- Recommendations for the Use of Testosterone in Male Transgender. [Journal Article]
- RBRev Bras Ginecol Obstet 2018; 40(5):275-280
- Gender incongruence is defined as a condition in which an individual self-identifies and desires to have physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. Gender dys...
Gender incongruence is defined as a condition in which an individual self-identifies and desires to have physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. Gender dysphoria is when an individual displays the anxiety and/or depression disorders that result from the incongruity between the gender identity and the biological sex. The gender affirmation process must be performed by a multidisciplinary team. The main goal of the hormone treatment is to start the development of male physical characteristics by means of testosterone administration that may be offered to transgender men who are 18 years old or over. The use of testosterone is usually well tolerated and improves the quality of life. However, there is still lack of evidence regarding the effects and risks of the long-term use of this hormone. Many different pharmacological formulations have been used in the transsexualization process. The most commonly used formulation is the intramuscular testosterone esters in a short-term release injection, followed by testosterone cypionate or testosterone enanthate. In the majority of testosterone therapy protocols, the male physical characteristics can be seen in almost all users after 6 months of therapy, and the maximum virilization effects are usually achieved after 3 to 5 years of regular use of the hormone. To minimize risks, plasmatic testosterone levels should be kept within male physiological ranges (300 to 1,000 ng/dl) during hormonal treatment. It is recommended that transgender men under androgen therapy be monitored every 3 months during the 1st year of treatment and then, every 6 to 12 months.
- Seasonal changes in plasma concentrations of the thyroid, glucocorticoid and reproductive hormones in the tegu lizard Salvator merianae. [Journal Article]
- GCGen Comp Endocrinol 2018 Jun 15
- The tegu lizard Salvator merianae is a large, widely distributed teiid lizard endemic to South America that exhibits annual cycles of high activity during the spring and summer, and hibernation durin...
The tegu lizard Salvator merianae is a large, widely distributed teiid lizard endemic to South America that exhibits annual cycles of high activity during the spring and summer, and hibernation during winter. This pattern of activity and hibernation is accompanied by profound seasonal changes in physiology and behavior, including endothermy during the austral spring. The unusual combination of seasonal endothermy, hibernation and oviparity, in a non-avian, non-mammalian species, makes S. merianae an interesting subject for study of comparative aspects of endocrine regulation of seasonal changes in physiology. In the present study, we first validated commercially available immunoassay kits for quantification of hormone concentrations of the reproductive (testosterone, estradiol and progesterone), adrenal (corticosterone), and thyroid [thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)] axes in plasma of an outdoor, captive adult male and female S. merianae in southeastern Brazil. All assays exhibited parallelism and accuracy with S. merianae plasma. We next assessed patterns of concentration of these hormones across the annual cycle of S. merianae. Testosterone in males and estradiol in females peaked in spring coincident with the peak in reproductive behavior. Progesterone in females was significantly elevated in October coincident with putative ovulation when gravid females build nests. Thyroid hormones, known for regulating energy metabolism, varied seasonally with some sex-dependent differences. T4 gradually increased from an annual nadir during pre-hibernation and hibernation to high concentrations during spring in both sexes. In contrast, T3 did not vary seasonally in males, but females showed a two-fold increase in T3 during the spring reproductive season. T3 may be involved in energy investment during the seasonal production of large clutches of eggs. Corticosterone was significantly elevated during the active season in both sexes, suggesting its involvement in mobilization of energy stores and modulation of behavior (territoriality) and physiology. Ours is the first investigation of concurrent changes in reproductive, thyroid and adrenal hormone concentrations in this endemic and physiologically unique South American lizard. Our findings set the stage for future investigations to determine the extent to which these hormones influence activity and thermoregulation in S. merianae.
- High serum concentration of estradiol may be a risk factor of prostate enlargement in aging male in China. [Journal Article]
- AMAging Male 2018 Jun 18; :1-6
- CONCLUSIONS: E2 is significantly associated with prostate volume. High concentrations of E2 may be a risk factor for the large volume of prostate.
- Impact on testicular function of a single ablative activity of 3.7 GBq radioactive iodine for differentiated thyroid carcinoma. [Journal Article]
- HRHum Reprod 2018 Jun 15
- What are the consequences of radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy for testicular function?
What are the consequences of radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy for testicular function?
