- Continued in vitro cefazolin susceptibility in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. [Journal Article]
- ACAnn Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2018 Feb 20; 17(1):5
- CONCLUSIONS: Cefazolin continues to be the recommended agent for MSSA treatment at our institution, reflected by the finding that only 2% (6/321) of patients who received ceftriaxone as definitive therapy for MSSA bacteremia during the study period. We have confirmed the cefoxitin-predicted MSSA susceptibility to cefazolin, but have found concerning drifts in ceftriaxone susceptibilities by continued in vitro monitoring over the last 6 years.
- Does Treatment Order Matter? Investigating the Ability of Bacteriophage to Augment Antibiotic Activity againstStaphylococcus aureusBiofilms. [Journal Article]
- FMFront Microbiol 2018; 9:127
- The inability to effectively treat biofilm-related infections is a major clinical challenge. This has been attributed to the heightened antibiotic tolerance conferred to bacterial cells embedded with...
The inability to effectively treat biofilm-related infections is a major clinical challenge. This has been attributed to the heightened antibiotic tolerance conferred to bacterial cells embedded within biofilms. Lytic bacteriophages (phages) have evolved to effectively infect and eradicate biofilm-associated cells. The current study was designed to investigate the ability of phage treatment to enhance the activity of antibiotics against biofilm-formingStaphylococcus aureus. The biofilm positiveS. aureusstrain ATCC 35556, the lyticS. aureusphage SATA-8505, and five antibiotics (cefazolin, vancomycin, dicloxacillin, tetracycline, and linezolid), used to treatS. aureusinfections, were tested in this study. The ability of the SATA-8505 phage to augment the effect of these antibiotics against biofilm-associatedS. aureuscells was assessed by exposing them to one of the five following treatment strategies: (i) antibiotics alone, (ii) phage alone, (iii) a combination of the two treatments simultaneously, (iv) staggered exposure to the phage followed by antibiotics, and (v) staggered exposure to antibiotics followed by exposure to phage. The effect of each treatment strategy on biofilm cells was assessed by enumerating viable bacterial cells. The results demonstrate that the treatment of biofilms with either SATA-8505, antibiotics, or both simultaneously resulted in minimal reduction of viable biofilm-associated cells. However, a significant reduction [up to 3 log colony forming unit (CFU)/mL] was observed when the phage treatment preceded antibiotics. This effect was most pronounced with vancomycin and cefazolin which exhibited synergistic interactions with SATA-8505, particularly at lower antibiotic concentrations. Thisin vitrostudy provides proof of principle for the ability of phages to augment the activity of antibiotics againstS. aureusbiofilms. Our results also demonstrate that therapeutic outcomes can be influenced by the sequence in which these therapeutic agents are administered, and the nature of their interactions. Further investigation into the interactions between lytic phages and antibiotics against various biofilm-forming organisms is important to direct future clinical translation of efficacious antibiotic-phage combination therapeutic strategies.
- The in vivo effects of cefazolin, cefuroxime, and cefoperazon on the carbonic anhydrase in different rat tissues. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biochem Mol Toxicol 2018 Feb 19
- In this paper, the in vivo effects of some antibiotics including cefazolin, cefuroxime, and cefoperazon, on the activity of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme (CA) in heart, brain, eye, liver, and kidney ...
In this paper, the in vivo effects of some antibiotics including cefazolin, cefuroxime, and cefoperazon, on the activity of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme (CA) in heart, brain, eye, liver, and kidney tissues of rats were evaluated. For this purpose, 16 different groups, which each containing six rats (n = 6), were formed (control group, cefazolin groups, cefuroxime groups, and cefoperazon groups). The rats were necropsied 60 min after the intraperitoneal injection of the chemicals into the rats. The CA activities were measured for each tissue using esterase activity methods. The activity values for each tissue obtained were statistically calculated. The CA activities in the liver tissue were assessed, and the activities of the cefoperazon groups were decreased compared to the sham groups from the third hour (p < 0.05). In the cefuroxime and cefoperazon groups, the CA activities in the eye tissue were decreased during the first 3 h and then increased (p < 0.05).
