- Angiostrongylus cantonensis Infection of Central Nervous System, Guiana Shield. [Journal Article]
- EIEmerg Infect Dis 2018; 24(6):1153-1155
- We report a case of eosinophilic meningitis complicated by transverse myelitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in a 10-year-old boy from Brazil who had traveled to Suriname. We confirmed diagno...
We report a case of eosinophilic meningitis complicated by transverse myelitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in a 10-year-old boy from Brazil who had traveled to Suriname. We confirmed diagnosis by serology and real-time PCR in the cerebrospinal fluid. The medical community should be aware of angiostrongyliasis in the Guiana Shield.
- Angiostrongylus Cantonensis-Conditioned Culture Medium Induces Myelin Basic Protein Alterations via Erk1/2 and NF-κB Activation in Rat RSC 96 Schwann Cells. [Journal Article]
- CJChin J Physiol 2018 May 10; 61
- Eating of excessive raw or undercooked environmental snails produces Angiostrongyliasisdemyelination caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association be...
Eating of excessive raw or undercooked environmental snails produces Angiostrongyliasisdemyelination caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)1/2-nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway and myelin basic protein (MBP) expression in RSC 96 Schwann cells treated with A. cantonensis- conditioned culture medium, which was prepared by culturing the third-stage (L3) nematode larvae in DMEM for 72 h. The supernatants were collected and filtered before use. Our results showed that MBP was produced in the RSC 96 cells at 16 h to 48 h post-stimulation (PS). Phosphorylated (p)- NF-κB levels were significantly increased from 8 h to 48 h PS, as were the p-Erk1/2 levels at the same time points. Additionally, expression of p-NF-κB and MBP was significantly decreased by treatment with QNZ, an NF-κB inhibitor. Treatment with PD98059, an Erk kinase inhibitor, efficiently reduced p-Erk1/2, p-NF-κB and MBP expression in the Schwann cells. These results suggest that A. cantonensis-conditioned culture medium induced suppression of the Erk1/2-NF-κB signaling pathway leading to reduced MBP production in RSC 96 Schwann cells. Thus, inhibiting this signaling intermediate involved in MBP expression may be a potential method for controlling inflammatory development of A. cantonensis-induced MBP changes in preceded demyelination.
- [Standardization of a multiplex real-time PCR test for the identification of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, A. costaricensis and A. vasorum]. [Journal Article]
- BBiomedica 2018 Mar 15; 38(1):111-119
- CONCLUSIONS: A multiple qPCR was standardized at the laboratory for three clinically significant species of Angiostrongylus.
- Bulimulus tenuissimus (mollusca) as a new potential host of Angiostrogylus cantonensis (nematoda), a histological and metabolic study. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Invertebr Pathol 2018 Apr 07; 154:65-73
- The terrestrial gastropod Bulimulus tenuissimus is widespread in South America. It is an intermediate host of many parasites, but there are no records of infection of this snail by Angiostrongylus ca...
The terrestrial gastropod Bulimulus tenuissimus is widespread in South America. It is an intermediate host of many parasites, but there are no records of infection of this snail by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, despite the occurrence of this parasite and angiostrongyliasis cases in the same areas in which B. tenuissimus occurs. For this reason, it is important investigate the susceptibility of B. tenuissimus to A. cantonensis-infection, since it can be used as intermediate host of A. cantonensis, increasing the list of terrestrial gastropods that infect wild and domestic animals and humans with this parasite. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of B. tenuissimus to experimental infection with L1 larvae of A. cantonensis. The snails were exposed to 1200 L1 larvae and it was possible observe many developing larvae in the cephalopedal mass and mantle tissues, with intense hemocyte infiltration and collagen deposition, but no typical granuloma structures were formed. The glucose content and lactate dehydrogenase activity in the hemolymph varied, indicating an increase of anaerobic energy metabolism in the middle of infection, but with a tendency to return to normal values at the end of pre-patent period. This was corroborated by the marked reduction in the glycogen content in the cephalopedal mass and digestive gland in the first and second week after exposure, followed by a slight increase in the third week. The content of pyruvic acid in the hemolymph was 14.84% lower at the end of pre-patent period, and oxalic acid content was 41.14% higher. These results indicate an aerobic to anaerobic transition process. The PAS reaction showed a large amount of glycogen inside the developing larvae and muscular tissues of the cephalopedal mass, indicating that despite the high consumption of this polysaccharide by the parasite, the snail is able to maintain its energy metabolism based on carbohydrates. The results reveal that B. tenuissimus is a robust host, which can live with the developing larvae of A. cantonensis and overcome the metabolic damages resulting from parasitism.
