- Bullous cutaneous larva migrans: case series and review of atypical clinical presentations. [Journal Article]
- GIG Ital Dermatol Venereol 2017; 152(5):516-519
- Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans (HRCLM) is caused by the penetration and migration in the epidermis of larvae of Ancylostoma braziliense and Ancylostoma caninum. It is characterized by sligh...
Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans (HRCLM) is caused by the penetration and migration in the epidermis of larvae of Ancylostoma braziliense and Ancylostoma caninum. It is characterized by slightly raised and erythematous tracks, located especially on the feet. These tracks may be single or multiple, serpiginous or linear, ramified and intertwined, accompanied by pruritus. Atypical clinical presentations of HRCLM are currently more frequent than in the past. We present six patients with bullous HRCLM and discuss the possible pathogenetic factors. Furthermore, we present a review of atypical clinical presentations of HRCLM. From 1998 to 2013 we observed approximately 180 patients with HRCLM. In all patients race, nationality, sex, age, country of infestation, location of the disease, clinical picture, laboratory and instrumental examinations and therapy were collected. In six patients (4 males and 2 females), we made a diagnosis, based on the history and clinical picture, of bullous HRCLM. The infestation was characterized by single or multiple blisters, round or oval in shape, of different size, with a clear serous fluid. Some tracks were also visible. All patients complained of pruritus. General physical examination and laboratory and instrumental examinations were normal or negative. Cytological examinations of the blisters showed the presence of lymphocytes and neutrophils, with numerous eosinophils. All patients were successfully treated with oral albendazole. Blisters appear because of the release by the larvae of lytic enzymes (metalloproteases and hyaluronidases). Furthermore, blisters might be the final clinical result of a delayed hypersensitivity reaction due to the release by larvae of unknown antigens. Finally, only in some patients, bullous HRCLM might represent an acute irritant/allergic contact dermatitis caused by topical drugs applied on the lesions. This hypothesis has been excluded in our patients because no topical treatment was made before our observation.
- The impact of global climate change on the spread of parasitic nematodes [Journal Article]
- APAnn Parasitol 2017; 63(1):15-20
- Climate changes may influence the frequency, intensity and geographical distribution of parasites, directly affecting their dispersive stages in the environment (eggs, larvae) and, indirectly, the la...
Climate changes may influence the frequency, intensity and geographical distribution of parasites, directly affecting their dispersive stages in the environment (eggs, larvae) and, indirectly, the larvae living mainly in invertebrate intermediate hosts. In biologically diverse nematodes climate warming contributes to the increase in the range of distribution, colonization of new hosts and modification of their development cycles. This is particularly acute in the Arctic and pertains, for instance, to nematodes Ostertagia gruehneri and Setaria tundra parasitizing reindeer Rangifer tarandus and Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis in musk oxen (Ovibos moschatus). Increase in range expansion of mosquitoes Culicidae caused that nematodes of the genus Dirofilaria, especially D. repens, have been listed in autochthonous invasions even in the northern and eastern European countries. In addition, extended range of occurrence is also shown by Ancylostoma braziliense – a parasite of carnivores in the tropical and subtropical countries. In recent years over 20 cases of autochthonous creeping eruption (CE) caused by cutanea larva migrans (CLM) A. braziliense were detected in people in southern Europe (Italy, Spain, France, Germany).
- Cutaneous Larva Migrans. [Review]
- RPRecent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov 2017; 11(1):2-11
- CONCLUSIONS: The pruritic serpiginous track is pathognomonic. Oral ivermectin is the treatment of choice.
- Molecular Identification of Hookworm Isolates in Humans, Dogs and Soil in a Tribal Area in Tamil Nadu, India. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- PNPLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016; 10(8):e0004891
- CONCLUSIONS: In our study we regularly detected the presence of A. caninum DNA in the stool of humans. Whether this is the result of infection is currently unknown but it does warrant a closer look at dogs as a potential reservoir.
