- ANESTHESIA OF AQUARIUM-HOUSED WALRUS ( ODOBENUS ROSMARUS): A CASE SERIES. [Journal Article]
- JZJ Zoo Wildl Med 2018; 49(2):435-443
- Walruses are a challenging species to anesthetize as a result of their large mass, limited access for drug delivery, unique physiology, and small number of reports describing anesthetic procedures....
Walruses are a challenging species to anesthetize as a result of their large mass, limited access for drug delivery, unique physiology, and small number of reports describing anesthetic procedures. Three aquarium-housed walruses ( Odobenus rosmarus) ranging in age from 3 to 11 yr old (344-1,000 kg) were anesthetized for dental or ophthalmic surgical procedures, with one animal anesthetized twice and one anesthetized three times. Preanesthetic medication was with intramuscular midazolam (0.1-0.2 mg/kg) and meperidine (2-3 mg/kg). A catheter was placed in the extradural intravertebral vein, and anesthesia was induced with propofol to effect. Orotracheal intubation was performed and anesthesia maintained with isoflurane in oxygen using a circle breathing system connected to a ventilator. Intermittent positive pressure ventilation was used in all procedures. For the ophthalmic surgery, the neuromuscular blocking agent, cisatracurium, was given intravenously to provide a central eye and optimal surgical conditions. The neuromuscular block was antagonized with edrophonium. Total anesthesia times ranged from 1.5 to 6 hr. Midazolam and meperidine were antagonized with flumazenil and naltrexone, respectively, in five of six cases. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents were provided for analgesia. Recoveries were calm and uneventful. The described anesthetic protocols and case management were successful under the conditions encountered.
- Attaining in vivo selectivity of positive modulation of α3βγ2 GABAA receptors in rats: A hard task! [Journal Article]
- ENEur Neuropsychopharmacol 2018 Jun 08
- It is unclear whether GABAA receptors (GABAARs) that contain the α3-subunit are substantially involved in the anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines (BDZs). In the present study, we tested YT-III-31, ...
It is unclear whether GABAA receptors (GABAARs) that contain the α3-subunit are substantially involved in the anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines (BDZs). In the present study, we tested YT-III-31, a newer BDZ ligand with functional preference for α3βγ2 GABAARs, in two paradigms of unconditioned anxiety, the open field and elevated plus maze in rats. The effective dose of YT-III-31 (2 mg/kg) displayed a clear anxiolytic-like profile, unhampered by sedative action, in both tests. At a higher dose (10 mg/kg), YT-III-31 induced ataxia in the rotarod and sedation in spontaneous locomotor activity test. The latter effect was preventable by flumazenil and βCCt, the non-selective and α1βγ2 GABAAR affinity-selective antagonist, respectively, demonstrating that sedative properties of YT-III-31, when attained, are mediated by the α1γ2 site. To elucidate the receptor substrate of subtle behavioral differences between YT-III-31 and diazepam, we approximated in vivo receptor potentiation for both ligands, based on estimated unbound concentrations in rat brains. Far different from diazepam, YT-III-31 has significantly lower affinity for the α1γ2 over other BDZ-sensitive sites, and at lower doses (1-2 mg/kg) was devoid of potentiation at α1βγ2 GABAARs. The approximation approach revealed a modest selectivity of YT-III-31 for α3γ2- in comparison to α2γ2 and α5γ2 binding sites, suggesting that its anxiolytic-like activity may not necessarily or predominantly reflect potentiation at α3βγ2 GABAARs. Nonetheless, as the anxiolytic effects are achievable at a dose devoid of any sedative potential, and having favorable safety (cytotoxicity) and metabolic stability profile, YT-III-31 represents a valuable candidate for further translational research.
- Aminophylline and Ephedrine, but Not Flumazenil, Inhibit the Activity of the Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 3 Expressed in Xenopus Oocytes and Reverse the Increased Activity by Propofol. [Journal Article]
- BRBiomed Res Int 2018; 2018:6817932
- We investigated the effects of flumazenil, aminophylline, and ephedrine on the excitatory amino acid transporter type 3 (EAAT3) activity and the interaction with propofol. EAAT3 was expressed in the ...
