- Endoparasites in domestic animals surrounding an Atlantic Forest remnant, in São Paulo State, Brazil. [Journal Article]
- RBRev Bras Parasitol Vet 2018 Feb 19
- Morro do Diabo State Park (MDSP) is a significant remnant of the Atlantic Rain Forest in Brazil and is surrounded by rural properties. In that area, wild and domestic animals and humans are in close ...
Morro do Diabo State Park (MDSP) is a significant remnant of the Atlantic Rain Forest in Brazil and is surrounded by rural properties. In that area, wild and domestic animals and humans are in close contact, which facilitates the two-way flow of infectious diseases among them. We assessed endoparasites in domestic livestock from all rural properties surrounding MDSP. There were sampled 197 cattle, 37 horses, 11 sheep, 25 swine, 21 dogs, one cat and 62 groups of chickens from 10 large private properties and 75 rural settlements. Eimeria spp. was present in almost all hosts, excepted in horses, dogs and cats. Giardia cysts were present only in cattle. Nematodes were found in swine, ruminants and horses in high prevalence. Ancylostoma, Toxocara and Sarcocystis were found in dogs. Chickens were found with coccidia, Ascaridida and Capillaria spp.. These parasites can cause malnutrition and reproductive disorders for their hosts. Strategies to prevent and control the spread of endoparasites can improve wildlife, animal and human health in this area.
- Epidemiology of canine gastrointestinal helminths in sub-Saharan Africa. [Journal Article]
- PVParasit Vectors 2018 Feb 20; 11(1):100
- CONCLUSIONS: Twenty-six genera of enteric helminths were reported and the pooled estimate of canine helminthiasis was 71% (95% CI: 63-79%). Species of Ancylostoma and Toxocara, causative agents of larva migrans in humans, were the most frequently reported helminths with pooled estimated prevalences of 41% (95% CI: 32-50%) and 22% (95% CI: 16-29%), respectively. Dipylidium caninum and Taenia spp. were the most frequently reported cestodes with pooled estimated prevalences of 20% (95% CI: 12-29%) and 9% (95% CI: 5-15%), respectively. Trematodes were rarely reported. There was a high level of heterogeneity in most pooled estimates (I2˃ 80%). The results of this study show that canine helminthiasis is highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa and there is need for regular deworming programmes to improve the health status of the dogs and minimise the potential health risk to humans.
- The Risk of Chronic Gastrointestinal Disorders Following Acute Infection with Intestinal Parasites. [Journal Article]
- FMFront Microbiol 2018; 9:17
- CONCLUSIONS: We found that parasite-associated enteric infection increases the risk of development of post-infectious chronic gastrointestinal disorders in a military population. These results require confirmation in similar populations and in the developing world where infection with these parasites is endemic. Further understanding of disease burden and causal mechanisms should direct primary prevention and potential disease interception strategies.
- Molecular differentiation of three canine and feline hookworms in South China through HRM analysis. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Helminthol 2018 Feb 05; :1-7
- To investigate the prevalence of canine and feline hookworms in South China, and to assess the risk of zoonotic hookworms to humans, one pair of primers (HRM-F/HRM-R) was designed to establish a high...
To investigate the prevalence of canine and feline hookworms in South China, and to assess the risk of zoonotic hookworms to humans, one pair of primers (HRM-F/HRM-R) was designed to establish a high-resolution melting (HRM) method based on internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) rDNA for the detection of Ancylostoma ceylanicum, A. caninum and A. tubaeforme infection. The results showed that the HRM for the three hookworms produced different melting-curve profiles, where melting temperature (T m) values were 84.50°C for A. ceylanicum, 82.25°C for A. caninum and 81.73°C for A. tubaeforme, respectively. The reproducibility of intra- and inter-assay melting curves was almost perfect. The lowest concentration detected was about 5.69 ×10-4 g/μl. The HRM detection results from 18 canine and feline hookworm samples were in complete accordance with their sequencing results. The HRM method was more sensitive than the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique in the detection of 98 clinical samples. It is concluded that the HRM method can differentiate between A. ceylanicum, A. caninum, A. tubaeforme and their mixed infections, which may provide important technical support for the zoonotic risk assessment and molecular epidemiological survey of canine and feline hookworms.
- Of dogs and hookworms: man's best friend and his parasites as a model for translational biomedical research. [Review]
- PVParasit Vectors 2018 Jan 25; 11(1):59
- We present evidence that the dog hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum) is underutilised in the study of host-parasite interactions, particularly as a proxy for the human-hookworm relationship. The inability...
