- Nanoemulsion of Dill essential oil as a green and potent larvicide against Anopheles stephensi. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Dec 17
- Indiscriminate use of industrial larvicides causes environment pollution and resistance against the larvicides in mosquitoes. Essential oils (EOs) have many biological activities such as larvicidal e...
Indiscriminate use of industrial larvicides causes environment pollution and resistance against the larvicides in mosquitoes. Essential oils (EOs) have many biological activities such as larvicidal effects which have been proposed as new alternatives for industrial ones. Many components of EOs are volatile, thus, should be formulated to retain their activity. Components of Dill EO were identified by GC-MS analysis. Larvicidal activity (LA) of bulk Dill EO (non-formulated) was evaluated against Anopheles stephensi in line with WHO guideline for lab tests. For the first time, nanoemulsions of Dill EO were prepared. Various nanoemulsions having fixed amounts of Dill EO 1.2%, comparable with lethal concentration (LC) at 90% of bulk Dill EO, were prepared having tween 20 (5-30%) with/out ethanol (5-30%). LA of two selected nanoemulsions were then evaluated and compared with that of bulk Dill EO. Five ingredients of oil, with high amounts, were identified as p-Cymenealpha (20.81%), alpha-Phellandrene (20.75%), Carvone (10.97%), Dill ether (9.88%), and cis-Sabinol (3.61%). LC of Dill EO at 50 and 90% were found as 38.8 and 65 ppm, respectively, against 3rd and 4th instar larvae of An. stephensi (Beech-Lab strain). Particle size (PS) ranges of nanoemulsions were 10.7-1880.0 nm. LA of optimum nanoemulsion (PS: 10.7 nm) was significantly better than that of bulk Dill EO. The preparation showed stability against 200 times dilution during larvicidal tests and performed significantly better than the nanoemulsion which was not stable after dilution. To obtain improved efficiency against larvae using nanoemulsions of EOs, the nanoemulsion should be resistant against dilution. Such a stable and green nanoemulsion may be used as alternative to industrial larvicides.
- Bioefficacy of Some Egyptian Aromatic Plants on Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) Adults and Larvae. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Arthropod Borne Dis 2017; 11(1):147-155
- CONCLUSIONS: The results recommend the eco-friendly studied extracts as candidates for controlling Cx. pipiens the lymphatic filariasis vector.
- In vivo and in vitro control activity of plant essential oils against three strains of Aspergillus niger. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2017; 24(27):21948-21959
- Contamination of environment and food from the prevalent spores and mycotoxins of Aspergillus niger has led to several diseases in humans and other animals. The present study investigated the control...
Contamination of environment and food from the prevalent spores and mycotoxins of Aspergillus niger has led to several diseases in humans and other animals. The present study investigated the control activity of plant essential oils against three strains of A. niger. In the elaborate assays done through microdilution plate assay and agar disk diffusion assay in the lab condition and in vivo assay on the stored wheat grains, the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris depicted overall superior efficacy. In microdilution plate assay, the oil of Anethum graveolens showed best fungistatic activity, while best fungicidal activity was depicted by Syzygium aromaticum oil. The oil of T. vulgaris showed moderate control efficacy against A. niger strains with its antifungal activity resulting mainly due to killing of microorganism rather than growth inhibition. In agar disk diffusion assay, T. vulgaris oil with a zone of inhibition (ZOI) of 23.3-61.1% was the most effective fungicide. The in vivo assay to evaluate the protection efficacy of oils for stored wheat grains against A. niger (AN1) revealed T. vulgaris (90.5-100%) to be the best control agent, followed by the oil of S. aromaticum (61.9-100%). The GC-MS analysis of T. vulgaris oil indicated the presence of thymol (39.11%), γ-terpinene (19.73%), o-cymene (17.21%), and β-pinene (5.38%) as major oil components. Phytotoxic effects of the oils on wheat seeds showed no significant phytotoxic effect of oils in terms of seed germination or seedling growth. The results of the study demonstrated control potentiality of essential oils for the protection of stored wheat against A. niger with prospect for development of eco-friendly antifungal products.
