- Penehyclidine Hydrochloride Decreases Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Inflammatory Injury Through a Beta-Arrestin-1-Dependent Mechanism. [Journal Article]
- IInflammation 2018 May 15
- Penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC), a type of hyoscyamus drug, has both antimuscarinic and antinicotinic activities and retains potent central and peripheral anticholinergic activities. Compared with ...
Penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC), a type of hyoscyamus drug, has both antimuscarinic and antinicotinic activities and retains potent central and peripheral anticholinergic activities. Compared with other hyoscyamine, the notable advantage of PHC is that it has few M2 receptor-associated cardiovascular side effects. Recent studies and clinical trials have suggested that treatment with penehyclidine hydrochloride may also possess good effects in the treatment of lung injury. The mechanism responsible for this effect has yet to be determined; however, one possibility is that they might do so by a direct effect on pulmonary vascular endothelium. Since inflammatory reactions of the endothelium are signs of endothelial injury in the pathogenesis of lung injury, we determined the effects of penehyclidine hydrochloride on endothelial inflammatory injury in cultured human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMVEC). Furthermore, human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were transfected with a shRNA-containing plasmid that specifically targets beta-arrestin-1 mRNA, to test whether the effect of penehyclidine hydrochloride on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endothelial cell injury is dependent on its upregulation of beta-arrestin-1 or not. Penehyclidine hydrochloride reduced the inflammatory responses to LPS stimulation, as evidenced by reduced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukelin-6 (IL-6) levels, as well as vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expressions. This was found to result from increased beta-arrestin-1 expression and decreased nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. Expression of a shRNA-containing plasmid that specifically targets beta-arrestin-1 mRNA nullified these effects of penehyclidine hydrochloride. The results indicate that penehyclidine hydrochloride exerts a protective effect on pulmonary microvascular endothelial inflammatory injury induced by LPS. We also demonstrate that this is due to its ability to increase beta-arrestin-1, which in turn inhibits NF-κB activation.
- [Mechanism exploration on nitrogen metabolism and secondary metabolism in Atropa belladonna hairy roots treated with yeast extract]. [Journal Article]
- ZZZhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2018; 43(8):1610-1617
- In order to study the mechanism of nitrogen metabolism and secondary metabolism in Atropa belladonna hairy roots treated with yeast extract, yeast extract（YE） was added to the culture medium. Then th...
In order to study the mechanism of nitrogen metabolism and secondary metabolism in Atropa belladonna hairy roots treated with yeast extract, yeast extract（YE） was added to the culture medium. Then the changes of physiological and biochemical indexes of A. belladonna hairy roots after treatment with YE were detected. The results are as follows，the activity of key enzymes of nitrogen metabolism changed differently. Compared with the control group (CK), the activity of nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) were significantly increased, while the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) was not changed significantly. The content of nitrate nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen had a significant decrease,but the content of soluble protein, free amino acid, total nitrogen are significantly more than CK. Moreover, YE treatment led to the increase of the content precursor amino acids (ornithine and arginine) and precursor putrescine in secondary metabolic pathways of A. belladonna. The expression level of gene putrescine N-methyl transferase (pmt), tropinone reductase-I (trI) and hyoscyamine 6-β-hydroxylase(h6h) all increased in a different rate caused by YE treatment, which eventually led to the increase of the yield of tropane alkaloids. The yield of hyoscyamine and scopolamine were 3.09 and 1.85 folds than that of CK after 16 days treatment time. The results indicated that YE can induce more synthesis of tropane alkaloids by increasing the activity of key enzymes in nitrogen metabolism to provide more synthetic materials for secondary metabolism, meanwhile it regulated the expression level of some genes of key metabolic enzyme to accelerate secondary metabolism.
- Atropa belladonna neurotoxicity: Implications to neurological disorders. [Review]
- FCFood Chem Toxicol 2018; 116(Pt B):346-353
- Atropa belladonna, commonly known as belladonna or deadly nightshade, ranks among one of the most poisonous plants in Europe and other parts of the world. The plant contains tropane alkaloids includi...
