- Prepubertal chrysin exposure upregulates either AR in male ventral prostate or AR and ERα in Skene's paraurethral gland of pubertal and adult gerbils. [Journal Article]
- FFitoterapia 2018; 124:137-144
- Chrysin is a plant-derived polyphenol that has the potential to increase endogenous testosterone levels both by inhibiting the aromatase enzyme and by stimulating testicular steroidogenesis. The effe...
Chrysin is a plant-derived polyphenol that has the potential to increase endogenous testosterone levels both by inhibiting the aromatase enzyme and by stimulating testicular steroidogenesis. The effects of chrysin on the prostate are unknown, especially during its development and functional maturation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chrysin prepubertal exposure on the male and female prostates of both pubertal and adult gerbils. To evaluate the possible androgenic responses of chrysin, gerbils were also exposed to testosterone. Male and female gerbils were exposed to chrysin or to testosterone cypionate from postnatal day 15 to 42. Male and female gerbils were euthanized at either 43days or 90days age. The prostates were collected for biometrical, morphological and immunohistochemical analysis. The results showed that prepubertal exposure to chrysin had differential effects on the prostate of both pubertal and adult animals. The prostates of male and female pubertal gerbils showed no histological alterations, although there was increased frequency of androgen receptor (AR) in males and females, and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in females. Adult males and females presented developed prostate glands, with higher cell proliferative rate. In addition, AR and ERα frequency remained high in the prostate of adult animals. These results demonstrated that prepubertal exposure to chrysin disrupts steroid receptors regulation in the prostate, potentiating the response of this gland to the biological effects of endogenous steroids. In this context, excessive consumption of phytoestrogens during the critical stages of development should be considered with caution.
- Reversal learning in gonadectomized marmosets with and without hormone replacement: are males more sensitive to punishment? [Journal Article]
- ACAnim Cogn 2016; 19(3):619-30
- This study examined sex differences in executive function in middle-aged gonadectomized marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) with or without hormonal replacement. We tested ten castrated male (mean age 5.5...
This study examined sex differences in executive function in middle-aged gonadectomized marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) with or without hormonal replacement. We tested ten castrated male (mean age 5.5 years) marmosets treated with testosterone cypionate (T, n = 5) or vehicle (n = 5) on Reversal Learning, which contributes to cognitive flexibility, and the Delayed Response task, measuring working memory. Their performance was compared to that of 11 ovariectomized females (mean age = 3.7 years) treated with Silastic capsules filled with 17-β estradiol (E2, n = 6) or empty capsules (n = 5), previously tested on the same tasks (Lacreuse et al. in J Neuroendocrinol 26:296-309, 2014. doi: 10.1111/jne.12147). Behavioral observations were conducted daily. Females exhibited more locomotor behaviors than males. Males and females did not differ in the number of trials taken to reach criterion on the reversals, but males had significantly longer response latencies, regardless of hormone replacement. They also had a greater number of refusals than females. Additionally, both control and T-treated males, but not females, had slower responses on incorrect trials, suggesting that males were making errors due to distraction, lack of motivation or uncertainty. Furthermore, although both males and females had slower responding following an incorrect compared to a correct trial, the sex difference in response latencies was disproportionally large following an incorrect trial. No sex difference was found in the Delayed Response task. Overall, slower response latencies in males than females during Reversal Learning, especially during and following an incorrect trial, may reflect greater sensitivity to punishment (omission of reward) and greater performance monitoring in males, compared to females. Because these differences occurred in gonadectomized animals and regardless of hormone replacement, they may be organized early in life.
- Chronic Exposure to Androgenic-Anabolic Steroids Exacerbates Axonal Injury and Microgliosis in the CHIMERA Mouse Model of Repetitive Concussion. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2016; 11(1):e0146540
- Concussion is a serious health concern. Concussion in athletes is of particular interest with respect to the relationship of concussion exposure to risk of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a n...
