- Association of community sanitation usage with soil-transmitted helminth infections among school-aged children in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. [Journal Article]
- PVParasit Vectors 2017 Feb 17; 10(1):91
- CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of a protective association between community sanitation usage and STH infection. The relationship between STH infection and community sanitation usage may be complex and requires further study.
- Changes in protein expression after treatment with Ancylostoma caninum excretory/secretory products in a mouse model of colitis. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2017 Feb 13; 7:41883
- Different reports have highlighted the potential use of helminths and their secretions in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) conditions; however, no reports have investigated their eff...
Different reports have highlighted the potential use of helminths and their secretions in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) conditions; however, no reports have investigated their effects at a proteome level. Herein, we characterise the protein expression changes that occur in lamina propria (LP) and the intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) of mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis treated with Ancylostoma caninum excretory/secretory (ES) products using a quantitative proteomic approach. We have shown how parasite products can significantly alter the expression of proteins involved in immune responses, cell death and with an antioxidant activity. Interestingly, significant changes in the expression levels of different mucins were observed in this study. MUC13, a mucin implicated in gastrointestinal homeostasis, was upregulated in the LP of mice with DSS-induced colitis treated with ES, while MUC2, a major component of mucus, was upregulated in the IEC. In addition, A. caninum proteins have an important effect on proteins with antioxidant functions and proteins involved in intestinal homeostasis and tissue integrity and regeneration. Understanding how parasites can ameliorate IBD pathogenesis can help us design novel treatments for autoimmune diseases.
- Abundance, zoonotic potential and risk factors of intestinal parasitism amongst dog and cat populations: The scenario of Crete, Greece. [Journal Article]
- PVParasit Vectors 2017 Jan 25; 10(1):43
- CONCLUSIONS: High levels of parasitism in both dogs and cats were recorded. Giardia was the most prevalent parasite in all dog and cat populations except for shepherd dogs. Genotyping results suggest a limited zoonotic risk of Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections from dogs and cats in Crete. Taeniid eggs were more prevalent in shepherd dogs suggesting access to carcasses and posing a threat for cystic echinococcosis transmission. Infection rates of Toxocara spp. in both dogs and cats show that companion animals could be a significant source of infection to humans.
- Diagnosing Polyparasitism in a High-Prevalence Setting in Beira, Mozambique: Detection of Intestinal Parasites in Fecal Samples by Microscopy and Real-Time PCR. [Journal Article]
- PNPLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017; 11(1):e0005310
- CONCLUSIONS: We showed intestinal parasites-especially helminths-to be omnipresent in Inhamudima, Beira. However, it is a challenge to achieve high diagnostic sensitivity for all species. Classical techniques such as FEC are useful for the detection of some intestinal helminth species, but they lack sensitivity for other parasite species. PCR can detect intestinal parasites more accurately but is generally not feasible in resource-poor settings, at least not in peripheral labs. Hence, there is a need for a more field-friendly, sensitive approach for on-the-spot diagnosis of parasitic infections.
- The molecular speciation of soil-transmitted helminth eggs collected from school children across six endemic countries. [Journal Article]
- TRTrans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jan 18
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that STH infections in humans are predominantly caused by human STH species. They also suggest that zoonotic transmission occurs on a local scale.
- Diffuse Unilateral Subacute Neuroretinitis Caused by Ancylostoma Hookworm. [Journal Article]
- EIEmerg Infect Dis 2017; 23(2):343-344
- Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis is an ocular infectious disease caused by several distinct nematodes. Definite identification of the involved nematodes is rarely achieved. We report on the...
Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis is an ocular infectious disease caused by several distinct nematodes. Definite identification of the involved nematodes is rarely achieved. We report on the molecular-based genetic identification of an Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworm implicated in a case of diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis in a child.
- Ancylostoma ceylanicum Hookworm in the Solomon Islands. [Journal Article]
- EIEmerg Infect Dis 2017; 23(2):252-257
- Although hookworm is highly prevalent in the Solomon Islands, the species involved are unknown. We initiated this study in response to finding Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworm in a peacekeeper in Aust...
Although hookworm is highly prevalent in the Solomon Islands, the species involved are unknown. We initiated this study in response to finding Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworm in a peacekeeper in Australia who had returned from the Solomon Islands. Kato-Katz fecal surveys performed in 2013 and 2014 in 2 village groups in East Malaita, Solomon Islands, identified hookworm-positive samples. These specimens were tested by cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox-1) gene multiplex PCR and sequenced. Of 66 positive specimens, 54 (81.8%) contained only Necator americanus, 11 (16.7%) contained only A. ceylanicum, and 1 (1.5%) contained both species. A. duodenale was not found. Haplotype analysis of cox-1 sequences placed all human isolates (99% bootstrap support) of A. ceylanicum within the zoonotic clade rather than the human-specific clade. This study confirms that A. ceylanicum is endemic in the East Malaita region of this Pacific Island nation. The strain of the A. ceylanicum in this region can be shared among humans, dogs, and cats.
