- How skin anatomy influences transcutaneous bilirubin determinations: an in vitro evaluation. [Journal Article]
- PRPediatr Res 2019 Jun 24
- CONCLUSIONS: As bone depth and light scattering vary with gestational maturity and body location, caretakers should be cautious when interpreting TcB measurements on premature newborns and non-standard body locations.
- Microbiota and Neurodevelopmental Trajectories: Role of Maternal and Early-Life Nutrition. [Journal Article]
- ANAnn Nutr Metab 2019; 74 Suppl 2:16-27
- Pregnancy and early life are characterized by marked changes in body microbial composition. Intriguingly, these changes take place simultaneously with neurodevelopmental plasticity, suggesting a comp…
Pregnancy and early life are characterized by marked changes in body microbial composition. Intriguingly, these changes take place simultaneously with neurodevelopmental plasticity, suggesting a complex dialogue between the microbes that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and the brain. The purpose of this chapter is to describe the natural trajectory of microbiota during pregnancy and early life, as well as review the literature available on its interaction with neurodevelopment. Several lines of evidence show that the gut microbiota interacts with diet, drugs and stress both prenatally and postnatally. Clinical and preclinical studies are illuminating how these disruptions result in different developmental outcomes. Understanding the role of the microbiota in neurodevelopment may lead to novel approaches to the study of the pathophysiology and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.
- A canonical oscillator model of cochlear dynamics. [Journal Article]
- HRHear Res 2019 Jun 14; 380:100-107
- Nonlinear responses to acoustic signals arise through active processes in the cochlea, which has an exquisite sensitivity and wide dynamic range that can be explained by critical nonlinear oscillatio…
Nonlinear responses to acoustic signals arise through active processes in the cochlea, which has an exquisite sensitivity and wide dynamic range that can be explained by critical nonlinear oscillations of outer hair cells. Here we ask how the interaction of critical nonlinearities with the basilar membrane and other organ of Corti components could determine tuning properties of the mammalian cochlea. We propose a canonical oscillator model that captures the dynamics of the interaction between the basilar membrane and organ of Corti, using a pair of coupled oscillators for each place along the cochlea. We analyze two models in which a linear oscillator, representing basilar membrane dynamics, is coupled to a nonlinear oscillator poised at a Hopf instability. The coupling in the first model is unidirectional, and that of the second is bidirectional. Parameters are determined by fitting 496 auditory-nerve (AN) tuning curves of macaque monkeys. We find that the unidirectionally and bidirectionally coupled models account equally well for threshold tuning. In addition, however, the bidirectionally coupled model exhibits low-amplitude, spontaneous oscillation in the absence of stimulation, predicting that phase locking will occur before a significant increase in firing frequency, in accordance with well known empirical observations. This leads us to a canonical oscillator cochlear model based on the fundamental principles of critical nonlinear oscillation and coupling dynamics. The model is more biologically realistic than widely used linear or nonlinear filter-based models, yet parsimoniously displays key features of nonlinear mechanistic models. It is efficient enough for computational studies of auditory perception and auditory physiology.
- Zoledronate and Raloxifene combination therapy enhances material and mechanical properties of diseased mouse bone. [Journal Article]
- BONEBone 2019 Jun 21
- Current interventions to reduce skeletal fragility are insufficient at enhancing both the quantity and quality of bone when attempting to improve overall mechanical integrity. Bisphosphonates, such a…
Current interventions to reduce skeletal fragility are insufficient at enhancing both the quantity and quality of bone when attempting to improve overall mechanical integrity. Bisphosphonates, such as Zoledronate (ZOL), are used to treat a variety of bone disorders by increasing bone mass to decrease fracture risk, but long-term use has been shown in some settings to compromise bone quality. Alternatively, Raloxifene (RAL) has recently been demonstrated to improve tissue quality and overall mechanical properties in a cell-independent manner by binding to collagen and increasing tissue hydration. We hypothesized that a combination of RAL and ZOL would improve mechanical and material properties of bone more than either monotherapy alone by enhancing both quantity and quality. In this study, wildtype (WT) and heterozygous (OIM+/-) male mice from the Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) murine model were treated with either RAL, ZOL, or both from 8 weeks to 16 weeks of age. Using the OIM model allows for investigation of therapeutic effects on a quality-based bone disease. Combination treatment resulted in higher trabecular architecture, cortical mechanical properties, and cortical fracture toughness in diseased mouse bone. Two fracture toughness properties, which are direct measures of the tissue's ability to resist the initiation and propagation of a crack, were significantly improved with combination treatment in OIM+/- compared to control. There was no significant effect on fracture toughness with either monotherapy alone in either genotype. Following the mass-based effects of ZOL, trabecular bone volume fraction was significantly higher with combination treatment in both genotypes. Combination treatment resulted in higher ultimate stress in both genotypes. RAL and combination treatment in OIM+/- also increased resilience compared to the control. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the beneficial effects of using combination drug treatments to increase bone mass while simultaneously improving tissue quality, especially to enhance the mechanical integrity of diseased bone. Combination therapies could be a potential method to improve bone health and combat skeletal fragility on both the microscopic and macroscopic levels.