Atropa belladonna, commonly known as belladonna or deadly nightshade, ranks among one of the most poisonous plants in Europe and other parts of the world. The plant contains tropane alkaloids including atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine, which are used as anticholinergics in Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs and homeopathic remedies. These alkaloids can be very toxic at high dose. The FDA has recently reported that Hyland's baby teething tablets contain inconsistent amounts of Atropa belladonna that may have adverse effects on the nervous system and cause death in children, thus recalled the product in 2017. A greater understanding of the neurotoxicity of Atropa belladonna and its modification of genetic polymorphisms in the nervous system is critical in order to develop better treatment strategies, therapies, regulations, education of at-risk populations, and a more cohesive paradigm for future research. This review offers an integrated view of the homeopathy and neurotoxicity of Atropa belladonna in children, adults, and animal models as well as its implications to neurological disorders. Particular attention is dedicated to the pharmaco/toxicodynamics, pharmaco/toxicokinetics, pathophysiology, epidemiological cases, and animal studies associated with the effects of Atropa belladonna on the nervous system. Additionally, we discuss the influence of active tropane alkaloids in Atropa belladonna and other similar plants on FDA-approved therapeutic drugs for treatment of neurological disorders.
- Protein Surface Structural Recognition in Inactive Areas: A New Immobilization Strategy for Acetylcholinesterase. [Journal Article]
- BCBioconjug Chem 2018 May 16; 29(5):1703-1713
- This work reported a new method of design for the immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) based on its molecular structure to improve its sensitivity and stability. The immobilization binding s...
This work reported a new method of design for the immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) based on its molecular structure to improve its sensitivity and stability. The immobilization binding site on the surface of AChE was determined using MOLCAD's multi-channel functionality. Then, 11 molecules ((+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-gallocatechin, hesperetin, naringenin, quercetin, taxifolin, (-)-epicatechin gallate, flupirtine, atropine, and hyoscyamine) were selected from the ZINC database (about 50 000 molecules) as candidate affinity ligands for AChE. The fluorescence results showed that the binding constant Kb between AChE and the ligands ranged from 0.01344 × 104 to 4.689 × 104 M-1 and there was one independent class of binding site for the ligands on AChE. The AChE-ligand binding free energy ranged from -12.14 to -26.65 kJ mol-1. Naringenin, hesperetin, and quercetin were the three most potent immobilized affinity ligands. In addition, it was confirmed that the binding between the immobilized ligands only occurred at a single site, located in an inactive area on the surface of AChE, and did not affect the enzymatic activity as shown through a competition experiment and enzyme assay. This method based on protein surface structural recognition with high sensitivity and stability can be used as a generic approach for design of the enzyme immobilization and biosensor development.
- [Effects of nitrogen form on accumulation of alkaloids and expression of relative genes in Atropa belladonna]. [Journal Article]
- ZZZhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2018; 43(1):72-78
- Hyoscyamine and scopolamine are two main alkaloids in Atropa belladonna with great medicinal value. In this paper, the contents of hyoscyamine and scopolamine, the upstream products in alkaloid synth...
Hyoscyamine and scopolamine are two main alkaloids in Atropa belladonna with great medicinal value. In this paper, the contents of hyoscyamine and scopolamine, the upstream products in alkaloid synthesis, and the expression levels of key enzyme genes PMT, TRⅠ and H6H in secondary metabolism of A. belladonna seedlings were measured to clarify the mechanism of nitrogen forms regulating alkaloids synthesis.The results showed that the 50/50 (NH⁺₄/NO⁻₃) treatment was more favorable for the accumulation of alkaloids and the conversion of hyoscyamine to scopolamine. The content of putrescine was almost consistent with the change of key enzymes activities in the synthesis of putrescine, they both increased with the rise of ammonium ratio, reaching the highest at 75/25 (NH⁺₄/NO⁻₃). The detection of signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) showed that the NO concentration decreased with the decrease of nitrate proportion. Further detection of gene expression levels of PMT, TRⅠ and H6H in TAs synthesis pathway showed that a certain amount of ammonium promoted the expression of PMT and H6H in roots. When the ratio of ammonium to nitrate was 50/50, PMT, TRⅠ and H6H in leaves and roots had higher expression levels. It can be speculated that the regulation of the formation of hyoscyamine to scopolamine by nitrogen forms mainly through affecting the expression of key enzyme genes. 50/50 (NH⁺₄/NO⁻₃) treatment increased the gene expression of TRⅠ in both leaves and roots as well as PMT and H6H in roots, promoting the synthesis of putrescine to hyoscyamine and the conversion of hyoscyamine to scopolamine.
- Metabolic characterization of Hyoscyamus niger root-specific putrescine N-methyltransferase. [Journal Article]
- PPPlant Physiol Biochem 2018 Mar 02; 127:47-54
- N-methylputrescine is the precursor of nicotine and pharmaceutical tropane alkaloids such as hyoscyamine. Putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT) catalyzes the N-methylation of putrescine to form N-meth...