We investigated the effects of flumazenil, aminophylline, and ephedrine on the excitatory amino acid transporter type 3 (EAAT3) activity and the interaction with propofol. EAAT3 was expressed in the Xenopus oocytes. L-Glutamate-induced membrane currents were measured using the two-electrode voltage clamp at various drug concentrations. Oocytes were preincubated with protein kinase C- (PKC-) activator, or inhibitor, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. To study the interaction with propofol, oocytes were exposed to propofol, propofol + aminophylline, or ephedrine. Aminophylline and ephedrine significantly decreased EAAT3 activity. Aminophylline (95 μM) and ephedrine (1.19 μM) significantly decreased Vmax, but not Km of EAAT3, for glutamate. The phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate-induced increase in EAAT3 activity was abolished by aminophylline or ephedrine. The decreased EAAT3 activities by PKC inhibitors (staurosporine, chelerythrine) and PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) were not significantly different from those by aminophylline or ephedrine, as well as those by PKC inhibitors or PI3K inhibitor + aminophylline or ephedrine. The enhanced EAAT3 activities induced by propofol were significantly abolished by aminophylline or ephedrine. Aminophylline and ephedrine inhibit EAAT3 activity via PKC and PI3K pathways and abolish the increased EAAT3 activity by propofol. Our results indicate a novel site of action for aminophylline and ephedrine.
- Anticonvulsive effects of protodioscin against pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2018 Jun 07; 833:237-246
- Epilepsy is associated with increased morbidity and mortality together and places a large financial burden on individuals and society. To evaluate the anticonvulsant action of protodioscin (PDSN) in ...
Epilepsy is associated with increased morbidity and mortality together and places a large financial burden on individuals and society. To evaluate the anticonvulsant action of protodioscin (PDSN) in experiments with animals with pilocarpine-induced convulsions. We assessed the activity of PDSN in pilocarpine induced seizures in combination with different agents which are acting via diverse receptors, such as atropine, memantine, nimodipine, diazepam, and flumazenil, to determine the exact receptors responsible for the action of PDSN. Furthermore, the level of antioxidant markers was investigated in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex in mice to define the antioxidant action of PDSN. The effects of PDSN on proapoptotic markers (i.e., Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3) was investigated via western blot analysis. PDSN significantly enhanced latency to the first convulsion and survival compared to the group treated with pilocarpine alone. Moreover, PDSN improved animal survival, and subjects experiencing no convulsions. Striatal glutamate and aspartate levels were not modified, and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) levels increased, as a result of treatment with PDSN. The results suggest that the anticonvulsive action of PDSN is dependent on inhibitory amino acids. PDSN treatment also significantly decreased nitrite levels in the blood and brain cortex compared to the normal control. In the western blot analysis, PDSN exerted its neuroprotective effect via the upregulation of Bcl-2 and downregulation of Bax and caspase-3. The results of this study suggest that PDSN exerts neuroprotective effects via multiple mechanisms.
- Neuroprotective effect of zolpidem against glutamate-induced toxicity is mediated via the PI3K/Akt pathway and inhibited by PK11195. [Journal Article]
- TToxicology 2018 May 30; 406-407:58-69
- Excitotoxicity is a pathological process in which neuronal dysfunction and death are induced by excessive glutamate stimulation, the major fast excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. Exc...
