- Effect of Combined Epigenetic Treatments and Ectopic NIS Expression on Undifferentiated Thyroid Cancer Cells. [Journal Article]
- ARAnticancer Res 2018; 38(12):6653-6662
- CONCLUSIONS: The ability of epigenetic treatments to interfere with tumor proliferation and induce Coxsackie adenovirus receptor expression, coupled with the ability of ectopic sodium iodide co-transporter to restore radioiodine uptake, raise the possibility that these therapeutic approaches may provide clinical benefit to patients with thyroid carcinoma refractory to radioiodine treatment.
- Mediastinal seminoma presenting as a neck mass falsely diagnosed as anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: A case report. [Journal Article]
- DCDiagn Cytopathol 2018 Nov 23
- Germ cell tumors can occur in the mediastinum. They account for about 20% of tumors at this location. The majority are located in the anterior mediastinum and usually occur in young adult males. Exte...
Germ cell tumors can occur in the mediastinum. They account for about 20% of tumors at this location. The majority are located in the anterior mediastinum and usually occur in young adult males. Extension of mediastinal germ cell tumors into the neck with mass formation is a very rare and unusual event. Herein, we report a case of a 34 year old male who presented with a progressively enlarging neck mass. Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) was performed as initial evaluation and showed cellular smears comprising atypical large cells with prominent irregular nucleoli and moderate amount of cytoplasm with lymphocytic infiltrate and some epithelioid granulomas in the background. The mass was misdiagnosed initially on the cytology smears as anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. The subsequent tissue core biopsy showed sheets and nests of atypical cells admixed with ill-defined granulomatous inflammation. By immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells were immunoreactive with SALL4, PLAP and OCT3/4, compatible with malignant germ cell tumor, seminomatous type. It is very rare for patients with primary mediastinal seminoma to present initially with a neck mass. Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) of this "neck mass" can lead to misinterpretation of findings due to similarities in cytological features between malignant germ cell tumors and other undifferentiated malignant neoplasms and the diagnosis, therefore, can be very challenging.
- Understanding Malignancies of the Thyroid Gland: Institutional Experience. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2018; 70(4):482-489
- To study the epidemiological, pathological characters and determine survival in patients diagnosed of having thyroid gland malignancies. Retrospective chart review of patients having thyroid gland ma...
To study the epidemiological, pathological characters and determine survival in patients diagnosed of having thyroid gland malignancies. Retrospective chart review of patients having thyroid gland malignancies, which were managed by the two senior authors at our tertiary care institute from January 2000 to December 2006, were performed and evaluated in terms of various clinical, operative and histological parameters. Patients in which follow up of at least 10 years are available were included in the study. Survival was enquired telephonically in those patients who got cured and did not consent to come for follow up. Slides were reviewed. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS statistical software. Kaplan-Meier method was used for calculating survival. A total of 182 patients were included in the study. Papillary carcinoma was the commonest malignant lesion with a frequency of 87.91% followed by follicular carcinoma (7.69%), medullary carcinoma (3.29%) and anaplastic carcinoma (1.09%). Female predominance was seen (F:M-5.06:1). The 5 year and 10 year survival rates were 89% and 73% respectively. The most common postoperative squeal was transient hypocalcaemia, seen in (27/182) 15% patients which was followed by permanent hypocalcaemia 16/182 (8.79%), transient recurrent laryngeal nerve paresis 12/182 (6.59%) and permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy 8/182 (4.39%). Thyroid malignancies affect all age groups and have good long term prognosis. Management yields promising results and hence early and adequate treatment is emphasized.
- MEK inhibition induces therapeutic iodine uptake in a murine model of anaplastic thyroid cancer. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nucl Med 2018 Nov 21
- Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is refractory to radioiodine therapy in part due to impaired iodine metabolism. We targeted the MAPK and PI3'K pathways with the intent to induce radioiodine uptake...
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is refractory to radioiodine therapy in part due to impaired iodine metabolism. We targeted the MAPK and PI3'K pathways with the intent to induce radioiodine uptake for radioiodine treatment of ATC. Methods: Human ATC cells were used to evaluate the ability of pharmacological inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways to induce radioiodine uptake. Thyrocyte-specific double mutant BRAFV600E PIK3CAH1047R mice were treated with a MEK inhibitor followed by radioiodine treatment and tumor burden was monitored by ultrasound imaging. Results: ATC cell lines showed an increase in sodium-iodine symporter transcription when treated with a MEK or BRAFV600E inhibitor alone and in combination with PI3'K inhibitor. This translated into a dose-dependent elevation of iodine uptake following treatment with a MEK inhibitor alone and in combination with a PI3'K inhibitor. In vivo, MEK inhibition but not BRAF nor PI3'K inhibition upregulated sodium-iodine symporter transcription. This translated into a stable reduction of tumor burden when mice were treated with a MEK inhibitor prior to radioiodine administration. Conclusion: This study confirms the ability of MEK inhibition to induce iodine uptake in in vitro and in vivo models of ATC. The approach of using a MEK inhibitor before radioiodine treatment could readily be translated into clinical practice and provide a much-needed therapeutic option for patients with ATC.
- The Use of Post-ablation Stimulated Thyroglobulin in Predicting Clinical Outcomes in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma - What Cut-off Values Should We Use? [Journal Article]
- COClin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2018 Nov 16
- CONCLUSIONS: Based on ROC analysis of sensitivities and specificities, our data showed that a post-ablation sTg value of 1 ng/ml is the optimal cut-off in prognostication of adverse clinical events.