- The Effects of a 4-Week, Intensified Training, and Competition Period on Salivary Hormones, Immunoglobulin A, Illness Symptoms, and Mood State in Elite Synchronised Swimmers. [Journal Article]
- SSports (Basel) 2017 Sep 01; 5(3)
- Given the limited research into the physiological and psychological demands of elite synchronised swimming, the aim of this study was to examine 10 elite female synchronised swimmers and analyse the ...
Given the limited research into the physiological and psychological demands of elite synchronised swimming, the aim of this study was to examine 10 elite female synchronised swimmers and analyse the relationship between training load, stress, illness episodes, and salivary biomarkers during a period of training and competition. Saliva samples were collected before (BASE), during an intensified training camp (CAMP), during an international competition period (COMP), and post competition recovery (REC) for analysis of cortisol, testosterone, and secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA). Illness symptoms, Daily Analysis of Life Demands of Athletes (DALDA), and training load were also monitored. Training load significantly increased from BASE during CAMP and COMP (p < 0.01), and SIgA secretion was higher during COMP compared to BASE and CAMP (p < 0.01). There was no change in salivary testosterone; however, salivary cortisol was elevated during COMP compared to BASE (93%, p < 0.05). DALDA 'a scores' were correlated with salivary cortisol (r = 0.429, p = 0.0001). The study demonstrates that a short period of intensified training and competition did not have a detrimental effect on mucosal immunity in elite synchronised swimmers; however, swimmers displayed higher cortisol levels during the competition and increased stress symptoms.
- Resting Hormone Alterations and Injuries: Block vs. DUP Weight-Training among D-1 Track and Field Athletes. [Journal Article]
- SSports (Basel) 2018 Jan 16; 6(1)
- Daily undulating periodization (DUP), using daily alterations in repetitions, has been advocated as a superior method of resistance training, while traditional forms of programming for periodization ...
Daily undulating periodization (DUP), using daily alterations in repetitions, has been advocated as a superior method of resistance training, while traditional forms of programming for periodization (Block) have been questioned. Nineteen Division I track and field athletes were assigned to either a 10-week Block or DUP training group. Year and event were controlled. Over the course of the study, there were four testing sessions, which were used to evaluate a variety of strength characteristics, including maximum isometric strength, rate of force development, and one repetition maximum (1RM). Although, performance trends favored the Block group for strength and rate of force development, no statistical differences were found between the two groups. However, different (p ≤ 0.05) estimated volumes of work (VL) and amounts of improvement per VL were found between groups. Based upon calculated training efficiency scores, these data indicate that a Block training model is more efficient in producing strength gains than a DUP model. Additionally, alterations in testosterone (T), cortisol (C) and the T:C ratio were measured. Although there were no statistically (p ≤ 0.05) different hormone alterations between groups, relationships between training variables and hormone concentrations including the T:C ratio, indicate that Block may be more efficacious in terms of fatigue management.
- Association of total testosterone, free testosterone, bioavailable testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin with hepatic steatosis and the ratio of aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase. [Journal Article]
- EJEndocr J 2018 Jun 16
- Several articles have shown the inverse association between total testosterone (TT) or sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and hepatic steatosis. No articles report associations of TT, SHBG, free tes...
Several articles have shown the inverse association between total testosterone (TT) or sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and hepatic steatosis. No articles report associations of TT, SHBG, free testosterone (FT), and bioavailable testosterone (BioT) with aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratios. Therefore, we investigated the associations of TT, FT, BioT and SHBG with hepatic steatosis and AST/ALT ratios. A total of 218 men were enrolled. We diagnosed hepatic steatosis by ultrasound. TT and SHBG showed a reduced risk for hepatic steatosis when analyzed with or without adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity. Compared with the lowest quartile, the ORs for hepatic steatosis in the third and fourth quartiles (0.32 [95% CI: 0.14-0.75] and 0.27 [95% CI: 0.10-0.73], respectively) of SHBG were significantly lower after adjustments. The OR for hepatic steatosis in the fourth quartile of TT (0.41 [95% CI: 0.17-0.95]) was significantly lower than in the lowest quartile after adjustments. The mean AST/ALT ratios in men with hepatic steatosis were lower than those without hepatic steatosis (0.83 and 1.04, respectively), due to the elevated ALT levels in hepatic steatosis groups. Furthermore, TT and SHBG were positively associated with AST/ALT ratios with and without adjustments. In conclusion, higher TT and SHBG levels in men are associated with the reduced risk of hepatic steatosis and elevated AST/ALT ratios, independent of age, smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity.