Excitotoxicity is a pathological process in which neuronal dysfunction and death are induced by excessive glutamate stimulation, the major fast excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. Excitotoxicity-induced neurodegeneration is a contributing factor in ischemia-induced brain damage, traumatic brain injury, and various neurodegenerative diseases. It is triggered by calcium overload due to prolonged over-activation of ionotropic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Enhanced Ca2+ release results in neuronal vulnerability through several intertwined mechanisms, including activation of proteolytic enzymes, increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial dysfunction and modulation of intracellular signalling pathways. We investigated the neuroprotective effect of hypnotic zolpidem, a drug that exerts its central effects at the GABAA receptor complex, against glutamate-induced toxicity in P19 neurons. Zolpidem prevented death of P19 neurons exposed to glutamate, and abolished the glutamate-induced increase in ROS production, p53 and Bax expression, and caspase-3/7 activity. Zolpidem effects were mediated by marked over-activation of Akt kinase. The pro-survival effect, as well as the pAkt induction, were prevented in the presence of wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) that functions upstream of Akt. The beneficial effect of zolpidem on neuronal survival was not prevented by flumazenil, a GABAA receptor antagonist. PK11195, a drug that modulates the mitochondrial translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) and F0F1-ATPase, prevented the beneficial effect of zolpidem, indicating that the mechanism of zolpidem action involves preservation of mitochondrial function and integrity. Zolpidem effects were further mediated by prevention of glutamate-induced increase in the expression of the NR2B subunit of NMDA receptor. The obtained results suggest the promising therapeutic potential of zolpidem against excitotoxic insults and highlight the importance of mitochondria and the Akt pathway as valuable targets for therapeutic interventions in glutamate-mediated neuropathological conditions.
- Maerua angolensis DC. (Capparaceae) Stem Bark Extract Protects against Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Oxidative Stress and Seizures in Rats. [Journal Article]
- EBEvid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018; 2018:9684138
- CONCLUSIONS: The petroleum ether/ethyl acetate fraction exhibits antiseizure activity by affecting GABAergic and nitric oxide-cGMP pathways. In addition, the extract protects against the generation of free radicals and the oxidative products of the PTZ-induced seizures.
- Anxiolytic effects of Lippia citriodora in a mouce model of anxiety. [Journal Article]
- RPRes Pharm Sci 2018; 13(3):205-212
- Lippia citriodora is commonly used in Iranian folk medicine for treatment of many disorders. Since there scientific data to prove the anxiolytic properties of this plant in Iran are scarce, we aimed ...
Lippia citriodora is commonly used in Iranian folk medicine for treatment of many disorders. Since there scientific data to prove the anxiolytic properties of this plant in Iran are scarce, we aimed to evaluate the sedative and anxiolytic activity of the leaf extract and essence of L. citriodora in an animal model of anxiety. The extract and the essence used were obtained after maceration and hydro-distillation of the leaves of L. citriodora, respectively. We evaluated the anti-anxiety profile and sedative activity of diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p. as the standard), hydroethanolic extract (200 and 400 mg/kg i.p.) and the essence (10, 15, and 50 mg/kg i.p.) of leaves of L. citriodora using elevated plus-maze and locomotor activity. We also used flumazenil, to find out if the possible effects are mediated through gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)/benzodiazepine receptor complex. The results showed that the essence of L. citriodora at a dose of 15 mg/kg is the most effective anxiolytic dose. Interestingly, flumazenil reversed this action of the essence as well as that of diazepam. The extract even at a dose of 400 mg/kg did not show significant anxiolytic effect. In locomotor activity studies, the essence caused sedation to a lesser extent than diazepam. The results suggest that the essence of this plant could be a better candidate for further analysis and fractionation. As the anxiolytic effect of the essence is reversed by flumazenil, it is possible that the GABA receptor could be involved in mediating these effects.
- Trigger Tool-Based Automated Adverse Event Detection in Electronic Health Records: Systematic Review. [Review]
- JMJ Med Internet Res 2018 May 30; 20(5):e198
- CONCLUSIONS: We observed broad interstudy variation in reported adverse event prevalence and positive predictive value. The lack of sufficiently described methods led to difficulties regarding interpretation. To improve quality, we see the need for a set of recommendations to endorse optimal use of research designs and adequate reporting of future adverse event detection studies.
- The benzodiazepine anesthetic midazolam prevents hyperglycemia-induced microvascular leakage in the retinas of diabetic mice. [Journal Article]
- FJFASEB J 2018 May 21; :fj201800014RR
- We investigated the beneficial effects of midazolam against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced vascular leakage and its molecular mechanism of action in human retinal endothelial cells...