- Antimicrobial Prophylaxis with Combat-Related Open Soft-Tissue Injuries. [Journal Article]
- MMMil Med 2018 Feb 13
- CONCLUSIONS: Use of non-guideline directed EGN-based post-trauma antibiotic prophylaxis does not improve infectious outcomes nor does it shorten hospital stay.
- Melioidosis: the great mimicker presenting as spondylodiscitis. [Journal Article]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2018 Feb 08; 2018
- Melioidosis, a syndrome with protean clinical manifestations, is caused by Gram-negative soil saprophyteBurkholderiapseudomalleiAmong its diverse clinical presentations, the involvement of spine is a...
Melioidosis, a syndrome with protean clinical manifestations, is caused by Gram-negative soil saprophyteBurkholderiapseudomalleiAmong its diverse clinical presentations, the involvement of spine is a rare phenomenon and can mimic tuberculosis on presentation. A 65-year-old female with a known case of diabetes presented with fever with lower back pain. Blood culture grewStaphylococcus aureus, and as per sensitivity report, clindamycin and cefazolin were started. X-ray and MRI lumbosacral spine showed spondylodiscitis (likely Koch's). Decompression and biopsy were done, and a sample was sent for microbiological investigations that showed no growth of any significant pathogen; furthermore, all tests for tuberculosis diagnosis also remained negative. Active Melioidosis Detect Lateral Flow Assay was used on the tissue sample, which was positive forB. pseudomalleiCapsular Polysaccharide (CPS) antigen; the case was confirmed by typethree secretion system 1 PCR for melioidosis. Antibiotics were changed to parenteral ceftazidime for 2 weeks followed by oral cotrimoxazole. A dedicated team of microbiologists and physicians is required to identify and treat the disease.
- Safety of Anti-Staphylococcal Penicillins versus Cefazolin: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. [Journal Article]
- AAAntimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 Feb 05
- Recent studies and experience suggest that cefazolin might be as equally effective as anti-staphylococcal penicillins for methicillin-susceptibleStaphylococcus aureus(MSSA) with a better safety profi...
Recent studies and experience suggest that cefazolin might be as equally effective as anti-staphylococcal penicillins for methicillin-susceptibleStaphylococcus aureus(MSSA) with a better safety profile and lower cost. The objective of these meta-analyses was to compare the safety of anti-staphylococcal penicillins and cefazolin. PubMed, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts databases and websites for clinical trial registries through June 23, 2017 were searched. In addition, recent abstracts from infectious disease and pharmacy conferences were reviewed. We estimated Peto odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using random-effects models. One analysis focused on hospitalized patients and the other on outpatients. Eleven retrospective studies of hospitalized patients and three of outpatients were included. In hospitalized patients, lower nephrotoxicity (Peto OR, 0.225; 95% CI, 0.127-0.513), acute interstitial nephritis (Peto OR, 0.189; 95% CI, 0.053-0.675), hepatotoxicity (Peto OR, 0.160; 95% CI, 0.066-0.387), and drug discontinuation due to adverse reactions (Peto OR, 0.192; 95% CI, 0.089-0.414) were found with cefazolin. In outpatients, lower nephrotoxicity (Peto OR, 0.372; 95% CI, 0.192-0.722), hepatotoxicity (Peto OR, 0.313; 95% CI, 0.156-0.627), and hypersensitivity reactions (Peto OR, 0.372; 95% CI, 0.201-0.687[rsqb] were observed with cefazolin. Compared to anti-staphylococcal penicillins, cefazolin was associated with significant reductions in nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in hospitalized patients and outpatients. Additionally, cefazolin was associated with less likelihood of discontinuation due to side effects in hospitalized patients and hypersensitivity reactions in outpatients. Cefazolin should be considered a first-line option for patients with MSSA infections in which efficacy is presumed to be similar to anti-staphylococcal penicillin therapy.
- Trends and patterns of national antimicrobial consumption in Japan from 2004 to 2016. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Infect Chemother 2018 Feb 07
- Frequent use of broad-spectrum antimicrobial classes has been reported in Japan; however, little is known about the long-term trend of national antimicrobial consumption, and that of individual agent...