N-methylputrescine is the precursor of nicotine and pharmaceutical tropane alkaloids such as hyoscyamine. Putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT) catalyzes the N-methylation of putrescine to form N-methylputrescine. While the role of PMT in nicotine biosynthesis is clear, knowledge of PMT in the biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids (TAs) and the regulation of polyamines remains limited. We characterized a PMT gene from Hyoscyamus niger, designated HnPMT that was specifically expressed in roots, especially in the secondary roots and dramatically induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA). The GUS gene was specifically expressed in Arabidopsis roots or in the vascular tissues, including pericycles and endodermis, of the H. niger hairy root cultures, when it was driven by the 5'-flanking promoter region of HnPMT. The recombinant HnPMT was purified for enzymatic assays. HnPMT converted putrescine to form N-methylputrescine, as confirmed by LC-MS. The kinetics analysis revealed that HnPMT had high affinity with putrescine but low catalytic activity, suggesting that it was a rate-limiting enzyme. When HnPMT was suppressed in the H. niger plants by using the VIGS approach, the contents of N-methylputrescine and hyoscyamine were markedly decreased, but the contents of putrescine, spermidine and a mixture of spermine and thermospermine were significantly increased; this suggested that HnPMT was involved in the biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids and played a competent role in regulating the biosynthesis of polyamines. Functional identification of HnPMT facilitated the understanding of TA biosynthesis and thus implied that the HnPMT-catalyzed step might be a target for metabolic engineering of the TA production in H. niger.
- Biotic elicitation for scopolamine production by hairy root cultures of Datura metel. [Journal Article]
- MBMol Biol Res Commun 2017; 6(4):169-179
- The (-)-hyoscyamine, atropine and scopolamine (hyoscine) are three valuable tropane alkaloids while scopolamine is the most important member of this group for the pharmaceutical industry due to its h...
The (-)-hyoscyamine, atropine and scopolamine (hyoscine) are three valuable tropane alkaloids while scopolamine is the most important member of this group for the pharmaceutical industry due to its higher demand compared to hyoscyamine and atropine. Scopolamine is an anticholinergic reagent with several therapeutic applications. In the current study, the hairy roots culture of Daturametel was used as an advantageous method for production of scopolamine. The hairy roots are formed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes and have genetic stability, high growth rate and lateral branching. In this study, the effect of Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus as biotic elicitors on the production of scopolamine in D.metel hairy roots was investigated. The amount of scopolamine in the hairy roots was detected by HPLC analysis and compared with control samples after 0, 12 and 24 hours. Results showed that, B. cereus and S. aureus enhanced scopolamine production in the culture while the atropine content was decreased. Although in the control samples with no bacterial elicitation no scopolamine was detected, elicitation by B. cereus caused production of scopolamine and about 0.03 gram and 0.017 gram of it was detected in 100 gram dried D.metel hairy roots after 12 and 24 hours respectively. In S. aureus elicited hairy roots, scopolamine was not produced after 12 hours. However, about 0.025 gram of this tropane alkaloid was detected in 100 gram dried hairy roots after 24 hours. In conclusion, S. areus and B. cereus induced the scopolamine production in D. metel hairy roots.
- Comparison of two hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylases in engineering scopolamine biosynthesis in root cultures of Scopolia lurida. [Journal Article]
- BBBiochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 02 26; 497(1):25-31
- Scopolia lurida, a medicinal plant native to the Tibetan Plateau, is among the most effective producers of pharmaceutical tropane alkaloids (TAs). The hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase genes of Hyoscyamus n...
Scopolia lurida, a medicinal plant native to the Tibetan Plateau, is among the most effective producers of pharmaceutical tropane alkaloids (TAs). The hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase genes of Hyoscyamus niger (HnH6H) and S. lurida (SlH6H) were cloned and respectively overexpressed in hairy root cultures of S. lurida, to compare their effects on promoting the production of TAs, especially the high-value scopolamine. Root cultures with SlH6H/HnH6H overexpression were confirmed by PCR and real-time quantitative PCR, suggesting that the enzymatic steps defined by H6H were strongly elevated at the transcriptional level. Tropane alkaloids, including hyoscyamine, anisodamine and scopolamine, were analyzed by HPLC. Scopolamine and anisodamine contents were remarkably elevated in the root cultures overexpressing SlH6H/HnH6H, whereas that of hyoscyamine was more or less reduced, when compared with those of the control. These results also indicated that SlH6H and HnH6H promoted anisodamine production at similar levels in S. lurida root cultures. More importantly, HnH6H-overexpressing root cultures had more scopolamine in them that did SlH6H-overexpressing root cultures. This study not only provides a feasible way of overexpressing H6H to produce high-value scopolamine in engineered root cultures of S. lurida but also found that HnH6H was better than SlH6H for engineering scopolamine production.