- Preservation of the Arachnoid Membrane during Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) Reduces Post-Operative Complications Without Undermining the Surgical Outcome in Pediatric Moyamoya Disease. [Journal Article]
- WNWorld Neurosurg 2019 Jun 21
- Host-pathogen interactions upon the first and subsequent infection of Galleria mellonella with Candida albicans. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Insect Physiol 2019 Jun 21; :103903
- Insects are able to develop enhanced resistance in response to repeated infection. This phenomenon is called immune priming. In this work, so-called "primed" Galleria mellonella larvae were re-infect…
Insects are able to develop enhanced resistance in response to repeated infection. This phenomenon is called immune priming. In this work, so-called "primed" Galleria mellonella larvae were re-infected with a lethal dose of Candida albicans 48 hours after injection of a non-lethal dose, while "non-primed" larvae were infected only with a lethal dose. The increased resistance of the primed larvae correlated with a slower rate of body colonisation by the fungus. Changes in the protein profiles were detected in the whole hemolymph of the primed insects. The analysis of low-molecular weight proteins and peptides obtained with the use of three different organic solvents and comparative quantitative HPLC analysis thereof showed that the primed larvae did not have higher amounts of any infection-inducible polypeptides than the non-primed larvae. Moreover, electrophoresis of low-molecular weight polypeptides revealed an even lower level of immune-induced peptides in the primed larvae than in the non-primed ones. Furthermore, the defence activity of larval hemolymph, i.e. the antifungal, antibacterial, and lysozyme-type activity, was up-regulated in the primed larvae at the time of re-infection and, consequently, at the early time points after the infection with the lethal dose. Twenty four hours after the infection, these parameters were equally high in the non-primed and primed larvae. Accordingly, at the time of the injection of the lethal dose, certain immune-inducible genes were up-regulated. However, 24 hours after the infection with the lethal dose, their expression in both groups was incomparably higher than at the time of the infection and, in most cases, it was as high in the primed larvae as in the non-primed ones. We found that only anti yeast-like activity was enhanced 24 hours after the re-infection. This correlated with results obtained by testing the priming effect in heterologous systems: the primed animals did not exhibit higher resistance to the other pathogens tested.
- Morphological characteristic and functional dependencies of dendritic cell in developing rabbit lung during fetal and neonatal life. [Journal Article]
- DBDev Biol 2019 Jun 21
- Recently, pulmonary DC deserved the attention of researchers and clinicians as it was implicated in many diseases afflicting human lungs. However, there are no available data about the morphological …
Recently, pulmonary DC deserved the attention of researchers and clinicians as it was implicated in many diseases afflicting human lungs. However, there are no available data about the morphological or functional features of pulmonary dendritic cells in fetal or early neonatal life. The present study aimed to demonstrate the morphological development of DCs using light-, electron-microscopy, and immunohistochemistry. DCs showed strong immunoreactivity for both CD8 and CD56. Moreover, DCs strongly expressed CD34, VEGF, NSE, and connexin-43 within the developing pulmonary tissue. By SEM, DCs were polyhedral in shape with short cell processes in fetal life. By the advancement of the age, DCs became more numerous and exhibited rounded to oval cell bodies with many fine dendrites. TEM revealed that at early fetal life, DCs were characterized by their heterochromatic indented nuclei, few cell processes and few organelles. With the advancement of age, DCs showed dendrite-like processes and displayed signs of high endocytic activities with releasing of secretory materials. At late fetal life, DCs showed an obvious increase in the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio and they exhibited a unique connection with type II pneumocytes and pulmonary endothelium by gap junction. In the early neonate, the DCs cells were seen in association with T-lymphocytes, neutrophils, telocytes (TCs), and air-blood barrier. They possessed many fine dendrites, the characteristic Birbeck granules and many vesicles. DCs may contribute to apoptosis, endocytosis, and angiogenesis. The difference in the maturation status may reflect different roles for DCs in the lung. The immature DCs may have an antigen-uptake role through endocytosis, while mature DCs may involve in antigen presentation to T-cells.
