- Clinical, Hormonal, and Genetic Evaluation of Idiopathic Nonobstructive Azoospermia and Klinefelter Syndrome Patients. [Journal Article]
- CGCytogenet Genome Res 2018 Feb 22
- To investigate the clinical, hormonal, and genetic factors in infertile men with idiopathic nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) or azoospermic Klinefelter syndrome (KFS), a total of 556 and 96 patients,...
To investigate the clinical, hormonal, and genetic factors in infertile men with idiopathic nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) or azoospermic Klinefelter syndrome (KFS), a total of 556 and 96 patients, respectively, were included in this study. All patient samples were analyzed cytogenetically. Serum reproductive hormone levels were measured. Microdeletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF) region of the Y chromosome were detected by multiplex PCR using 16 specific sequence-tagged sites. FSH and LH levels in both NOA and KFS patients were significantly higher than the normal range, and the testosterone level in KFS patients was significantly lower. Ninety-two (95.8%) of the KFS patients showed non-mosaic 47,XXY karyotypes and 47,XXY,inv(9)(p11.1q13); the other KFS patients had mosaic karyotypes of 47,XXY/46,XY, 47,XXY/46,XX, and 47,XXY/48,XXXY/46,XX. Among the 556 idiopathic NOA patients with normal karyotypes, 67 (12.05%) had microdeletions in the AZF region of the Y chromosome. Microdeletions were most frequently detected in the AZFc region, followed by AZFa, AZFb, AZFbc, and partial AZFc deletions. However, Y chromosome microdeletions were not found in any of the azoospermic KFS patients. In view of the hormonal and genetic abnormalities in infertile men with idiopathic NOA and with azoospermic KFS, genetic testing for karyotype, Y chromosome microdeletions, and hormonal parameters is advocated.
- The impact of serum adropin and ischemia modified albumin levels based on BMI in PCOS. [Journal Article]
- EPEndokrynol Pol 2018 Feb 21
- CONCLUSIONS: Although serum adropin levels were significantly decreased in the PCOS group, IMA levels increased. Further studies are needed to determine the effects of adropin and IMA in women with PCOS and to use a new marker to monitorize treatment outcomes.
- Insulin resistance in an animal model of polycystic ovary disease is aggravated by vitamin D deficiency: Vascular consequences. [Journal Article]
- DVDiab Vasc Dis Res 2018 Feb 01; :1479164118758580
- Hyperandrogenic state in females is accompanied with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and vascular pathologies. A total of 67%-85% of hyperandrogenic women suffer also from vitamin D deficiency...
Hyperandrogenic state in females is accompanied with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and vascular pathologies. A total of 67%-85% of hyperandrogenic women suffer also from vitamin D deficiency. We aimed to check a potential interplay between hyperandrogenism and vitamin D deficiency in producing insulin resistance and effects on coronary resistance arteries. Adolescent female rats were divided into four groups, 11-12 animals in each. Transdermal testosterone-treated and vehicle-treated animals were kept either on vitamin D-deficient or on vitamin D-supplemented diet for 8 weeks. Plasma sexual steroid, insulin, leptin and vitamin D plasma levels were measured, and oral glucose tolerance test was performed. In coronary arterioles, insulin receptor and vitamin D receptor expressions were tested by immunohistochemistry, and insulin-induced relaxation was measured in vitro on isolated coronary resistance artery segments. Testosterone impaired glucose tolerance, and it diminished insulin relaxation but did not affect the expression of insulin and vitamin D receptors in vascular tissue. Vitamin D deficiency elevated postprandial insulin levels and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance. It also diminished insulin-induced coronary arteriole relaxation, while it raised the expression of vitamin D and insulin receptors in the endothelial and medial layers. Our conclusion is that both hyperandrogenism and vitamin D deficiency reduce sensitivity of coronary vascular tissue to insulin, but they do it with different mechanisms.
- Non-invasive Management Options for Erectile Dysfunction When a Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitor Fails. [Review]
- DADrugs Aging 2018 Feb 20
- Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) are the drug of choice for medical management of erectile dysfunction (ED). On-demand PDE5Is have an overall efficacy of 60-70% for ED; 30-35% of patients...
Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) are the drug of choice for medical management of erectile dysfunction (ED). On-demand PDE5Is have an overall efficacy of 60-70% for ED; 30-35% of patients fail to respond to a PDE5I, and 30-50% of non-responders can be salvaged with detailed counseling on proper use and physician follow-up to ensure that the patient has been prescribed an appropriate and full PDE5I clinical trial. True non-responders may be offered intracavernosal injections of erectogenic drugs, intraurethral alprostadil, or surgical insertion of a penile prosthesis. Such options are not discreet and are associated with more adverse effects than PDE5Is. Thus patients may request additional non-invasive medical management options. This review describes published literature on patients who failed to respond to an on-demand PDE5I regimen and were treated with a non-invasive PDEI-based regimen, including switching from one PDE5I to another; increasing the dose of PDE5I above the labeled dosage range; using two PDE5Is concurrently; using a daily PDE5I regimen; or combining a PDE5I with a testosterone supplement, α-adrenergic antagonist, intraurethral or intracavernosal alprostadil, vacuum erection device, or low-intensity shock wave therapy. The limitations of published clinical trials do not allow for sufficient evidence to recommend one option over another. Therefore, in PDE5I-refractory patients, the choice of a specific next step should be individualized based on the preference of the patient and his sexual partner, the advantages and disadvantages of the various options, the concurrent medical illnesses and medications of the patient, and the patient's response to treatment.