We present evidence that the dog hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum) is underutilised in the study of host-parasite interactions, particularly as a proxy for the human-hookworm relationship. The inability to passage hookworms through all life stages in vitro means that adult stage hookworms have to be harvested from the gut of their definitive hosts for ex vivo research. This makes study of the human-hookworm interface difficult for technical and ethical reasons. The historical association of humans, dogs and hookworms presents a unique triad of positive evolutionary pressure to drive the A. caninum-canine interaction to reflect that of the human-hookworm relationship. Here we discuss A. caninum as a proxy for human hookworm infection and situate this hookworm model within the current research agenda, including the various 'omics' applications and the search for next generation biologics to treat a plethora of human diseases. Historically, the dog hookworm has been well described on a physiological and biochemical level, with an increasing understanding of its role as a human zoonosis. With its similarity to human hookworm, the recent publications of hookworm genomes and other omics databases, as well as the ready availability of these parasites for ex vivo culture, the dog hookworm presents itself as a valuable tool for discovery and translational research.
- Expanding molecular diagnostics of helminthiasis: Piloting use of the GPLN platform for surveillance of soil transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis in Ghana. [Journal Article]
- PNPLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018; 12(1):e0006129
- The efforts to control and eradicate polio as a global health burden have been successful to the point where currently only three countries now report endemic polio, and the number of cases of polio ...
The efforts to control and eradicate polio as a global health burden have been successful to the point where currently only three countries now report endemic polio, and the number of cases of polio continues to decrease. The success of the polio programme has been dependant on a well-developed network of laboratories termed the global polio laboratory network (GPLN). Here we explore collaborative opportunities with the GPLN to target two of the 18 diseases listed as a neglected tropical diseases (NTD) namely soil transmitted helminthiasis (STH) and Schistosomiasis (SCH). These were chosen based on prevalence and the use of faecal materials to identify both polio, STH and SCH. Our study screened 448 faecal samples from the Ghana GPLN using three triplex TaqMan assays to identify Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma spp, Trichuris trchiura, Strongyloides stercoralis and Schistosoma spp. Our results found a combined helminth prevalence of 22%. The most common helminth infection was A. lumbricoides with a prevalence of 15% followed by N. americanus (5%), Ancylostoma spp. (2.5%), Schistosoma spp. (1.6%) and S. stercoralis (1%). These results show that it is possible to identify alternative pathogens to polio in the samples collected by the GPLN platform and to introduce new diagnostic assays to their laboratories. The diagnostic methods employed were also able to identify S. stercoralis positive samples, which are difficult to identify using parasitological methods such as Kato-Katz. This study raises the possibility of collaboration with the GPLN for the surveillance of a wider range of diseases which would both benefit the efforts to control the NTDs and also increase the scope of the GPLN as a diagnostic platform.
- Sertraline, Paroxetine, and Chlorpromazine Are Rapidly Acting Anthelmintic Drugs Capable of Clinical Repurposing. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Jan 17; 8(1):975
- Parasitic helminths infect over 1 billion people worldwide, while current treatments rely on a limited arsenal of drugs. To expedite drug discovery, we screened a small-molecule library of compounds ...
Parasitic helminths infect over 1 billion people worldwide, while current treatments rely on a limited arsenal of drugs. To expedite drug discovery, we screened a small-molecule library of compounds with histories of use in human clinical trials for anthelmintic activity against the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. From this screen, we found that the neuromodulatory drugs sertraline, paroxetine, and chlorpromazine kill C. elegans at multiple life stages including embryos, developing larvae and gravid adults. These drugs act rapidly to inhibit C. elegans feeding within minutes of exposure. Sertraline, paroxetine, and chlorpromazine also decrease motility of adult Trichuris muris whipworms, prevent hatching and development of Ancylostoma caninum hookworms and kill Schistosoma mansoni flatworms, three widely divergent parasitic helminth species. C. elegans mutants with resistance to known anthelmintic drugs such as ivermectin are equally or more susceptible to these three drugs, suggesting that they may act on novel targets to kill worms. Sertraline, paroxetine, and chlorpromazine have long histories of use clinically as antidepressant or antipsychotic medicines. They may represent new classes of anthelmintic drug that could be used in combination with existing front-line drugs to boost effectiveness of anti-parasite treatment as well as offset the development of parasite drug resistance.
- Parasites of importance for human health on edible fruits and vegetables in Nigeria: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published data. [Journal Article]
- PGPathog Glob Health 2018 Jan 16; :1-9
- Contamination of edible fruits and vegetables is now a global public health issue despite their health benefits as non-pharmacological prophylaxis against chronic diseases. Studies that will harness ...
