- Health-related quality of life with hereditary angioedema following prophylaxis with subcutaneous C1-inhibitor with recombinant hyaluronidase. [Journal Article]
- AAAllergy Asthma Proc 2017 Jan 16
- CONCLUSIONS: Despite early termination and prestudy prophylactic intravenous C1-INH use by 43% of the patients, improved AE-QoL scores were observed after less than or equal to 16 weeks of subcutaneous C1-INH-rHuPH20 prophylaxis.
- Therapeutic complement inhibition: a promising approach for treatment of neuroimmunological diseases. [Journal Article]
- ERExpert Rev Neurother 2017 Jan 17
- Autoimmunity is an important cause of disease both in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Aetiologies and clinical manifestations are complex and heterogeneous. Inappropriate control of compl...
Autoimmunity is an important cause of disease both in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Aetiologies and clinical manifestations are complex and heterogeneous. Inappropriate control of complement activation at inappropriate sites has been recognized as a major determinant in several neurological conditions, including Guillain-Barré syndrome and neuromyelitis optica. In each case pathogenesis is thought to be associated with generation of autoantibodies which upon binding guide activation of the complement system to self-tissue. Areas covered: Modulation of the complement system activation at such sites may represent a novel therapeutic approach for treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory conditions. In this review we focus on the therapeutic effects of complement inhibitors in Guillain-Barré syndrome and neuromyelitis optica and highlight recent developments within the field. Expert Commentary: Conventional first line treatment strategies in GBS and NMO have the potential disadvantage of causing widespread immunosuppressive effects. A more targeted approach may therefore be more effective and less disruptive to the immune system, especially in the case of NMO, which requires long term immunosuppression. Modulation of the complement system may hold the key and has already been shown to be of clinical benefit in other non-neurological conditions, including paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and hereditary angioedema.
- A Case of Miller Fisher Syndrome, Thromboembolic Disease, and Angioedema: Association or Coincidence? [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Case Rep 2017 Jan 16; 18:52-59
- BACKGROUND Miller Fisher Syndrome is characterized by the clinical triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia, and is considered to be a variant of Guillain-Barre Syndrome. Miller Fisher Syndrom...
BACKGROUND Miller Fisher Syndrome is characterized by the clinical triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia, and is considered to be a variant of Guillain-Barre Syndrome. Miller Fisher Syndrome is observed in approximately 1-5% of all Guillain-Barre cases in Western countries. Patients with Miller Fisher Syndrome usually have good recovery without residual deficits. Venous thromboembolism is a common complication of Guillain-Barre Syndrome and has also been reported in Miller Fisher Syndrome, but it has generally been reported in the presence of at least one prothrombotic risk factor such as immobility. A direct correlation between venous thromboembolism and Miller Fisher Syndrome or Guillain-Barre Syndrome has not been previously described. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 32-year-old Hispanic male who presented with acute, severe thromboembolic disease and concurrently demonstrated characteristic clinical features of Miller Fisher Syndrome including ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia. Past medical and family history were negative for thromboembolic disease, and subsequent hypercoagulability workup was unremarkable. During the course of hospitalization, the patient also developed angioedema. CONCLUSIONS We describe a possible association between Miller Fisher Syndrome, thromboembolic disease, and angioedema.
- Current and future therapies for the treatment of histamine-induced angioedema. [Journal Article]
- EOExpert Opin Pharmacother 2017 Jan 12
- Introduction Angioedema, a sudden, self-limited swelling of localized areas of any part of the body that may or may not be associated with urticaria, is thought to be the result of a mast-cell mediat...
Introduction Angioedema, a sudden, self-limited swelling of localized areas of any part of the body that may or may not be associated with urticaria, is thought to be the result of a mast-cell mediated process versus a bradykinin etiology. Understanding the mechanism is key in determining the proper treatment. Areas Covered Clinical presentation of varying angioedema types may be similar; however, the appropriate treatment algorithm is dependent upon clinicians' knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology and classification of angioedema. Literature review of recent guidelines, available medications, and alternative therapies was completed to provide an overview of options. Conclusion There are no formal guidelines for treatment of acute or chronic histamine-mediated angioedema, and therefore, algorithms for the treatment of acute and chronic urticaria should be followed until such information becomes available. Differentiating histamine-mediated versus bradykinin mediated angioedema is essential, as treatments and treatment responses are quite different. Further research is needed to better understand idiopathic angioedema that is unresponsive to H1/H2 antagonists, LTMAs, or medications designed to treat bradykinin-mediated angioedema.
- Recurrent angioedema associated with pharmacological inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV. [Journal Article]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2017 Jan 10; 2017
- Angioedema (AE) of the upper airways is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition. The incidence has been increasing in the past two decades, primarily due to increased use of medications i...