We investigated the beneficial effects of midazolam against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced vascular leakage and its molecular mechanism of action in human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) and the retinas of diabetic mice. Midazolam inhibited VEGF-induced elevation of intracellular Ca2+, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and transglutaminase activation in HRECs; these effects were reversed by the GABA, type A (GABAA) receptor antagonist flumazenil but not by the translocator protein antagonist PK11195. Midazolam also prevented VEGF-induced disassembly of adherens junctions and in vitro permeability. Intravitreal injection of midazolam prevented hyperglycemia-induced ROS generation, transglutaminase activation, and subsequent vascular leakage in the retinas of diabetic mice, and those effects were reversed by flumazenil. The roles of flumazenil were further supported by identifying GABAA receptors in mouse retinas. Thus, midazolam prevents hyperglycemia-induced vascular leakage by inhibiting VEGF-induced intracellular events in the retinas of diabetic mice.-Lee, Y.-J., Kim, M., Lee, J.-Y., Jung, S.-H., Jeon, H.-Y., Lee, S.-A., Kang, S., Han, E.-T., Park, W. S., Hong, S.-H., Kim, Y.-M., Ha, K.-S. The benzodiazepine anesthetic midazolam prevents hyperglycemia-induced microvascular leakage in the retinas of diabetic mice.
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- Relationships between selective neuronal loss and microglial activation after ischaemic stroke in man. [Journal Article]
- BBrain 2018 May 09
- Modern ischaemic stroke management involves intravenous thrombolysis followed by mechanical thrombectomy, which allows markedly higher rates of recanalization and penumbral salvage than thrombolysis ...
Modern ischaemic stroke management involves intravenous thrombolysis followed by mechanical thrombectomy, which allows markedly higher rates of recanalization and penumbral salvage than thrombolysis alone. However, <50% of treated patients eventually enjoy independent life. It is therefore important to identify complementary therapeutic targets. In rodent models, the salvaged penumbra is consistently affected by selective neuronal loss, which may hinder recovery by interfering with plastic processes, as well as by microglial activation, which may exacerbate neuronal death. However, whether the salvaged penumbra in man is similarly affected is still unclear. Here we determined whether these two processes affect the non-infarcted penumbra in man and, if so, whether they are inter-related. We prospectively recruited patients with (i) acute middle-cerebral artery stroke; (ii) penumbra present on CT perfusion obtained <4.5 h of stroke onset; and (iii) early neurological recovery as a marker of penumbral salvage. PET with 11C-flumazenil and 11C-PK11195, as well as MRI to map the final infarct, were obtained at predefined follow-up times. The presence of selective neuronal loss and microglial activation was determined voxel-wise within the MRI normal-appearing ipsilateral non-infarcted zone and surviving penumbra masks, and their inter-relationship was assessed both across and within patients. Dilated infarct contours were consistently excluded to control for partial volume effects. Across the 16 recruited patients, there was reduced 11C-flumazenil and increased 11C-PK11195 binding in the whole ipsilateral non-infarcted zone (P = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). Within the non-infarcted penumbra, 11C-flumazenil was also reduced (P = 0.001), but without clear increase in 11C-PK11195 (P = 0.18). There was no significant correlation between 11C-flumazenil and 11C-PK11195 in either compartment. This mechanistic study provides direct evidence for the presence of both neuronal loss and microglial activation in the ipsilateral non-infarcted zone. Further, we demonstrate the presence of neuronal loss affecting the surviving penumbra, with no or only mild microglial activation, and no significant relationship between these two processes. Thus, microglial activation may not contribute to penumbral neuronal loss in man, and its presence in the ipsilateral hemisphere may merely reflect secondary remote degeneration. Selective neuronal loss in the surviving penumbra may represent a novel therapeutic target as an adjunct to penumbral salvage to further improve functional outcome. However, microglial activation may not stand as the primary therapeutic approach. Protecting the penumbra by acutely improving perfusion and oxygenation in conjunction with thrombectomy for example, may be a better approach. 11C-flumazenil PET would be useful to monitor the effects of such therapies.