Contamination of edible fruits and vegetables is now a global public health issue despite their health benefits as non-pharmacological prophylaxis against chronic diseases. Studies that will harness the extent of parasitic contaminations will ensure public health protection. Here, the prevalence and distribution of parasites of importance for human health on fruits and vegetables in Nigeria were determined through a systematic review and meta-analysis of published data. The random-effects model was used to determine pooled prevalence estimate (PPE). Heterogeneity was evaluated by the Cochran's Q-test. Parasites overall PPE of 32.4% (95% CI: 0.73, 0.91) was observed from 19 eligible studies reported across 13 Nigerian states. Sub-groups PPEs ranged between 3.5% (95% CI: 0.45, 1.86) and 58.5% (95% CI: 1.40, 4.09). A high degree of heterogeneity 97.53% (95% CI: 0.30, 0.46, P: 0.000) was observed within studies and sub-groups. Cryptosporidium species were the most prevalent, while Ancylostoma duodenale and Ascaris lumbricoides had the widest geographical distribution. Pineapple (Prev: 41.3%, 95% CI: 0.40, 0.75) and lettuce (Prev: 51.5%, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.68) recorded the highest level of parasitic contamination. Parasites of importance for human health are prevalent on edible fruits and vegetables in Nigeria. Prevalence estimates were highest in the South-eastern region and during the most recent decade. Adequate washing of fruits and vegetables, on-farm irrigation of vegetables using good sources of water and adequate hygiene by food handlers will help the general public to maximize the health benefits associated with the intake of fruits and vegetables while minimizing the risk of acquiring parasitic infections.
- Helminth Fauna in Captive European Gray Wolves (Canis lupus lupus) in Germany. [Journal Article]
- FVFront Vet Sci 2017; 4:228
- Captive as well as free-ranging wolves, which are currently recolonizing Germany, may harbor a variety of gastrointestinal parasites. This study investigated endoparasites in captive European gray wo...
Captive as well as free-ranging wolves, which are currently recolonizing Germany, may harbor a variety of gastrointestinal parasites. This study investigated endoparasites in captive European gray wolves (Canis lupus lupus) using coproscopical methods. Fecal samples were collected monthly between October 2012 and November 2013 from 18 wolf enclosures in 14 German zoological gardens, representing 72 individual wolves. In total, 1,041 fecal samples including 26 bulk samples were analyzed by the sedimentation and flotation method. The most frequently detected egg morphotypes included five nematodes [Ancylostomatidae (Ancylostoma or Uncinaria spp.), Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis, and Capillaria/Eucoleus spp.], one cestode (Taeniidae) and one trematode (Alaria alata). 44.76% of all samples were positive for at least one of these egg morphotypes. Overall, Ancylostomatidae showed the highest frequency (30.84% of all samples), followed by Capillaria/Eucoleus spp. (19.88%), Toxocara canis (5.19%), taeniids (3.75%), Trichuris vulpis and Alaria alata (3.65% each), and Toxascaris leonina (1.25%). As fecal samples were collected from the environment and could not be assigned to individual wolves, sample results were combined per zoo and month. General linear mixed models were employed to analyze the effect of season and management factors on the occurrence of Ancylostomatidae, Capillaria/Eucoleus spp., Toxocara canis and taeniids. No statistically significant effect of season was found, whereas anthelmintic treatment negatively affected Ancylostomatidae egg excretion. Detected parasites and their prevalences are comparable to previous studies on wolf parasitism conducted elsewhere in Europe. As many of the most prevalent helminths are of zoonotic importance, routine anthelmintic treatment of captive wolves should be recommended.
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- Prevalence of Intestinal Endoparasites With Zoonotic Potential in Domestic Cats From Botucatu, SP, Brazil. [Journal Article]
- TCTop Companion Anim Med 2017; 32(3):114-117
- Intestinal endoparasites in cats have received increasing attention worldwide due to the increase in the population of cats and their intimate relationship with people. However, concern about the zoo...
Intestinal endoparasites in cats have received increasing attention worldwide due to the increase in the population of cats and their intimate relationship with people. However, concern about the zoonotic potential of these agents is still small. The aim of this study was evaluating the occurrence of intestinal endoparasites, the most prevalent ones, as well as the profile of affected cats. We conducted a survey of the medical records of cats treated at Small Animal Medical Clinic, in the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences-campus Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. Medical records between January 2011 and September 2015 were evaluated, including all cats presenting with gastrointestinal clinical disorders and had positive parasitological stool sample tests (Faust and Willis techniques) for any type of endoparasite. We evaluated the data obtained from these cats, such as sex, breed, age, diet, street access, history of parasitic diseases and season of the year. From the 1725 cats evaluated during this period, there were a total of 60 positive cases. Among these cats, 60% were males and 40% were females. Regarding breeds, 68.3% were mixed breeds, 21.7% Persian, 8.3% Siamese, and 1.7% Himalayan. The ages ranged from 1-11 years old, with an average age of 2 years and 5 months. However, cats up to 6-months old were the most frequently affected. The highest incidence of parasitized cat was for Giardia sp. (65.0%), followed by Ancylostoma spp. (40.0%), Dipylidium caninum and Toxocara cati (8.3% each). It was observed that 65% of cats presented single infections and 35% mixed infections. This survey analyzed only positive cases of gastrointestinal endoparasites, so it diverges in some respects from other results in the literature. Asymptomatic cats were not considered, but they may be carriers that eliminate parasites in the environment. However, all intestinal endoparasites isolated in cats in this study represent a potential risk of zoonotic infections, which highlights the importance of this data for the adoption of preventive measures, especially in young male cats, which were the most frequently affected in this study and in others.