- First Molecular Identifications of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma ceylanicum Infecting Rural Communities in Lower Myanmar. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jan 11; 96(1):214-216
- Hookworms are enteric parasitic roundworms infecting an estimated 400 million persons worldwide. Herein, we provide the first molecular identifications of human hookworms from certain parts of rural ...
Hookworms are enteric parasitic roundworms infecting an estimated 400 million persons worldwide. Herein, we provide the first molecular identifications of human hookworms from certain parts of rural Lower Myanmar. DNA was extracted from hookworm-positive stool samples, as determined by microscopy. DNA sequences of the partial internal transcribed spacer 1, full length 5.8S gene, and partial internal transcribed spacer 2 were determined and compared with available hookworm sequences from public databases. Of the 11 polymerase chain reaction-positive samples, eight (Bago Region, N = 4; Mon State, N = 4) yielded sequences with high similarity to those of Necator americanus A further three sequences (Mon State, N = 2; Bago Region, N = 1) showed high similarity with those of Ancylostoma ceylanicum The latter is primarily a parasite of dogs and represents a zoonosis. Given that different species of hookworms exhibit different epidemiological and biological characteristics, accurate identification is essential for the planning and execution of effective control programs for hookworm infections.
- The roundworm Strongyloides stercoralis in children, dogs, and soil inside and outside a segregated settlement in Eastern Slovakia: frequent but hardly detectable parasite. [Journal Article]
- PRParasitol Res 2017; 116(3):891-900
- A comparative study was carried out to evaluate the Strongyloides stercoralis infections in children and dogs inside and outside the segregated settlement in Medzev, Eastern Slovakia, and a survey of...
A comparative study was carried out to evaluate the Strongyloides stercoralis infections in children and dogs inside and outside the segregated settlement in Medzev, Eastern Slovakia, and a survey of the soil within the settlement was included. Applying the Koga agar plate (KAP) culture method and microscopy examination of stool samples collected from 60 Roma and 21 nonRoma children, no larvae of S. stercoralis were detected but eggs of three nematodes (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis) and cysts of two protozoan endoparasites (Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp.) were often found. However, immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA) for the evidence of IgG antibodies against S. stercoralis showed 33.3% seroprevalence in Roma children and 23.8% prevalence in children from the majority population, attending the same school. Eosinophilia was regularly present in children with exclusive infection of S. stercoralis (eight cases) as well as in individuals suffering from mixed infections of S. stercoralis and some of the above listed parasites (16 cases); high eosinophil counts sometimes, but not always, occurred in parasitized children lacking S. stercoralis antibodies. A comparison of S. stercoralis in dogs from the settlement (40 dogs) and from a distant dog shelter (20 dogs) did not reveal remarkable differences: the direct microscopy of faecal samples revealed rhabditiform larvae in 13.3% of the dogs from the settlement (4/30) and in 10.0% of the dogs from the shelter (2/20). Out of blood samples collected from the second dog group, 55% of the dogs contained antibodies against S. stercoralis. In the soil collected from 14 various locations within the settlement, S. stercoralis larvae were observed in two samples (14.3%); however, 13 samples (92.9%) were positive for human or dog endoparasites of the genera Ancylostoma, Ascaris, Toxocara, Toxascaris, Trichuris, and Hymenolepis.
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- Identification of AcAP5 as a novel factor Xa inhibitor with both direct and allosteric inhibition. [Journal Article]
- BBBiochem Biophys Res Commun 2017 Jan 29; 483(1):495-501
- Ancylostoma caninum anticoagulant peptide 5 (AcAP5) is a potent inhibitor for coagulation factor Xa (FXa). Previous studies show that AcAP5 binds to FXa at the active site, and/or the exosite. The ac...
Ancylostoma caninum anticoagulant peptide 5 (AcAP5) is a potent inhibitor for coagulation factor Xa (FXa). Previous studies show that AcAP5 binds to FXa at the active site, and/or the exosite. The active site-binding contributes to direct blocking of FXa catalytic activity, but the effect of exosite-binding and the underlying mechanism remain unknown. To investigate whether and how the exosite-binding affects FXa function, we prepared several AcAP5 mutants with modifications to the active site-binding or exosite-binding region. Their FXa-inhibiting and anticoagulant activities were examined both in vitro and in rabbit plasma, and the interactions with FXa were analyzed using in silico molecular modeling, docking, and molecular dynamics simulation. Mutants abolishing either active site- or exosite-binding resulted in a dramatic decrease in their anti-FXa and anticoagulant activities. Elongation of AcAP5 exosite-binding region also impaired the FXa-inhibiting activity. Computational analysis demonstrated that the conformation of FXa becomes more rigid due to exosite-binding with AcAP5, which consequently affects its catalytic activity. Our results suggest that both active site- and exosite-binding contribute to the FXa inhibitory activity of AcAP5.