Frequent use of broad-spectrum antimicrobial classes has been reported in Japan; however, little is known about the long-term trend of national antimicrobial consumption, and that of individual agents. This study analyzed the national sales data of systemic antimicrobials from 2004 to 2016, derived from the IMS Japan Pharmaceutical Market database, to assess the consumption patterns of antimicrobial classes and agents in Japan. The number of defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID) was calculated for each antimicrobial agent. During the last 13 years, total antimicrobial consumption fluctuated by only 5% around the average of 14.41 DID. In 2016, the most used class was macrolides (32%), followed by cephalosporins (28%) and fluoroquinolones (19%). Oral agents comprised a large proportion (93%) of antimicrobial consumption. The most used agent, clarithromycin, accounted for 25% of all oral compounds used in 2016. The consumption of oral agents with high bioavailability, such as fluoroquinolones, amoxicillin, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim increased, whereas that of cephalosporins decreased. In 2016, ceftriaxone was the most consumed parenteral agent, followed by cefazolin. The consumption of parenteral agents increased after 2009 when high-dose regimens of piperacillin/tazobactam, meropenem, and ampicillin/sulbactam were approved by the health insurance system. National antimicrobial consumption has been stable over the last 13 years. Moreover, shifts in the use of agents with high bioavailability and those approved for high-dose regimens were observed. However, the increased use of broad-spectrum agents is worrisome. A multifaceted approach is required to reduce overall antimicrobial consumption.
- An evaluation of E. coli in urinary tract infection in emergency department at KAMC in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: retrospective study. [Journal Article]
- ACAnn Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2018 Feb 09; 17(1):3
- CONCLUSIONS: High resistance was observed to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole which commonly used as empirical treatments for UTIS, limiting their clinical use. This necessitates continuous surveillance for resistance pattern of uropathogens against antibiotics.
- Frequency of antimicrobial resistance and integron gene cassettes in Escherichia coli isolated from giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China. [Journal Article]
- MPMicrob Pathog 2018 Jan 25; 116:173-179
- Escherichia coli (E. coli) is considered as a common opportunistic pathogen, which causes seriously intestinal infections to giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and other animals. The aim of this i...
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is considered as a common opportunistic pathogen, which causes seriously intestinal infections to giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and other animals. The aim of this investigation was to characterize the antimicrobial resistance and integron gene cassettes in E. coli isolated from the faeces of giant pandas in China. A total of 89 E. coli were isolated, after diagnosis of isolates and genomes were extracted. All the isolates were screened for the presence of related drug-resistance genes and integron gene cassettes through the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and sequencing. In addition, antimicrobial resistance testing was performed according to the standard disk diffusion method (CLSI 2013). The results demonstrated that all the isolates were multi-drug resistance (MDR). High resistance proportions of the E. coli isolates were to streptomycin (93%), cefazolin (90%), amikacin (75%), tetracycline (65%), ampicillin (62%), cefotaxime and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (54%, each). With respect to the various resistance genes; blaCTX-M, sul1, ant (3')-Ia, tetA, qnrB, tetE, floR, aac (6')-Ib, sul2, rmtA, cmlA, rmtB and tetC were identified with the respective frequencies of 44%, 45%, 38%, 37%, 35%, 27%, 26%, 20%, 18%, 15%, 10%, 7% and 4%. None of the isolates was positive for qnrA and cfr genes. Moreover, a further investigation of integron revealed that the emergence of class 1 and 2 integrons were in 47% and 8% isolates, respectively. While class 3 integron was not screened. Six types of containing in class 1 integron specific gene cassettes (dfrA12-orfF-aadA2, dfrA17-aadA5, aadA1, aadA5, dfrA1 and dfrA7) were identified. However, only one gene cassette (dfrA1-sat2-aadA1) was detected in class 2 integron. These finding emphasize that a high level of E. coli isolates harbored antibiotics resistance and integron gene cassettes, which may bring so many potential threats to the health of giant pandas.
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- Randomized Multicenter Study Comparing Safety and Efficacy of Daptomycin Versus Standard of Care in Pediatric Patients with Staphylococcal Bacteremia. [Journal Article]
- PIPediatr Infect Dis J 2018 Feb 03
- CONCLUSIONS: Once-daily, age-appropriate daptomycin was well tolerated in children with staphylococcal bacteremia; efficacy was comparable to SOC. Daptomycin in age-adjusted doses is a safe treatment alternative in this setting.(clinicaltrials.gov NCT01728376).