- The impact of sex steroid agonists and antagonists on folliculogenesis in the neonatal porcine ovary via cell proliferation and apoptosis. [Journal Article]
- TTheriogenology 2018 Feb 10; 113:19-26
- The objective of the study was to examine the effects of androgen and estrogen agonists or antagonists on the follicle formation, ovarian cell proliferation and apoptosis as well as plasma steroid co...
The objective of the study was to examine the effects of androgen and estrogen agonists or antagonists on the follicle formation, ovarian cell proliferation and apoptosis as well as plasma steroid concentration in neonatal pigs. Piglets were injected with testosterone propionate (TP, 20 mg/kg bw), flutamide (FLU, 50 mg/kg bw), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP, 100 mg/kg bw), ICI 182,780 (ICI, 400 μg/kg bw), methoxychlor (MXC, 100 mg/kg bw) or corn oil (CTR, controls) between postnatal Days 1 and 10 (n = 4/group). Heart blood was collected and ovaries were excised from the 11-day-old piglets. The lower percentage of oocytes within an egg nest and higher ovarian expression of active caspase 3 were found in TP (androgen excess) piglets compared to controls. FLU-induced androgen deficiency decreased the percentage of primordial follicles, increased that of early primary follicles and diminished ovarian cell proliferation. OP-induced estrogen action increased the percentage of primordial and developing follicles as well as cell proliferation. ICI-induced estrogen deficiency decreased the percentage of transitional follicles and ovarian cell proliferation, while increased the percentage of primordial follicles and the abundance of active caspase 3. Treatment with MXC, exhibiting estrogenic, antiestrogenic, and antiandrogenic activities, declined the percentage of developing follicles and cell proliferation. Moreover, the investigated compounds differentially affected plasma steroid level. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated clear effects of TP and FLU during the earliest stages of folliculogenesis in pigs (nest breakdown and follicle assembly), whereas OP and ICI influenced also the subsequent stages of follicle initial recruitment and growth. Therefore, the androgen and estrogen seems to be important for the follicle assembly and follicle growth in neonatal porcine ovaries.
- Prostate-selective α antagonists increase fracture risk in prostate cancer patients with and without a history of androgen deprivation therapy: a nationwide population-based study. [Journal Article]
- OOncotarget 2018 Jan 12; 9(4):5263-5273
- CONCLUSIONS: Prostate-selective α antagonist is associated with an increased fracture risk, particular for fractures in skull and femur. Patients should be well-informed on this potential risk before taking prostate-selective α antagonists.
- In vitro nuclear receptor inhibition and cytotoxicity of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and their binary mixtures. [Journal Article]
- CChemosphere 2018 Jan 09
- The widespread use of hydraulic fracturing (HF) in oil and gas extraction operations has led to concern over environmental risks posed by chemicals used in HF fluids. Here we employed a suite of stab...
The widespread use of hydraulic fracturing (HF) in oil and gas extraction operations has led to concern over environmental risks posed by chemicals used in HF fluids. Here we employed a suite of stable luciferase reporter gene assays to investigate the potential for selected HF chemicals or geogenics to activate or antagonise nuclear receptor signalling. We screened three biocides (bronopol [BP], glutaraldehyde [GA], and tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate [THPS]), a surfactant (2-butoxyethanol), a friction reducer (polyacrylamide), and a coal seam geogenic (o-cresol) for their potential to act as agonists or antagonists of the estrogen receptor, androgen receptor, progesterone receptor (PR), glucocorticoid receptor or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). None of the chemicals induced luciferase activity in any of assays used in the study. In antagonistic mode, BP, GA and THPS caused reductions in luciferase activity in the reporter assays at higher concentrations (50-100 μM), while at low concentrations (2-10 μM) GA and THPS enhanced luciferase activity in some assays relative to controls. None of the other tested chemicals exhibited antagonism in the selected assays. In most cases, altered receptor signalling only occurred at concentrations exhibiting cytotoxicity. However, PPARγ activity, and to a lesser extent PR activity, were inhibited by THPS at sub-cytotoxic concentrations. The majority of binary combinations tested exhibited significantly less-than-additive cytotoxicity, and none of the combinations exhibited synergistic cytotoxicity. In summary, the results of the present study indicate that the selected chemicals are not likely to function as direct agonists of the nuclear receptors tested, and only one chemical, THPS was an apparent partial antagonist of two nuclear receptors.