- Breastfeeding: A Review of Its Physiology and Galactogogue Plants in View of Traditional Persian Medicine. [Journal Article]
- BMBreastfeed Med 2017; 12(7):401-409
- CONCLUSIONS: The use of traditional knowledge can pave the way toward finding effective phytopharmaceuticals for increasing breast milk.
- Report - Screening of the Anti-hyperglycemic activity of some medicinal plants of Jordan. [Journal Article]
- PJPak J Pharm Sci 2017; 30(3):907-912
- Diabetes represents a group of common diseases that are characterized by dysregulation of blood glucose levels. Plants are traditionally used for management of diseases including diabetes. In this st...
Diabetes represents a group of common diseases that are characterized by dysregulation of blood glucose levels. Plants are traditionally used for management of diseases including diabetes. In this study, we screened the anti-diabetic effect of extracts of 21 plants grown in Jordan. Extracts of plants were screened for their antihyperglycemic activity. Diabetes was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using Alloxan. Plant extracts were dosed at 1gm/kg. Blood glucose was measured at baseline and at every hour for 3 hours. Results showed that five plants out of the 21 screened showed antihyperglycemic activity. These plants are Phoenix dactylifera L., Tecoma stans (L.) Kunth, Cichorium pumilum Jacq., Phaseolus vulgaris L., and Teucrium polium L. On the other hand, Sarcopoterium spinosum (L.) Spach. and Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata significantly increased blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. The following plant extracts showed neutral effect on blood glucose levels: Plantago major L., Taraxacum cyprium H. Lindb, Artemisia inculta Delile, Marrubium vulgare L., Inula viscosa (L.) Ai, Rubus sanguineus Friv, Coriandrum sativum L., Cucurbita pepo var ovefera, Cucumis sativus L., Hordeum vulgare L., Apium graveolens L., Avena sativa L., Helianthus annus L., and Anethum graveolens L. In conclusion, Jordanian medicinal plants might be useful for managements of blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes.
- Risk assessment of combined exposure to alkenylbenzenes through consumption of plant food supplements containing parsley and dill. [Journal Article]
- FAFood Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2017; 34(12):2201-2211
- A risk assessment was performed of parsley- and dill-based plant food supplements (PFS) containing apiol and related alkenylbenzenes. First, the levels of the alkenylbenzenes in the PFS and the resul...
A risk assessment was performed of parsley- and dill-based plant food supplements (PFS) containing apiol and related alkenylbenzenes. First, the levels of the alkenylbenzenes in the PFS and the resulting estimated daily intake (EDI) resulting from use of the PFS were quantified. Since most PFS appeared to contain more than one alkenylbenzene, a combined risk assessment was performed based on equal potency or using a so-called toxic equivalency (TEQ) approach based on toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for the different alkenylbenzenes. The EDIs resulting from daily PFS consumption amount to 0.74-125 µg kg-1 bw for the individual alkenylbenzenes, 0.74-160 µg kg-1 bw for the sum of the alkenylbenzenes, and 0.47-64 µg kg-1 bw for the sum of alkenylbenzenes when expressed in safrole equivalents. The margins of exposure (MOEs) obtained were generally below 10,000, indicating a priority for risk management if the PFS were to be consumed on a daily basis. Considering short-term use of the PFS, MOEs would increase above 10,000, indicating low priority for risk management. It is concluded that alkenylbenzene intake through consumption of parsley- and dill-based PFS is only of concern when these PFS are used for long periods of time.
- Preharvest treatments with malic, oxalic, and acetylsalicylic acids affect the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of coriander, dill and parsley. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem 2017 Jul 01; 226:179-186
- The effects of a preharvest treatment with malic (MA), oxalic (OA), or acetylsalicylic (ASA) acid at three concentrations (1, 2 and 3mM) on the bioactivity and antioxidant capacity of coriander, dill...