- Efficacy of oral afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewables against induced gastrointestinal nematode infections in dogs. [Journal Article]
- VPVet Parasitol 2016 Jul 30; 225:117-22
- The efficacy of oral afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime combination chewables against induced gastrointestinal nematode infections in dogs was evaluated in six separate studies. Two studies were perfor...
The efficacy of oral afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime combination chewables against induced gastrointestinal nematode infections in dogs was evaluated in six separate studies. Two studies were performed to evaluate the efficacy of the product against Toxocara canis, two studies evaluated the efficacy against Toxascaris leonina, one study evaluated the efficacy against Ancylostoma braziliense, and one study evaluated the efficacy against Ancylostoma caninum. In the A. caninum study, the efficacy of milbemycin oxime alone and afoxolaner alone was also evaluated. Dogs in all studies were inoculated with infective eggs or larvae and confirmed to have patent infections based on a fecal examination prior to allocation to study group and treatment. Each study utilized a randomized block design with blocks based on pre-treatment body weight. All dogs were assigned to blocks based on body weight, and then each dog within a block was randomly assigned to treatment group. There were two groups of 10 dogs each in the T. canis, T. leonina, and A. braziliense studies: 1) an untreated (control) group and 2) a group treated with afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewables (NexGard Spectra(®), Merial). This group was treated at a dose as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime (2.5mg+0.5mg per kg body weight, respectively) once on Day 0 using whole chews. There were four groups of 10 dogs each in the A. caninum study: 1) untreated (control), 2) NexGard Spectra(®) as described above, 3) milbemycin oxime alone (dose of at least 0.5mg per kg of body weight) and 4) afoxalaner alone (dose of at least 2.5mg per kg body weight). For parasite recovery and counts, dogs were euthanized humanely and necropsied seven days after treatment. The efficacy of the afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime combination was ≥98% against T. canis, ≥95.8% against T. leonina, and 90.2% against A. braziliense. Efficacy of the combination against A. caninum was 99.7%, while the efficacy of milbemycin oxime alone was 99.6% and the efficacy of afoxolaner alone was 2.1%. Dogs treated with afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewables had significantly (p≤0.0002) fewer nematodes than the untreated controls in all studies. There were no adverse events or other health problems that were related to treatment with Nexgard Spectra(®) in these studies. The results of these controlled studies demonstrate the high efficacy of the afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewables against a broad range of canine intestinal nematode infections.
- Efficacy of afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewable tablets against naturally acquired intestinal nematodes in dogs. [Journal Article]
- VPVet Parasitol 2016 Feb 15; 217:29-35
- The efficacy of oral afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime combination chewable tablets (NexGard Spectra, Merial) against naturally acquired intestinal nematode infections in dogs was evaluated in six neg...
The efficacy of oral afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime combination chewable tablets (NexGard Spectra, Merial) against naturally acquired intestinal nematode infections in dogs was evaluated in six negative control, blinded studies including a total of 114 dogs. Dogs were selected based on a pre-treatment fecal examination indicating patent infections with hookworms (two studies), Toxocara or Toxascaris ascarids (one study each) or Trichuris whipworms (two studies). In each study, dogs were assigned to blocks of two animals each, based on decreasing pre-treatment body weight and were randomly allocated to one of two groups consisting of eight, nine or 10 dogs: untreated (control) or treated with the combination chewable tablet formulation. Chewable tablets were combined to provide doses of actives as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime, i.e., 2.5 mg/kg body weight and 0.5 mg/kg body weight, respectively, once on Day 0. For parasite recovery and count, dogs were euthanized humanely and necropsied seven or eight days after treatment. A single treatment with afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewable tablets provided 94.8% and 90.9% efficacy against adult Ancylostoma braziliense and A. caninum, respectively, 97.8% and 99.4% efficacy against adult Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina, respectively, and ≥98.3% efficacy against adult Trichuris vulpis. Compared to untreated controls, nematode counts of the treated dogs were significantly reduced (F-test; p<0.002). In addition, analysis of the pooled data across studies revealed that treatment with afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewable tablets reduced adult Uncinaria stenocephala burdens by 74.9% (p=0.002). All dogs tolerated the treatment well based on clinical observations post-treatment and daily clinical observations. No adverse experiences or other clinical problems related to the treatment were observed throughout the studies. The results of this series of controlled studies demonstrated high efficacy and excellent acceptability and safety of the afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewable tablets when administered for treatment of a broad range of canine intestinal nematode infections.