- Metastatic Prostate Cancer. [Journal Article]
- NEJMN Engl J Med 2018 02 15; 378(7):645-657
- Estrogens and Their Receptors in Prostate Cancer: Therapeutic Implications. [Review]
- FOFront Oncol 2018; 8:2
- A major challenge in clinical management of prostate cancer (PC) is to limit tumor growth and prevent metastatic spreading. Considerable efforts have been made to discover new compounds for PC therap...
A major challenge in clinical management of prostate cancer (PC) is to limit tumor growth and prevent metastatic spreading. Considerable efforts have been made to discover new compounds for PC therapy and recent years have seen promising progress in this field. Pharmacological approaches have been designed to achieve benefits in PC treatment and avoid the negative side effects resulting from administration of antagonists or agonists or new drugs. Nonetheless, the currently available therapies frequently induce resistance and PC progresses toward castration-resistant forms that can be caused by the androgen receptor reactivation and/or mutations, or derangement of signaling pathways. Preclinical and clinical findings have also shown that other nuclear receptors are frequently altered in PC. In this review, we focus on the role of estradiol/estradiol receptor (ER) axis, which controls PC growth and progression. Selective targeting of ER subtypes (α or β) may be an attractive way to limit the growth and spreading of prostatic cancer cells.
- In silico binding of 4,4'-bisphenols predicts in vitro estrogenic and antiandrogenic activity. [Journal Article]
- ETEnviron Toxicol 2018 Feb 02
- Bisphenols, anthropogenic pollutants, leach from consumer products and have potential to be ingested and are excreted in waste. The endocrine disrupting effects of highly manufactured bisphenols (BPA...
Bisphenols, anthropogenic pollutants, leach from consumer products and have potential to be ingested and are excreted in waste. The endocrine disrupting effects of highly manufactured bisphenols (BPA, BPS, and BPF) are known, however the activities of others are not. Here, the estrogenic and androgenic activities of a series of 4,4'-bisphenols that vary at the inter-connecting bisphenol bridge were determined (BPA, BPB, BPBP, BPC2, BPE, BPF, BPS, and BPZ) and compared to in silico binding to estrogen receptor-alpha and the androgen receptor. Bioassay results showed the order of estrogenicity (BPC2 (strongest) > BPBP > BPB > BPZ > BPE > BPF > BPA > BPS, r2 = 0.995) and anti-androgenicity (BPC2 (strongest) > BPE, BPB, BPA, BPF, and BPS, r2 = 0.996) correlated to nuclear receptor binding affinities. Like testosterone and the anti-androgen hydroxyflutamide, bisphenol fit in the ligand-binding domain through hydrogen-bonding at residues Thr877 and Asn705, but also interacted at either Cys784/Ser778 or Gln711 through the other phenol ring. This suggests the 4,4'-bisphenols, like hydroxyflutamide, are androgen receptor antagonists. Hydrogen-bond trends between ERα and the 4,4'-bisphenols were limited to residue Glu353, which interacted with the -OH of one phenol and the -OH of the A ring of 17β-estradiol; hydrogen-bonding varied at the -OH of ring D of 17β-estradiol and the second phenol -OH group. While both estrogen and androgen bioassays correlated to in silico results, conservation of hydrogen-bonding residues in the androgen receptor provides a convincing picture of direct antagonist binding by 4,4'-bisphenols.
- Discovery of novel 5-methyl-1H-pyrazole derivatives as potential anti-prostate cancer agents: design, synthesis, molecular modeling and biological evaluation. [Journal Article]
- CBChem Biol Drug Des 2018 Feb 01
- Androgen receptor (AR) signaling functions as a core driving force for the progression of prostate cancer (PCa), and AR has been proved to be an effective therapeutic target even for castration resis...