- The Quality and Readability of English Wikipedia Anatomy Articles. [Journal Article]
- ASAnat Sci Educ 2019 Jun 24
- Forty anatomy articles were sampled from English Wikipedia and assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitatively, each article's edit history was analyzed by Wikipedia X-tools, references and…
Forty anatomy articles were sampled from English Wikipedia and assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitatively, each article's edit history was analyzed by Wikipedia X-tools, references and media were counted manually, and two readability indices were used to evaluate article readability. This analysis revealed that each article was updated 8.3 ±6.8 times per month, and referenced with 33.5 ±24.3 sources, such as journal articles and textbooks. Each article contained on average 14.0 ±7.6 media items. The readability indices including: (1) Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Readability Test and (2) Flesch Reading Ease Readability Formula demonstrated that the articles had low readability and were more appropriate for college students and above. Qualitatively, the sampled articles were evaluated by experts using a modified DISCERN survey. According to the modified DISCERN, 13 articles (32.5%), 24 articles (60%), 3 articles (7.5%), were rated as "good", "moderate", and "poor", respectively. There were positive correlations between the DISCERN score and the number of edits (r = 0.537), number of editors (r = 0.560), and article length (r = 0.536). Strengths reported by the panel included completeness and coverage in 11 articles (27.5%), anatomical details in 10 articles (25%), and clinical details in 5 articles (12.5%). The panel also noted areas which could be improved, such as providing missing information in 28 articles (70%), inaccuracies in 10 articles (25%), and lack or poor use of images in 17 articles (42.5%). In conclusion, this study revealed that many Wikipedia anatomy articles were difficult to read. Each article's quality was dependent on edit frequency and article length. Learners and students should be cautious when using Wikipedia articles for anatomy education due to these limitations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- The association between mitochondrial genetic variation and reduced colony fitness in an invasive wasp. [Journal Article]
- MEMol Ecol 2019 Jun 24
- Despite the mitochondrion's long recognised role in energy production, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation commonly found in natural populations was assumed to be effectively neutral. However, variat…
Despite the mitochondrion's long recognised role in energy production, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation commonly found in natural populations was assumed to be effectively neutral. However, variation in mtDNA has now been increasingly linked to phenotypic variation in life-history traits and fitness. We examined whether the relative fitness in native and invasive common wasp (Vespula vulgaris) populations in Belgium and New Zealand (NZ), respectively, can be linked to mtDNA variation. Social wasp colonies in NZ were smaller with comparatively fewer queen cells, indicating a reduced relative fitness in the invaded range. Interestingly, queen cells in this population were significantly larger leading to larger queen offspring. By sequencing 1872 bp of the mitochondrial genome we determined mitochondrial haplotypes and detected reduced genetic diversity in NZ. Three common haplotypes in NZ frequently produced many queens, whereas the four rare haplotypes produced significantly fewer or no queens. The entire mitochondrial genome for each of these haplotypes was sequenced to identify polymorphisms associated with fitness reduction. We found 16 variable sites, however, no non-synonymous mutation that was clearly causing impaired mitochondrial function was detected. We discuss how detected variants may alter secondary structures, gene expression or mito-nuclear interactions, or could be associated with nuclear-encoded variation. Whatever the ultimate mechanism, we show reduced fitness and mtDNA variation in an invasive wasp population as well as specific mtDNA variants associated with fitness variation within this population. Ours is one of only a few studies that confirm fitness impacts of mtDNA variation in wild non-model populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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- Oncostatin M, a muscle-secreted myokine, recovers high-glucose-induced impairment of Akt phosphorylation by Fos induction in hippocampal neuron cells. [Journal Article]
- NNeuroreport 2019 Jun 21
- Oncostatin M is a muscle-secreted myokine that has various effects on neuronal function, however, the underlying molecular mechanism has been poorly defined. In this study, we showed that Oncostatin …
Oncostatin M is a muscle-secreted myokine that has various effects on neuronal function, however, the underlying molecular mechanism has been poorly defined. In this study, we showed that Oncostatin M increased the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, proteins crucial for neuron cell survival and proliferation. Furthermore, Oncostatin M increased the expression of c-Fos, a protein with significant involvement in neuronal cell proliferation and survival, through both Akt and ERK. Oncostatin M also increased intracellular calcium concentrations that act upstream of Akt and ERK. Treatment with Oncostatin M led to the recovery of high-glucose-induced impairment of Akt phosphorylation. Thus, Oncostatin M can protect neuronal cell damage related to high-glucose conditions, showing potential as a therapeutic agent.