- Low intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) triggered drug release from cetuximab-conjugated phase-changeable nanoparticles for precision theranostics against anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. [Journal Article]
- BSBiomater Sci 2018 Nov 13
- Currently, multifunctional nanotechnology is strongly expected to improve the prospect of treatment and diagnosis. In this study, we synthesized epidermal growth factor (EGFR)-targeted phase-changeab...
Currently, multifunctional nanotechnology is strongly expected to improve the prospect of treatment and diagnosis. In this study, we synthesized epidermal growth factor (EGFR)-targeted phase-changeable polymer nanoparticles (C-HPNs) loaded with two drugs (C225 and 10-HCPT) for specific tumor targeting, synergistic chemotherapy, and ultrasound imaging under low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU). Cetuximab (C225), an EGFR-targeted monoclonal antibody, was conjugated on the surface of the nanoparticles, leading to a significantly high binding affinity to EGFR-overexpressing anaplastic thyroid C643 cells both in vitro and in vivo. As expected, an increase of more than 3- to 4-fold in the release rates of 10-HCPT was observed after LIFU irradiation in vitro, demonstrating that LIFU could enhance the release of drugs from the nanoparticles. Combined treatment with C-HPNs and LIFU showed excellent inhibition of cell proliferation in vitro, as well as a remarkable therapeutic effect in vivo. Moreover, the combined treatment simultaneously enhanced ultrasound imaging by LIFU-induced acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV). In conclusion, C225-modified and phase-changeable nanoparticles combined with LIFU exhibited great promise for concurrent targeted ultrasound molecular imaging and effective synergistic antitumor therapy.
- ID Proteins May Reduce Aggressiveness of Thyroid Tumors. [Journal Article]
- EPEndocr Pathol 2018 Nov 09
- ID genes have an important function in the cell cycle, and ID proteins may help identify aggressive tumors, besides being considered promising therapeutic targets. However, their role in thyroid tumo...
ID genes have an important function in the cell cycle, and ID proteins may help identify aggressive tumors, besides being considered promising therapeutic targets. However, their role in thyroid tumors is still poorly understood. We examined ID expression and their correlation with diagnostic and prognostic features aiming to find a clinical application in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) cases. mRNA levels of ID1, ID2, ID3, and ID4 genes were quantified and their expression was observed by immunohistochemistry in 194 thyroid samples including 68 goiters, 16 follicular adenomas, 75 classic papillary thyroid carcinomas, 18 follicular variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma, 5 follicular thyroid carcinomas, and 1 anaplastic thyroid cancer, besides 11 normal thyroid tissues. DTC patients were managed according to standard protocols and followed up for M = 28 ± 16 months. ID2, ID3, and ID4 mRNA levels were higher in benign (2.0 ± 1.9; 0.6 ± 0.6; and 0.7 ± 1.0 AU, respectively) than those in malignant nodules (0.30 ± 0.62; 0.3 ± 0.3; and 0.2 ± 0.3 AU, respectively, p < 0.0001 for all three genes) and were associated with no extra thyroid invasion or metastasis at diagnosis. ID3 nuclear protein expression was higher in benign than that in malignant cells (5.2 ± 0.9 vs 3.0 ± 1.8 AU; p < 0.0001). On the contrary, the cytoplasmic expression of ID3 was higher in malignant than that in benign lesions (5.7 ± 1.5 vs 4.0 ± 1.4 AU; p < 0.0001). Our data indicate that ID genes are involved in thyroid tumorigenesis and suggest these genes act impeding the evolution of more aggressive phenotypes. The different patterns of their tissue expression may help identify malignancy and characterize thyroid lesion aggressiveness.
- Giant nonfunctioning adrenal tumors: two case reports and review of the literature. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Case Rep 2018 Nov 10; 12(1):335
- CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 60% of patients with adrenocortical carcinoma present with symptoms and signs of hormonal secretion. Our cases' adrenocortical carcinomas were not functional. Hormone secretion is not a discriminating feature between benign and malignant adrenocortical masses. The silent clinical nature of nonfunctioning adrenocortical carcinoma results in late diagnosis, while the majority of patients present with locally advanced and/or metastatic disease. Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare endocrine tumor with a poor prognosis that can be diagnostically challenging and demands high clinical suspicion. The work-up for adrenal masses must include determination of whether the mass is functioning or nonfunctioning and whether it is benign or malignant.
- [New aspects in thyroid cancer treatment : Highlights of the ASCO Annual Meeting 2018]. [Review]
- HNOHNO 2018; 66(12):896-900
- Whereas surgical treatment of thyroid carcinoma plays an important role especially in the early stages, a multimodal approach is pursued in the palliative setting, which, in addition to classical che...
Whereas surgical treatment of thyroid carcinoma plays an important role especially in the early stages, a multimodal approach is pursued in the palliative setting, which, in addition to classical chemotherapy primarily involves treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. An analysis of clinical trials and studies presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting 2018 is presented. In particular, studies on the treatment of radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer, anaplastic thyroid cancer and immunotherapy were selected and analyzed. Clinically and preclinically relevant studies are presented and critically interpreted in this review.
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- Cystathione β-Synthase Is Increased in Thyroid Malignancies. [Journal Article]
- ARAnticancer Res 2018; 38(11):6085-6090
- CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we showed that an H2S-syntheszing enzyme plays a role in thyroid malignancies. Additionally, our data suggest that CBS and NAMPT immunohistochemistry may be useful in differentiating follicular adenomas from follicular carcinomas.