The effects of a preharvest treatment with malic (MA), oxalic (OA), or acetylsalicylic (ASA) acid at three concentrations (1, 2 and 3mM) on the bioactivity and antioxidant capacity of coriander, dill, and parsley were investigated. The antioxidant capacity of the herbs extracts was assayed by spectrophotometric methods by using three different analytical methods: ORAC, FRAP, and ABTS; the effects of treatments were very positive in coriander, produced intermediate results in dill, and no effects were found in parsley plants. Polyphenol compounds were identified by LC-MS-QTof and quantified by UPLC-PDA-FL. Thirty phenolic compounds were identified in these three herbs. The major compounds were (i) coriander: dimethoxycinnamoyl hexoside and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, (ii) dill: neochlorogenic acid and quercetin glucuronide, and (iii) parsley: apigenin-7-apiosylglucoside (apiin) and isorhamnetin-3-O-hexoside. The application of these three organic acids favored the accumulation of phenolic compounds in coriander plants, but had no significant positive effects on dill and parsley. The treatments leading to the best results in all three plants were the application of MA or OA at 1mM.
- Methanolic Extract of Dill Leaves Inhibits AGEs Formation and Shows Potential Hepatoprotective Effects in CCl4 Induced Liver Toxicity in Rat. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pharm (Cairo) 2017; 2017:6081374
- The research was aimed at evaluating the antiglycation, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties of methanolic extract of Anethum graveolens (dill). The antioxidant properties, photochemical char...
The research was aimed at evaluating the antiglycation, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties of methanolic extract of Anethum graveolens (dill). The antioxidant properties, photochemical characteristics, and antiglycation effects of dill extract were measured. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxic rats were used to show the hepatoprotective activity of dill leaves. Different concentration of dill extract (0.032, 0.065, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/mL) showed potential antioxidant ability. The extract of dill leaves significantly reduced AGEs formation and also fructosamine and protein carbonyl levels in rats' liver. Thiol groups' oxidation, amyloid cross-β, and protein fragmentation (P < 0.001) significantly reduced in treated rats. Liver damage markers significantly reduced in dill-treated animals (P < 0.05). Dill with potential antioxidant, antiglycation, and hepatoprotective effects can be suggested for treatment of diabetes complications.
- Repellent Activity of Apiaceae Plant Essential Oils and their Constituents Against Adult German Cockroaches. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Econ Entomol 2017 Apr 01; 110(2):552-557
- We evaluated the repellent activity of 12 Apiaceae plant essential oils and their components against male and female adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica L., to find new natural repellents. ...
We evaluated the repellent activity of 12 Apiaceae plant essential oils and their components against male and female adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica L., to find new natural repellents. Of all the plant essential oils tested, ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi Sprague) and dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oils showed the most potent repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches. Repellent activities of chemicals already identified in active oils were also investigated. Of the compounds identified, carvacrol, thymol, and R-(-)-carvone showed >80% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 2.5 µg/cm2. S-(+)-Carvone, (+)-dihydrocarvone, and terpinen-4-ol showed >70% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 10 µg/cm2. Our results indicated that Apiaceae plant essential oils and their constituents have good potential as natural repellents against adult German cockroaches.
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- Antifungal efficacy of plant essential oils against stored grain fungi of Fusarium spp. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Food Sci Technol 2016; 53(10):3725-3734
- The control potential of seven plant essential oils was evaluated against Fusarium proliferatum (Matsushima) Nirenberg and Fusarium verticillioides Sheldon. The fungicidal activity was assessed throu...
The control potential of seven plant essential oils was evaluated against Fusarium proliferatum (Matsushima) Nirenberg and Fusarium verticillioides Sheldon. The fungicidal activity was assessed through microtiter plate assay to determine the minimum inhibitory and fungicidal concentration of essential oils. The essential oil of Mentha arvensis was adjudged as best for inhibiting the fungal growth, while oil of Thymus vulgaris and Anethum graveolens showed high efficacy in terms of fungicidal activity. The oil of M. arvensis and T. vulgaris also showed good inhibition activity in agar disc diffusion assay. M. arvensis essential oil was analysed for its composition using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealing menthol (63.18 %), menthone (15.08 %), isomenthyl acetate (5.50 %) and limonene (4.31 %) as major components. Significant activity of M. arvensis essential oil against F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides isolates obtained, pave the way for its use as antifungal control agents.