characterizing C9orf72-mediated disease and unravelling its underlying aetiopathogenesis. Three main disease mechanisms have been proposed: loss of function of the C9orf72 protein and toxic gain of function from C9orf72 repeat RNA or from dipeptide repeat proteins produced by repeat-associated non-ATG translation. Several downstream processes across a range of cellular functions have also been implicated. In this article, we review the pathological and mechanistic features of C9orf72-associated FTD and ALS (collectively termed C9FTD/ALS), the model systems used to study these conditions, and the probable initiators of downstream disease mechanisms. We suggest that a combination of upstream mechanisms involving both loss and gain of function and downstream cellular pathways involving both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous effects contributes to disease progression.
- Tdp-25 Routing to Autophagy and Proteasome Ameliorates its Aggregation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Target Cells. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Aug 17; 8(1):12390
- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that primarily affects motoneurons, while non-neuronal cells may contribute to disease onset and progression. Most ALS cases a...
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that primarily affects motoneurons, while non-neuronal cells may contribute to disease onset and progression. Most ALS cases are characterized by the mislocalization and aggregation of the TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) in affected cells. TDP-43 aggregates contain C-terminal TDP-43 fragments of 35 kDa (TDP-35) and 25 kDa (TDP-25) and have been mainly studied in motoneurons, while little is currently known about their rate of accumulation and clearance in myoblasts. Here, we performed a comparative study in immortalized motoneuronal like (NSC34; i-motoneurons) cells and stabilized myoblasts (C2C12; s-myoblasts) to evaluate if these two cell types differentially accumulate and clear TDP forms. The most aggregating specie in i-motoneurons is the TDP-25 fragment, mainly constituted by the "prion-like" domain of TDP-43. To a lower extent, TDP-25 also aggregates in s-myoblasts. In both cell types, all TDP species are cleared by proteasome, but TDP-25 impairs autophagy. Interestingly, the routing of TDP-25 fragment to proteasome, by overexpressing BAG1, or to autophagy, by overexpressing HSPB8 or BAG3 decreased its accumulation in both cell types. These results demonstrate that promoting the chaperone-assisted clearance of ALS-linked proteins is beneficial not only in motoneurons but also in myoblasts.
- Identification and characterization of ubiquitinylation sites in TAR DNA-binding protein of 43kDa (TDP-43). [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biol Chem 2018 Aug 17
- TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) forms pathological aggregates in neurodegenerative diseases, particularly in certain forms of frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Pat...
TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) forms pathological aggregates in neurodegenerative diseases, particularly in certain forms of frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Pathological modifications of TDP-43 include proteolytic fragmentation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitinylation. A pathognomonic TDP-43 C-terminal fragment (CTF) spanning amino acids 193-414 contains only four lysine residues that could be potentially ubiquitinylated. Here, serial mutagenesis of these four lysines to arginine revealed that not a single residue is responsible for the ubiquitinylation of mCherry-tagged CTF. Removal of all four lysines was necessary to suppress ubiquitinylation. Interestingly, Lys-408 substitution enhanced the pathological phosphorylation of the immediately adjacent serine residues 409/410 in the context of mCherry-CTF. Thus, Lys-408 ubiquitinylation appears to hinder Ser-409/410 phosphorylation in TDP-43 CTF. However, we did not observe the same effect for full-length TDP-43. We extended the mutagenesis study to full-length TDP-43 and performed mass spectrometry. Ubiquitinylated lysine residues were identified in the nuclear localization sequence (NLS; Lys-84 and Lys-95) and RNA binding region (mostly Lys-160, Lys-181, Lys-263). Mutagenesis of Lys-84 confirmed its importance as the major determinant for nuclear import, whereas Lys-95 mutagenesis did not significantly affect TDP-43's nucleo-cytoplasmic distribution, solubility, aggregation and RNA processing activities. Nevertheless, the K95A mutant had significantly reduced Ser-409/410 phosphorylation, emphasizing the suspected interplay between TDP-43 ubiquitinylation and phosphorylation. Collectively, our analysis of TDP-43 ubiquitinylation sites indicates that the NLS residues Lys-84 and Lys-95 have more prominent roles in TDP-43 function than the more C-terminal lysines and suggests a link between specific ubiquitinylation events and pathological TDP-43 phosphorylation.
- Slow, slurred speech as an initial complaint in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. [Journal Article]
- ANAuris Nasus Larynx 2018 Aug 14
- CONCLUSIONS: Otolaryngologists and primary care physicians to consider the possibility of ALS when patients present even with an only symptom of SSS. They should then refer such patients to neurologists for definitive diagnoses, leading to early detection and treatment of ALS.
- In vivo diffusion MRI detects early spinal cord axonal pathology in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. [Journal Article]
- NBNMR Biomed 2018; 31(8):e3954
- Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exhibits contrast that identifies macro- and microstructural changes in neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies have shown that MR diffusion tensor ima...
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exhibits contrast that identifies macro- and microstructural changes in neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies have shown that MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can observe changes in spinal cord white matter in animals and humans affected with symptomatic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The goal of this preclinical work was to investigate the sensitivity of DTI for the detection of signs of tissue damage before symptoms appear. High-field MRI data were acquired using a 9.4-T animal scanner to examine the spinal cord of an ALS mouse model at pre- and post-symptomatic stages (days 80 and 120, respectively). The MRI results were validated using yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) via optical microscopy of spinal cord tissue slices collected from the YFP,G93A-SOD1 mouse strain. DTI maps of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) signal intensity, mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) were computed for axial slices of the lumbar region of the spinal cord. Significant changes were observed in FA (6.7% decrease, p < 0.01), AD (19.5% decrease, p < 0.01) and RD (16.1% increase, p < 0.001) at postnatal day 80 (P80). These differences were correlated with changes in axonal fluorescence intensity and membrane cellular markers. This study demonstrates the value of DTI as a potential tool to detect the underlying pathological progression associated with ALS, and may accelerate the discovery of therapeutic strategies for patients with this disease.
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- Diagnostic and prognostic power of CSF Tau in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurol 2018 Aug 16
- CONCLUSIONS: CSF t-Tau showed no reliable diagnostic significance but the relation between the high levels of CSF t-Tau and short survival suggests the potential prognostic role of this biomarker in ALS. However, CSF NFL was confirmed to be the most reliable and efficient tool for diagnosis and prediction of clinical progression and survival in ALS patients.