- The Effect of Transdermal Testosterone Administration on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Erectile Dysfunction: A Prospective, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial. [Journal Article]
- CUCurr Urol 2017; 11(1):4-8
- CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that testosterone replacement therapy is effective in improving LUTS and ED symptoms.
- Adrenal Stress and Physical Performance During Military Survival Training. [Journal Article]
- AMAerosp Med Hum Perform 2018 Feb 01; 89(2):99-107
- CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that despite significant increases in stress hormone concentrations in all subjects during SERE, fitter subjects exhibited differential hormonal responses during recovery, with quicker return of norepinephrine and NPY to baseline concentrations. This suggests physical fitness level may have a protective effect in recovery from periods of high stress military training.Szivak TK, Lee EC, Saenz C, Flanagan SD, Focht BC, Volek JS, Maresh CM, Kraemer WJ. Adrenal stress and physical performance during military survival training. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(2):99-107.
- Adverse effects of doping with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in competitive athletics, recreational sports and bodybuilding. [Journal Article]
- MEMinerva Endocrinol 2018 Feb 19
- Despite the fact that sports organizations and legislators have introduced various mechanisms to discourage athletes from using performance and appearance enhancing substances a high percentage of at...
Despite the fact that sports organizations and legislators have introduced various mechanisms to discourage athletes from using performance and appearance enhancing substances a high percentage of athletes admits to their unabated application. In competitive athletics, bodybuilding and in recreational sports anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) continue to be the substances most abused. This review summarizes the side effects of AAS abuse on organs and system functions in both sexes. High doses of AAS cause a significant increase of erythrocytes und haemoglobin concentration, which may lead to thromboembolism, intracardiac thrombosis and stroke. Long-term AAS abusers have a higher incidence of arrhythmias, atherosclerosis, concentric left-ventricular myocardial hypertrophy with impaired diastolic function and also sudden cardiac death. Changes of liver function and structure, up to hepatocellular carcinoma, have been described, mainly in cases of chronic misuse of 17α-alkylated AAS. Sleeplessness, increased irritability, depressive mood status are often observed in AAS abuse. In former AAS abusers depression, anxiety and melancholy may persist for many years. Due to negative feedback in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis AAS can cause reversible suppression of spermatogenesis up to azoospermia. In women the changes most often caused by AAS abuse are hirsutism, irreversible deepening of voice, dysmenorrhoea, secondary amenorrhoea with anovulation and infertility. AAS abuse notwithstanding, under clinical conditions testosterone remains the most important hormone for substitution therapy of male hypogonadism.
- Melatonin Regulates the Synthesis of Steroid Hormones on Male Reproduction: A Review. [Review]
- MMolecules 2018 Feb 17; 23(2)
- Melatonin is a ubiquitous molecule and exhibits different effects in long-day and short-day breeding animals. Testosterone, the main resource of androgens in the testis, is produced by Leydig cells b...
Melatonin is a ubiquitous molecule and exhibits different effects in long-day and short-day breeding animals. Testosterone, the main resource of androgens in the testis, is produced by Leydig cells but regulated mainly by cytokine secreted by Sertoli cells. Melatonin acts as a local modulator of the endocrine activity in Leydig cells. In Sertoli cells, melatonin influences cellular proliferation and energy metabolism and, consequently, can regulate steroidogenesis. These suggest melatonin as a key player in the regulation of steroidogenesis. However, the melatonin-induced regulation of steroid hormones may differ among species, and the literature data indicate that melatonin has important effects on steroidogenesis and male reproduction.
- CYP17 gene plays a key role in goose genital growth by influencing the testosterone level at puberty. [Journal Article]
- PSPoult Sci 2018 Feb 14
- All birds reproduce by internal fertilization, but only 3% of birds have external genitalia. Hormone secretions and body size influence genital growth, but the actual regulatory mechanism is rarely r...
All birds reproduce by internal fertilization, but only 3% of birds have external genitalia. Hormone secretions and body size influence genital growth, but the actual regulatory mechanism is rarely reported. Thus, using 35 geese as experimental material, the regulatory mechanism of goose external genitalia growth was explored by measuring body size parameters, serum hormone concentrations, and related gene expression. In this study, genital growth was different among tested geese, but histological and morphological results showed that all geese external genitalia contained complete tissues. Measurements of hormone levels showed that at puberty, as the genital length increased, irregular decreases were observed in the levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), whereas an irregular increase was observed in the levels of testosterone (T); furthermore, the levels of testosterone (T) gradually increased to a peak at 34 weeks. Based on RT-PCR results, as the genital length increased, only the expression of 17α-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase (CYP17) mRNA slightly decreased at first, and then significantly increased to a peak, whereas the expression patterns of other genes were irregular. Furthermore, the CYP17 immunohistochemistry results also showed a pattern that was highly consistent with the patterns of mRNA expression and T secretion. In addition, based on body measurements, as body weight increased, the genital length increased. Thus, these results suggested that the CYP17 gene plays a key role in goose genital growth.
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- Hormonal, metabolic, and endometrial safety of testosterone vaginal cream versus estrogens for the treatment of vulvovaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. [Journal Article]
- MMenopause 2018 Feb 16
- CONCLUSIONS: Twelve weeks of treatment with topical testosterone or estrogen in postmenopausal women with symptoms of vaginal atrophy demonstrated laboratory and endometrial safety when compared with placebo.