- Molecular identification of Ancylostoma species from dogs and an assessment of zoonotic risk in low-income households, São Paulo State, Brazil. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Helminthol 2017; 91(1):14-19
- Hookworm infection stands out for its worldwide distribution and for its veterinary and public health relevance. Based on copromicroscopic examinations and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplificati...
Hookworm infection stands out for its worldwide distribution and for its veterinary and public health relevance. Based on copromicroscopic examinations and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, we assessed, respectively, the prevalence of intestinal parasites and the identification of canine hookworm species in faeces recovered from 278 dogs living in households of an inland municipality of São Paulo State, Brazil. Intestinal parasites were found in 67.3% of dogs and hookworm infection was found at the highest prevalence rate (56.6%), followed by Toxocara canis (11.9%), Isospora spp. (11.9%), Giardia spp. (5.8%), Sarcocystis spp. (4.0%), 'Hammondia-like' (1.4%), Dipylidium caninum (1.1%) and Trichuris vulpis (0.7%). Of 158 samples positive for hookworm eggs, 106 (67.1%) were amplified by PCR and, of those, 88 (55.7%) were successfully sequenced for species identification. Single infections with Ancylostoma caninum and Ancylostoma braziliense were recorded in 61.4% and 12.5%, respectively, and mixed infections were found in 26.1%. The nucleotide sequences of both species showed high identity rates (98-100%) when compared with reference sequences. Although A. caninum was the most prevalent hookworm in the dogs assessed, the occurrence of both A. caninum and A. braziliense in single and/or mixed infections poses a potential risk for the local population in a low-income area, especially children, to acquire cutaneous larva migrans (CLM).
- Cutaneous Larva Migrans in Early Infancy. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Dermatol 2015 Sep-Oct; 60(5):522
- Cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruptions is a cutaneous dermatosis caused by hookworm larvae, Ancylostoma braziliense. A 2-month-old female child presented with a progressive rash over the left ...
Cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruptions is a cutaneous dermatosis caused by hookworm larvae, Ancylostoma braziliense. A 2-month-old female child presented with a progressive rash over the left buttock of 4 days duration. Cutaneous examination showed an urticarial papule progressing to erythematous, tortuous, thread-like tract extending a few centimeters from papule over the left gluteal region. A clinical diagnosis of cutaneous larva migrans was considered. Treatment with albendazole led to complete resolution, confirming the diagnosis. This is to the best of our knowledge, the youngest age at which this condition is being reported.
- Re-evaluation of the species of hookworms infecting dogs in Central Vietnam. [Journal Article]
- PVParasit Vectors 2015; 8:401
- CONCLUSIONS: Based on this information, it is apparent that the hookworms present in dogs in Vietnam are those of A. ceylanicum and not A. braziliense. Owing to the endemic nature of this significant zoonosis in dogs, the study strongly advocates for specific identification of this hookworm in human hookworm surveys.
New Search Next
- [Cutaneous larva migrans after a trip to the Caribean]. [Case Reports]
- RCRev Chilena Infectol 2014; 31(3):346-8
- Cutaneous larva migrans is a parasitic disease caused by Ancylostoma braziliense and Ancylostoma caninum larvae, which is transmitted by contact with sand infested with these parasites. Dogs and cats...
Cutaneous larva migrans is a parasitic disease caused by Ancylostoma braziliense and Ancylostoma caninum larvae, which is transmitted by contact with sand infested with these parasites. Dogs and cats are the definitive hosts. This parasitic disease is endemic in the Caribbean, Africa, Australia, and Asia. We present the case of a 27-year-old woman, who developed skin lesions compatible with cutaneous larva migrans on her right foot after returning from beach vacations in the Mexican Caribbean. After clinical diagnosis, oral ivermectin was administered, with good clinical response.