Concussion is a serious health concern. Concussion in athletes is of particular interest with respect to the relationship of concussion exposure to risk of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a neurodegenerative condition associated with altered cognitive and psychiatric functions and profound tauopathy. However, much remains to be learned about factors other than cumulative exposure that could influence concussion pathogenesis. Approximately 20% of CTE cases report a history of substance use including androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). How acute, chronic, or historical AAS use may affect the vulnerability of the brain to concussion is unknown. We therefore tested whether antecedent AAS exposure in young, male C57Bl/6 mice affects acute behavioral and neuropathological responses to mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) induced with the CHIMERA (Closed Head Impact Model of Engineered Rotational Acceleration) platform. Male C57Bl/6 mice received either vehicle or a cocktail of three AAS (testosterone, nandrolone and 17α-methyltestosterone) from 8-16 weeks of age. At the end of the 7th week of treatment, mice underwent two closed-head TBI or sham procedures spaced 24 h apart using CHIMERA. Post-repetitive TBI (rTBI) behavior was assessed for 7 d followed by tissue collection. AAS treatment induced the expected physiological changes including increased body weight, testicular atrophy, aggression and downregulation of brain 5-HT1B receptor expression. rTBI induced behavioral deficits, widespread axonal injury and white matter microgliosis. While AAS treatment did not worsen post-rTBI behavioral changes, AAS-treated mice exhibited significantly exacerbated axonal injury and microgliosis, indicating that AAS exposure can alter neuronal and innate immune responses to concussive TBI.
- Long-term Exposure to Testosterone Therapy and the Risk of High Grade Prostate Cancer. [Journal Article]
- JUJ Urol 2015; 194(6):1612-6
- CONCLUSIONS: Our finding that testosterone therapy was not associated with an increased risk of high grade prostate cancer may provide important information regarding the risk-benefit assessment for men with testosterone deficiency considering treatment.
- Gestational and lactational exposition to Di-N-butyl-phthalate (DBP) increases inflammation and preneoplastic lesions in prostate of wistar rats after carcinogenic N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) plus testosterone protocol. [Journal Article]
- ETEnviron Toxicol 2016; 31(10):1185-95
- In the present study, it was evaluated the susceptibility of prostatic lesions in male adult rats exposed to Di-N-butyl-phthalate during fetal and lactational periods and submitted to MNU plus testos...
In the present study, it was evaluated the susceptibility of prostatic lesions in male adult rats exposed to Di-N-butyl-phthalate during fetal and lactational periods and submitted to MNU plus testosterone carcinogenesis protocol. Pregnant females were distributed into four experimental groups: CN (negative control); CMNU (MNU control); TDBP100 (100 mg/kg of DBP); TDBP500 (500 mg/kg of DBP). Females from the TDBP groups received DBP, by gavage, from gestation day 15 (GD15) to postnatal day 21 (DPN21), while C animals received the vehicle (corn oil). CMNU, TDBP100, and TDBP500 groups received a single intraperitoneal injection of MNU (50 mg/kg) on the sixth postnatal week. After that, testosterone cypionate was administered subcutaneously two times a week (2 mg/kg) for 24 weeks. The animals were euthanized on PND220. Distal segment fragments of the ventral (VP) and dorsolateral prostate (DLP) were fixed and processed for histopathological analysis. Protein extracts from ventral prostate were obtained, and western blotting was performed to AR, ERα, MAPK (ERK1/2), and pan-AKT. Stereological analysis showed an increase in the epithelial compartment in TDBP100 and TDBP500 compared to CN. In general, there was increase in the incidence of inflammation and metaplasia/dysplasia in the DBP-treated groups, mainly in DLP, compared to CN and CMNU. Proliferation index was significant higher in TDBP500 and PIN (prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia) was more frequent in this group compared to CMNU. Western blot assays showed an increase in the expressions of AR and MAPK (ERK1/2) in the TDBP100 compared to CN, and ERα and AKT expressions were higher in the TDBP500 group compared do CN. These results showed that different doses of DBP during prostate organogenesis in Wistar rats could increase the incidence of premalignant lesions in initiated rats inducing distinct biological responses in the adulthood. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1185-1195, 2016.
- Sex steroid modulation of cortisol secretion in sheep. [Journal Article]
- AAnimal 2014; 8(6):960-7
- There is strong evidence that the gonads modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. To investigate these sex differences at the adrenal glands of sheep we compared the cortisol response to ACT...