Angioedema (AE) of the upper airways is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition. The incidence has been increasing in the past two decades, primarily due to increased use of medications inhibiting the degradation of vasoactive peptides. Acquired angioedema related to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI-AAE) is well known, but other pharmaceutical agents also affect the degradation of bradykinin and substance P. We present a middle-aged man with recurrent episodes of severe AE of the oral cavity, hypopharynx and larynx due to pharmacological inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV.
- Glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphisms in hereditary angioedema with C1-inhibitor deficiency. [Journal Article]
- OJOrphanet J Rare Dis 2017 Jan 10; 12(1):5
- CONCLUSIONS: The higher cortisol level observed during attacks may reflect the effect of a stressful situation (such as of the attack itself), on the patients' neuroendocrine system. In A3669G carriers, the lower cortisol levels might reflect altered feedback to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, due to decreased sensitivity to glucocorticoids.
- The safety of sacubitril-valsartan for the treatment of chronic heart failure. [Journal Article]
- EOExpert Opin Drug Saf 2017 Jan 06
- Sacubitril-valsartan is a combination drug that contains the neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril and angiotensin II receptor blocker valsartan. In 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration approved sacub...
Sacubitril-valsartan is a combination drug that contains the neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril and angiotensin II receptor blocker valsartan. In 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration approved sacubitril-valsartan for treatment of heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction and New York Heart Association class II-IV symptoms following a large, Phase III clinical trial (PARADIGM-HF) that demonstrated a 20% reduction in the combined primary end-point of death from cardiovascular cause or hospitalization for heart failure compared to enalapril. Areas covered: This review discusses the clinical efficacy and safety of angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril-valsartan in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Expert opinion: Based on the PARADIGM-HF trial, sacubitril-valsartan offers compelling reductions in meaningful clinical endpoints, independent of age or severity of disease. The rate of adverse events was comparable between the enalapril and sacubitril-valsartan groups, although the absolute rates are likely underestimated due to the entry criteria and run-in period. Future trials and post-market surveillance are critical to better understand the risk of angioedema in high risk populations, particularly African-Americans, as well as long-term theoretical risks including the potential for increased cerebral amyloid plaque deposition with possible development of neurocognitive disease. Current trials are underway to evaluate potential benefit in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.
- Multicenter Study of Adverse Events After Intravenous Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurosci Nurs 2017; 49(1):31-36
- CONCLUSIONS: Close monitoring during the first 12 hours after IV tPA treatment may be essential. However, close monitoring after 12 hours may not contribute significantly to improved patient outcomes. Larger studies may provide evidence for the safest and most efficient monitoring protocol for patients treated with IV tPA for ischemic stroke.
- Diagnosis and treatment of upper airway oedema caused by acute angio-oedema in the emergency department: a French consensus statement. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Emerg Med 2017 Jan 04
- Angio-oedema is a transitory, localized, noninflammatory oedema of subcutaneous tissue or mucous. When the oedema affects the mouth, lips, tongue or larynx, it can result in fatal asphyxiation in the...
Angio-oedema is a transitory, localized, noninflammatory oedema of subcutaneous tissue or mucous. When the oedema affects the mouth, lips, tongue or larynx, it can result in fatal asphyxiation in the absence of specific treatment. Oedema secondary to plasma extravasation is usually mediated by either histamine or bradykinin. As laboratory tests are not available in an emergency setting, the implicated mediator cannot be readily determined. The challenge for the emergency physician is to determine the aetiological type, evaluate severity and initiate adapted treatment by means of a structured approach. A team of experts from the French Reference Centre for Angio-oedema reached a consensus for recommendations for the diagnostic and therapeutic strategy to be adopted by emergency departments faced with angio-oedema of the upper airways in adults. The experts defined 11 important questions. Responses were rated using a two-round Delphi methodology. The 11 recommendations were related to triage on admission, a step-by-step diagnostic protocol, definition of attack severity, discouragement of instrumental examination, prioritization of treatment for severe attacks according to clinical signs and anticipation of access to specific treatments by the hospital. Angio-oedema of the upper airways can be fatal and requires anticipation by the emergency department. A search for the aetiology, an evaluation of clinical symptoms and the availability of the treatments are challenges justifying these recommendations.
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- Pulmonary localization of Mansonella perstans in a 16 months-old male patient in a tertiary care hospital in Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo. [Journal Article]
- GGerms 2016; 6(4):151-154
- CONCLUSIONS: Although our investigations confirmed M. perstans infection, this case shows that it is very difficult to come to a conclusive diagnosis.