- Breastfeeding: A Review of Its Physiology and Galactogogue Plants in View of Traditional Persian Medicine. [Review]
- BMBreastfeed Med 2017; 12(7):401-409
- CONCLUSIONS: The use of traditional knowledge can pave the way toward finding effective phytopharmaceuticals for increasing breast milk.
- Morphological characterization of pollens from three Apiaceae species and their ingestion by twelve-spotted lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). [Journal Article]
- BJBraz J Biol 2016 Apr 19; 76(3):796-803
- Larvae and adults of certain species of predator lady beetles feed on pollen, guaranteeing their survival, and at times, reproduction in the absence of preferred prey. Palynology, therefore, may cont...
Larvae and adults of certain species of predator lady beetles feed on pollen, guaranteeing their survival, and at times, reproduction in the absence of preferred prey. Palynology, therefore, may contribute in the investigation of botanical families visited by these predators in order to obtain this floral resource. There are records of the visitation of Apiaceae flowers by Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer, 1775 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae), but not the ingestion of their pollen grains by this lady beetle. The external morphology of pollen grains of three Apiaceae aromatic species (Anethum graveolens L., Coriandrum sativum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) was characterized, and it was evaluated the ingestion of these pollens by fourth instar larvae and adults of C. maculata upon confinement along with flowers of these Apiaceae for 24 and 48 hours. The pollen grains of those species presented similar external morphology. In the two times of exposure, the larvae ingested the same amount of pollen from the three Apiaceae species, and the amount of C. sativum pollen ingested was the same between larvae and adults. The amount of A. graveolens pollen grains ingested by the adults was significantly greater than the pollens of C. sativum and F. vulgare, in 24 hours, with the opposite occurring in 48 hours. In the first 24 hours, the adults ingested more A. graveolens pollen than the larvae, with the opposite occurring with F. vulgare. There was no significant difference in the amount of Apiaceae pollen ingested between larvae and adults in 48 hours. The results suggest that the pollen-eating habits of certain aphidophagous lady beetles may be crucial in their preservation within agro-ecosystems.
- Review of Scientific Evidence of Medicinal Convoy Plants in Traditional Persian Medicine. [Review]
- PRPharmacogn Rev 2016 Jan-Jun; 10(19):33-8
- One concept used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (Mobadregh). According to TPM texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs), which facilitate t...
One concept used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (Mobadregh). According to TPM texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs), which facilitate the access of drugs or foods to the whole body or to specific organs. This study reviewed some convoy drugs presented in TPM, their biological effects, and their probable interactions with main drugs, considering the increased absorption through inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux function, bioavailability-enhancing effects, and decreased metabolism of the main drug using electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar in November and December, 2013. Recent studies have proven the beneficial effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) and camphor on the heart and brain, the cerebral therapeutic effects of Asarum europaeum (hazelwort), the hepatoprotective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory), and Apium graveolens (celery) seeds, and the diuretic effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), and Cucumis melo (melon) seeds. The effects of vinegar in targeting the liver and brain have also been demonstrated. An evaluation of the results demonstrated that the suggested convoy drugs, including Piper nigrum (black pepper), Piper longum (long pepper), red wine, Camellia sinensis (tea), hazelwort, Mentha longifolia (pennyroyal), Anethum graveolens (dill), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), cinnamon, and Sassafras albidum (sassafras) can increase the bioavailability of coadministered drugs by inhibition of P-gp or cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) or both of them. This evidence could be a good basis for the use of these agents as convoys in TPM.
- Dietary supplements for dysmenorrhoea. [Review]
- CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2016; 3:CD002124
- CONCLUSIONS: There is no high quality evidence to support the effectiveness of any dietary supplement for dysmenorrhoea, and evidence of safety is lacking. However for several supplements there was some low quality evidence of effectiveness and more research is justified.
- Accurate Mass GC/LC-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols of Spicy Fruits from the Apiaceae Family. [Journal Article]
- MMolecules 2015; 20(12):21421-32
- The triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and the regio-stereospecific distribution of fatty acids (FA) of seed oils from most of the Apiaceae family are not well documented. The TAG structure ultimately d...
The triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and the regio-stereospecific distribution of fatty acids (FA) of seed oils from most of the Apiaceae family are not well documented. The TAG structure ultimately determines the final physical properties of the oils and the position of FAs in the TAG molecule affects the digestion; absorption and metabolism; and physical and technological properties of TAGs. Fixed oils from the fruits of dill (Anethum graveolens), caraway (Carum carvi), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), anise (Pimpinella anisum), carrot (Daucus carota), celery (Apium graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), and Khella (Ammi visnaga), all from the Apiaceae family, were extracted at room temperature in chloroform/methanol (2:1 v/v) using percolators. Crude lipids were fractionated by solid phase extraction to separate neutral triacylglycerols (TAGs) from other lipids components. Neutral TAGs were subjected to transesterification process to convert them to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMES) using 1% boron trifluoride (BF₃) in methanol. FAMES were analyzed by gas chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (GC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Triglycerides were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (LC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Petroselinic acid was the major fatty acid in all samples ranging from 57% of the total fatty acids in caraway up to 82% in fennel. All samples contained palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1n-9), stearic (C18:0), petroselinic (C18:1n-12), linoleic (C18:2n-6), linolinic (18:3n-3), and arachidic (C20:0) acids. TAG were analyzed using LC-QTOF for accurate mass identification and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques for regiospesific elucidation of the identified TAGs. Five major TAGs were detected in all samples but with different relative concentrations in all of the tested samples. Several other TAGs were detected as minor components and were present in some samples and absence in the others. Regiospecific analysis showed a non-random fatty acids distribution. Petroselinic acid was predominantly located at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions.