There is strong evidence that the gonads modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. To investigate these sex differences at the adrenal glands of sheep we compared the cortisol response to ACTH (experiment 1) and measured the relative expression of oestrogen receptor alpha (ERS1), androgen receptor (AR), melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) and steroid acute regulatory protein (STAR) mRNA in adrenal glands (experiment 2) of gonadectomised rams and ewes either with or without sex steroid replacement. In experiment 1 six castrated adult rams and four ovariectomised adult ewes were used in two ACTH trials. On each trial blood samples were taken every 15 min for 4 h through an indwelling jugular catheter and each animal received 0.5 mg of an ACTH analogue i.v., immediately after the sample at 1 h from the beginning of the trial. Four days after the first trial the males received 100 mg of Testosterone Cyclopentilpropionate (TC) i.m. and the females received 2.5 mg of Oestradiol Benzoate (EB) i.m. At 72 h after TC or EB administration the second trial was performed. In experiment 2 the adrenal glands were obtained from gonadectomised adult rams (n=8) and adult ewes (n=8). Four rams received 100 mg of TC i.m. and four females received 0.5 mg of EB i.m. Blood samples were taken at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h relative to steroid replacement and the animals were thereafter slaughtered. Cortisol, testosterone and 17β-oestradiol were determined by radioimmunoanalysis. The transcripts of ERS1, AR, MC2R and STAR were determined by real-time reverse transcription PCR in adrenal tissue. Cortisol secretion was higher in female sheep than in male sheep, and higher in EB-treated than non-treated ewes. No difference in cortisol secretion was observed between TC-treated and non-treated rams. Gonadectomised rams treated with TC presented greater AR mRNA and MC2R mRNA expression than males without the steroid replacement. Gonadectomised ewes treated with EB tended to present lower AR mRNA than the ones without steroid replacement. Gonadectomised rams with TC also had greater AR mRNA, ERS1 mRNA and MC2R mRNA expression than ewes treated with EB. The relative amount of STAR transcript was not different among the different groups. The results confirm sex differences in ACTH-induced cortisol secretion in sheep, as well as in the expression of the receptor proteins for both 17β-oestradiol and testosterone in the sheep adrenal gland. However, the underlying mechanisms for sex steroid modulation remain unresolved.
- Treatment of hypogonadism in males. [Review]
- PEPediatr Endocrinol Rev 2014; 11 Suppl 2:230-9
- The treatment of adolescent males with hypogonadism using testosterone is dependent on the underlying diagnosis as well as the patient's and family's preferences. Those with testicular failure, alway...
The treatment of adolescent males with hypogonadism using testosterone is dependent on the underlying diagnosis as well as the patient's and family's preferences. Those with testicular failure, always a pathologic condition, begin lifelong therapy, while short-term therapy is often begun for those who have a delayed puberty. There is a wide variety of testosterone formulations available, with differences in adverse events sometimes associated with the method of administration. The goals of treatment involve stimulating physical puberty, including achievement of virilization, a normal muscle mass and bone mineral density for age, and improvement in psychosocial wellbeing. While androgen therapy results in physical changes of puberty, the potential for fertility must be considered for those with permanent gonadotropin deficiency. in this population, therapy with gonadotropins or gonadotropin releasing hormone may be effective. For those with testicular failure, fertility may be possible but requires assisted reproductive procedures.
- Pulmonary eosinophilia caused by testosterone cypionate. [Case Reports]
- ABArch Bronconeumol 2013; 49(11):498-9
- Hormone replacement therapy in children with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: where do we stand? [Journal Article]
- EPEndocr Pract 2013 Nov-Dec; 19(6):968-71
- CONCLUSIONS: There is no current standard of care to guide pubertal induction in adolescents with HH. However, a significant increase in the use of transdermal estrogen was noted in females during the past 10 years. While much less variability in pubertal induction was seen in males, wide disparities in doses and escalation schedules were found. Prospective studies aimed at elucidating optimal strategies for sex steroid replacement in this pediatric population are badly needed.
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- Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of testosterone cypionate (deposteron(®)). [Journal Article]
- MRMutat Res 2013 May 15; 753(2):72-5
- The indiscriminate use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has motivated researchers to investigate the mutagenic action of these substances. The present study, using the mouse bone marrow micronuc...
The indiscriminate use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has motivated researchers to investigate the mutagenic action of these substances. The present study, using the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test, evaluates the genotoxic potential of testosterone cypionate (deposteron). Male Swiss mice received intramuscular injections of deposteron at three doses. The animals were sacrificed 24, 48, or 72h after treatment and bone marrow was removed immediately, followed by scoring to count the micronuclei in 2000 polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE). Two hundred erythrocytes/animal were analyzed to determine the PCE-NCE (normochromatic erythrocyte) relationship and to determine the cytotoxic effects. The animals treated with deposteron at the highest dose presented greater numbers of micronuclei. The highest dose caused a decrease in the PCE/NCE relationship, indicating a cytotoxic effect. We conclude that deposteron is genotoxic and cytotoxic in mice.