- Short-Term Fasting Reveals Amino Acid Metabolism as a Major Sex-Discriminating Factor in the Liver. [Journal Article]
- CMCell Metab 2018 Jun 06
- Sex impacts on liver physiology with severe consequences for energy metabolism and response to xenobiotic, hepatic, and extra-hepatic diseases. The comprehension of the biology subtending sex-related...
Sex impacts on liver physiology with severe consequences for energy metabolism and response to xenobiotic, hepatic, and extra-hepatic diseases. The comprehension of the biology subtending sex-related hepatic differences is therefore very relevant in the medical, pharmacological, and dietary perspective. The extensive application of metabolomics paired to transcriptomics here shows that, in the case of short-term fasting, the decision to maintain lipid synthesis using amino acids (aa) as a source of fuel is the key discriminant for the hepatic metabolism of male and female mice. Pharmacological and genetic interventions indicate that the hepatic estrogen receptor (ERα) has a key role in this sex-related strategy that is primed around birth by the aromatase-dependent conversion of testosterone into estradiol. This energy partition strategy, possibly the result of an evolutionary pressure enabling mammals to tailor their reproductive capacities to nutritional status, is most important to direct future sex-specific dietary and medical interventions.
- Impact of a gestational exposure to diesel exhaust on offspring gonadal development: experimental study in the rabbit. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dev Orig Health Dis 2018 Jun 18; :1-11
- The aim of the present work was to address experimentally the possible impact of exposure to air pollution during gestation on the differentiation and function of the gonads of the offspring using a ...
The aim of the present work was to address experimentally the possible impact of exposure to air pollution during gestation on the differentiation and function of the gonads of the offspring using a rabbit model. Rabbits were exposed daily to diluted diesel exhaust gas or filtered air from the 3rd until the 27th day of gestation, during which time germ cells migrate in genital ridges and divide, and fetal sex is determined. Offspring gonads were collected shortly before birth (28th day of gestation) or after puberty (7.5 months after birth). The structure of the gonads was analyzed by histological and immunohistological methods. Serum concentrations of testosterone and anti-Müllerian hormone were determined using ELISA. The morphology and the endocrine function of the gonads collected just at the arrest of the exposure were similar in polluted and control animals in both sexes. No differences were observed as well in gonads collected after puberty. Sperm was collected at the head of the epididymis in adults. Sperm motility and DNA fragmentation were measured. Among all parameters analyzed, only the sperm DNA fragmentation rate was increased three-fold in exposed males. Mechanisms responsible for these modifications and their physiological consequences are to be further clarified.
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- Coalitional Physical Competition : Acute Salivary Steroid Hormone Responses among Juvenile Male Soccer Players in Hong Kong. [Journal Article]
- HNHum Nat 2018 Jun 16
- A large body of research links testosterone and cortisol to male-male competition. Yet, little work has explored acute steroid hormone responses to coalitional, physical competition during middle chi...
A large body of research links testosterone and cortisol to male-male competition. Yet, little work has explored acute steroid hormone responses to coalitional, physical competition during middle childhood. Here, we investigate testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and cortisol release among ethnically Chinese boys in Hong Kong (N = 102), aged 8-11 years, during a soccer match (n = 84) and an intrasquad soccer scrimmage (n = 81), with 63 participants competing in both treatments. The soccer match and intrasquad soccer scrimmage represented out-group and in-group treatments, respectively. Results revealed that testosterone showed no measurable change. DHEA increased during both treatments in the majority of participants and the degree of change had no relation to independent variables (e.g., performance, age, treatment, outcome) or covariate measures (Body Mass Index, Pubertal Development Scale). Most boys experienced androstenedione increases during match play, but no significant differences during the intrasquad soccer scrimmage competitions. The magnitude of change differed significantly between treatments and was positively associated with age. These latter findings suggest boys' androstenedione responses may be sensitive to competitor type (i.e., unknown competitors vs. peers). For most subjects, cortisol significantly increased during match play, decreased during the intrasquad soccer scrimmage, and differed significantly between treatments, suggesting each treatment promoted a different psychological state among competitors. Cortisol/DHEA molar ratio decreased during the intrasquad scrimmage, suggestive of a more relaxed mental state. These data shed new light on potential proximate mechanisms associated with coalitional competition among prepubescent boys, with relevance to adrenarche and life history theory.