- Distinguishing Foeniculum vulgare fruit from two adulterants by combination of microscopy and GC-MS analysis. [Journal Article]
- MRMicrosc Res Tech 2015; 78(7):633-41
- Foeniculum vulgare fruit (FVF) is a widely used traditional medicine. However, two adulterants, namely Anethum graveolens fruit (AGF) and Cuminum cyminum fruit (CCF), have been found in use as FVF in...
Foeniculum vulgare fruit (FVF) is a widely used traditional medicine. However, two adulterants, namely Anethum graveolens fruit (AGF) and Cuminum cyminum fruit (CCF), have been found in use as FVF in China owing to similar appearance and odor. For the purpose of accurate differentiation of the three herbal medicines, extensive anatomical examination and chemical profiling were conducted. Using light microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, the macroscopic and microscopic features of the three species were compared. It was found that some microscopic characteristics, including transverse shape of mericarp, presence or absence of reticulate cells and non-glandular hairs, as well as fluorescence of endocarp, were of diagnostic significance. Moreover, essential oils were qualitatively and semi-quantitatively analyzed using GC-MS. The analytical results indicated significant chemical variations in different species: in FVF, trans-anethole (83.20%) was the predominant volatile compound followed by estragole (5.03%) and limonene (3.45%), while in AGF, the first, second and third compounds with highest content were carvone (42.58%), apiol (20.76%) and limonene (20.32%), and in CCF were cuminlaldehyde (36.00%), 2-caren-10-al (23.25%) and γ-terpinene (9.65%), respectively. In conclusion, the proposed light microscopy coupled with fluorescence microscopy and/or GC-MS analysis allowed successful distinguishing FVF from AGF and CCF.
- The Health Benefits of Selected Culinary Herbs and Spices Found in the Traditional Mediterranean Diet. [Review]
- CRCrit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2016 Dec 09; 56(16):2728-46
- The Mediterranean diet is considered one of the healthiest diets in the world. This is often attributed to low saturated fat consumption, moderate wine consumption, and high vegetable consumption. Ho...
The Mediterranean diet is considered one of the healthiest diets in the world. This is often attributed to low saturated fat consumption, moderate wine consumption, and high vegetable consumption. However, herbs and spices associated with these diets may also play an important role in the quality of this diet. This review summarizes the most recent research regarding the anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-hypertensive properties of this collection of culinary species. Additionally, this review briefly summarizes studies performed on lesser known herbs from around the world, with the goal of identifying new culinary species that may be useful in the treatment or prevention of diseases.
- Ethnopharmacological approach to the herbal medicines of the "Antidotes" in Nikolaos Myrepsos׳ Dynameron. [Historical Article]
- JEJ Ethnopharmacol 2015 Apr 2; 163:68-82
- CONCLUSIONS: This research led us to the conclusion that the content of "About the Antidotes" is a valuable source for the study of recipes based mainly on medicinal plants, most of them inherited from classic ancient Greek and Hellenistic periods.
- Activities of Apiaceae essential oils against armyworm, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). [Journal Article]
- JAJ Agric Food Chem 2013 Aug 14; 61(32):7661-72
- Essential oils (EOs) from four Apiaceae species and 11 pure compounds were evaluated for their antifeedant, growth inhibitory, and insecticidal activities against Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera: ...
Essential oils (EOs) from four Apiaceae species and 11 pure compounds were evaluated for their antifeedant, growth inhibitory, and insecticidal activities against Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fourth-instar larvae. EOs from Foeniculum vulgare subsp. vulgare var. vulgare, Anethum graveolens , Petroselinum crispum , and Cuminum cyminum were characterized by gas-chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry. Anti-insect activity varied according to plant specie/composition, type, and exposure period. EOs from P. crispum and A. graveolens fruits, trans-anethole and cuminaldehyde, exerted acute effects on larvae feeding and growth (FDI and GI > 70%). A. graveolens , C. cyminum , and F. vulgare EOs and some of their constituents were effective by fumigation (≥ 80%). Satisfactory contact toxicities (>70%) were observed for five compounds and all EOs, except F. vulgare EOs, when tested by the filter paper impregnation method. For the most active EOs/compounds, dose-dependent toxicity was determined and inverse relationships of LC50 with time were established.
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- [Diversity of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) using aromatic plants (Apiaceae) as survival and reproduction sites in agroecological system]. [Journal Article]
- NENeotrop Entomol 2010 May-Jun; 39(3):354-9
- Studies show that Apiaceae may provide concentrated vital resources for predator insects, stimulating their abundance, diversity and persistence in agricultural systems, thereby increasing their effi...
Studies show that Apiaceae may provide concentrated vital resources for predator insects, stimulating their abundance, diversity and persistence in agricultural systems, thereby increasing their efficiency as biological control agents. Among the predatory insects, Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) on many different species both as larvae and adults, complementing their diet with pollen and/or nectar. This study aimed to determine the diversity and relative abundance of Coccinellidae species visiting plants of Anethum graveolens (dill), Coriandrum sativum (coriander) and Foeniculum vulgare (sweet fennel) (all Apiaceae), particularly in their blooming seasons, and to evaluate the potential of these aromatic species for providing the resources for survivorship and reproduction of coccinelids. Coccinellids were collected by removal of samplings from September to October, 2007. Besides one unidentified species of Chilocorinae, five species of Coccinellinae were collected: Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer, Coleomegilla quadrifasciata (Schönherr), Cycloneda sanguinea (L.), Eriopis connexa (Germar) and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Meneville. Dill provided a significant increase in the abundance of coccinellids as compared to coriander and sweet fennel. These aromatic species were used by coccinellids as survival and reproduction sites, providing food resources (pollen and/or prey), shelter for larvae, pupae and adults, and mating and oviposition sites as well.