- Determination of tropane alkaloids by heart cutting reversed phase - Strong cation exchange two dimensional liquid chromatography. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2018 Jan 01; 1072:70-77
- Current Chinese Pharmacopoeia (ChP) standards apply liquid extraction combined with one dimensional liquid chromatography (1DLC) method for determining alkaloids in herbal medicines. The complex pret...
Current Chinese Pharmacopoeia (ChP) standards apply liquid extraction combined with one dimensional liquid chromatography (1DLC) method for determining alkaloids in herbal medicines. The complex pretreatments lead to a low analytical efficiency and possible component loss. In this study, a heart cutting reversed phase - strong cation exchange two dimensional liquid chromatography (RP - SCX 2DLC) approach was optimized for simultaneously quantifying tropane alkaloids (anisodine, scopolamine and hyoscyamine) in herbal medicines and herbal medicine tablets without further treatment of the filtered extract. The chromatographic conditions were systematically optimized in terms of column type, mobile phase composition and flow rate. To improve peak capacity and obtain symmetric peak shape of alkaloids, a polar group embedded C18 column combined with chaotropic salts was used in the first dimension. To remove the disturbance of non-alkaloids, achieve unique selectivity and acquire symmetric peak shape of alkaloids, an SCX column combined with phosphate buffer was used in the second dimension. Method validation was performed in terms of linearity, precision (0.54-0.82%), recovery (94.1-105.2%), limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the three analytes varied between 0.067-0.115mgL-1and 0.195-0.268mgL-1, respectively. The method demonstrated superiority over 1DLC method in respect of resolution (less alkaloid co-eluted), sample preparation (no pretreatment procedure) and transfer rate (minimum component loss). The optimized RP - SCX 2DLC approach was subsequently applied to quantify target alkaloids in five herbal medicines and herbal medicine tablets from three different manufactures. The results demonstrated that the developed heart cutting RP - SCX 2DLC approach represented a new, strategically significant methodology for the quality evaluation of tropane alkaloid in related herbal medicines that involve complex chemical matrix.
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- Localization and Organization of Scopolamine Biosynthesis in Duboisia myoporoides R. Br. [Journal Article]
- PCPlant Cell Physiol 2018 Jan 01; 59(1):107-118
- Tropane alkaloids (TAs), especially hyoscyamine and scopolamine, are important precursors for anticholinergic and antispasmodic drugs. Hyoscyamine and scopolamine are currently obtained at commercial...
Tropane alkaloids (TAs), especially hyoscyamine and scopolamine, are important precursors for anticholinergic and antispasmodic drugs. Hyoscyamine and scopolamine are currently obtained at commercial scale from hybrid crosses of Duboisia myoporoides × Duboisia leichhardtii plants. In this study, we present a global investigation of the localization and organization of TA biosynthesis in a Duboisia myoporoides R. Br. wild-type line. The tissue-specific spatial distribution of TAs within D. myoporoides is presented, including quantification of the TAs littorine, 6-hydroxy hyoscyamine, hyoscyamine, scopolamine and, additionally, hyoscyamine aldehyde as well as scopolamine glucoside. Scopolamine (14.77 ± 5.03 mg g-1), and to a lesser extent hyoscyamine (3.01 ± 1.54 mg g-1) as well as 6-hydroxy hyoscyamine (4.35 ± 1.18 mg g-1), are accumulated in leaves during plant development, with the highest concentration of total TAs detected in 6-month-old plants. Littorine, an early precursor in TA biosynthesis, was present only in the roots (0.46 ± 0.07 mg g-1). During development, the spatial distribution of all investigated alkaloids changed due to secondary growth in the roots. Transcripts of pmt, tr-I and cyp80f1 genes, involved in early stages of TA biosynthesis, were found to be most abundant in the roots. In contrast, the transcript encoding hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase (h6h) was highest in the leaves of 3-month-old plants. This investigation presents the spatial distribution of biochemical components as well as gene expression profiles of genetic factors known to participate in TA biosynthesis in D. myoporoides. The results of this investigation may aid in future breeding or genetic enhancement strategies aimed at increasing the yields of TAs in these medicinally valuable plant species.