Androgen receptor (AR) signaling functions as a core driving force for the progression of prostate cancer (PCa), and AR has been proved to be an effective therapeutic target even for castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Herein, structural modification via a fragments splicing strategy was performed based on two lead compounds T3 and 10e, leading to the discovery of a series of 5-methyl-1H-pyrazole derivatives. AR reporter gene assay revealed compounds A13 and A14 as potent AR antagonists. Some of the compounds in this series inhibited growth of PCa LNCaP cells more efficiently than enzalutamide. A13 and A14 also showed improved metabolic stability comparing with 10e in human liver microsomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Sex Hormone Receptors in Benign and Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors: Prognostic and Predictive Role. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2018 Jan 30; 19(2)
- The role of sex hormone receptors in human cancer development and progression has been well documented in numerous studies, as has the success of sex hormone antagonists in the biological therapy of ...
The role of sex hormone receptors in human cancer development and progression has been well documented in numerous studies, as has the success of sex hormone antagonists in the biological therapy of many human tumors. In salivary gland tumors (SGTs), little and conflicting information about the role of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), progesterone receptor (PgR) and androgen receptor (AR) has been described and in most cases the use of sex hormone antagonists is not contemplated in clinical practice. In this study, we analyzed a panel of sex hormone receptors that have not been widely investigated in SGTs-ERα, PgR, AR, but also ERβ and GPR30-to define their expression pattern and their prognostic and predictive value in a case series of 69 benign and malignant SGTs. We showed the aberrant expression of AR in mucoepidermoid and oncocytic carcinoma, a strong relation between cytoplasmic ERβ expression and tumor grade, and a strong correlation between nuclear GPR30 expression and disease-free survival (DFS) of SGT patients.
- Additive effect of simultaneous continuous administration of degarelix and TAK-448 on LH suppression in a castrated rat model. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2018 Feb 03; 824:24-29
- Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs have long been used in androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in the treatment of prostate cancer. Chronic administration of either GnRH agonists or antagoni...
Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs have long been used in androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in the treatment of prostate cancer. Chronic administration of either GnRH agonists or antagonists leads to suppression of testosterone production in the testes via either downregulation or direct blockade of the GnRH receptor in the pituitary, respectively. Chronic administration of kisspeptin analogs has more recently been shown to lead to testosterone suppression via desensitization of GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus and an optimized kisspeptin analog, TAK-448, was proven effective in a small phase 1 trial. The current study explored the hypothesis that co-administration of TAK-448 and the GnRH antagonist, degarelix, would have an additive effect on hormonal suppression, as a result of simultaneous intervention in separate steps in the same pathway. TAK-448 or degarelix were first administered individually to castrated rats in order to identify low doses capable of partial or no suppression of luteinizing hormone (LH). In the second step, combinations of the low doses of TAK-448 and degarelix were assessed in a 14 day study and compared to the drugs administered separately. The results showed that simultaneous intervention at the kisspeptin and GnRH receptors caused a more pronounced LH suppression than either drug alone, demonstrating an additive or potentiating effect. These results suggest that such a drug combination may hold promise as novel forms of androgen deprivation therapy in the treatment of prostate cancer.
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- Testosterone boosts physical activity in male mice via dopaminergic pathways. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Jan 17; 8(1):957
- Low testosterone (T) in men, especially its free fraction, has been associated with loss of energy. In accordance, orchidectomy (ORX) in rodents results in decreased physical activity. Still, the mec...
Low testosterone (T) in men, especially its free fraction, has been associated with loss of energy. In accordance, orchidectomy (ORX) in rodents results in decreased physical activity. Still, the mechanisms through which T stimulates activity remain mostly obscure. Here, we studied voluntary wheel running behavior in three different mouse models of androgen deficiency: ORX, androgen receptor (AR) knock-out (ARKO) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG)-transgenic mice, a novel mouse model of "low free T". Our results clearly show a fast and dramatic action of T stimulating wheel running, which is not explained by its action on muscle, as evidenced by neuromuscular studies and in a muscle-specific conditional ARKO mouse model. The action of T occurs via its free fraction, as shown by the results in SHBG-transgenic mice, and it implies both androgenic and estrogenic pathways. Both gene expression and functional studies indicate that T modulates the in vivo sensitivity to dopamine (DA) agonists. Furthermore, the restoration of wheel running by T is inhibited by treatment with DA antagonists. These findings reveal that the free fraction of T, both via AR and indirectly through aromatization into estrogens, stimulates physical activity behavior in male mice by acting on central DA pathways.