- Pediatric angiostrongyliasis. [Journal Article]
- MSMed Sante Trop 2018 Feb 01; 28(1):76-81
- Angiostrongyliasis, the leading cause worldwide of eosinophilic meningitis, is an emergent disease due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae, transmitted accidentally to humans. Contamination of chil...
Angiostrongyliasis, the leading cause worldwide of eosinophilic meningitis, is an emergent disease due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae, transmitted accidentally to humans. Contamination of children usually occurs by direct contact with an infected mollusk. Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis is the major clinical feature of this parasitic infection in humans. It is usually benign for adults, but more severe for children. Clinical symptoms usually combine fever, meningitis, and neurological signs (somnolence, moaning, hypotonia, convulsions, and increased intracranial pressure). Presumptive diagnosis of human angiostrongyliasis is based on epidemiologic characteristics, clinical symptoms, medical history, and laboratory findings, in particular, hypereosinophilia in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment is based on corticosteroids associated with anthelmintics. This work reviews the diagnosis and treatment of this life-threatening (especially in children) parasitic disease and the need for preventive action.
- Heterologous expression of three antigenic proteins from Angiostrongylus cantonensis: ES-7, Lec-5, and 14-3-3 in mammalian cells. [Journal Article]
- MBMol Biochem Parasitol 2018; 221:32-35
- Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a parasitic nematode and the main causative agent of human cerebral eosinophilic meningoencephalitis (EoM). A definitive diagnosis of EoM usually requires serologic or ...
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a parasitic nematode and the main causative agent of human cerebral eosinophilic meningoencephalitis (EoM). A definitive diagnosis of EoM usually requires serologic or molecular analysis of the patient's clinical sample. Currently, a 31 kDa antigen is used in immunological tests for this purpose, however as a crude antigen preparation it may present cross-reactivity with other helminthic infections, especially echinococcosis. Heterologous expression studies using prokaryotic systems failed on producing antigenic proteins. The aim of this study was to express and purify three recombinant glycoproteins representing A. cantonensis antigens: ES-7, Lec-5, and 14-3-3, in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and ES-7 in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells to develop a source of specific antigens to be used in the diagnosis of angiostrongyliasis. The potential diagnostic value of these three proteins was subsequently characterized in one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis and Western blot to dot blot analyses, with Angiostrongylus-positive sera, normal human sera (NHS), and a pool of Echinococcus-positive sera (included as a specificity control) used for detection. In addition, recognition of these three proteins following treatment with N-glycosidase F was examined. The ES-7 proteins that were expressed in HEK and CHO cells, and the Lec-5 protein that was expressed in CHO cells, were specifically recognized by A. cantonensis-positive sera in the 2D electrophoresis analysis. This recognition was shown to be dependent on the presence of glycidic portions, making mammalian cells a very promising source of heterologous expression antigenic proteins from Angiostrongylus.
- Intravitreal Angiostrongylus cantonensis: first case report in South America. [Letter]
- ABArq Bras Oftalmol 2018 Jan-Feb; 81(1):63-65
- This study reports the first case of intravitreal angiostrongyliasis in South America treated with posterior worm removal via pars plana vitrectomy. This was a retrospective, observational case study...
This study reports the first case of intravitreal angiostrongyliasis in South America treated with posterior worm removal via pars plana vitrectomy. This was a retrospective, observational case study. Data from medical charts, wide-field digital imaging, ocular ultrasound, and visual evoked potential studies were reviewed. A 20-month-old boy presented with eosinophilic meningitis and right eye exotropia. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid showed a positive result for Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Fundus examination revealed a pale optic disc, subretinal tracks, vitreous opacities, peripheral tractional retinal detachment, and a dead worm in the vitreous cavity. The patient underwent pars plana vitrectomy with worm removal. This case report illustrates the first case of intravitreal angiostrongyliasis in South America, possibly related to the uncontrolled spread of an exotic invasive species of snail.
- Angiostrongylus spp. in the Americas: geographical and chronological distribution of definitive hosts versus disease reports. [Journal Article]
- MIMem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2018; 113(3):143-152
- CONCLUSIONS: Consequently, many cases for angiostrongyliasis could have gone unreported or unrecognised throughout history and in the nowadays. Moreover, the population expansion and the climatic changes invite to make broader and more complete range of observation on the species that involve possible epidemiological risks. This paper integrates and shows the current distribution of Angiostrongylus species in America, being this information very relevant for establishing prevention, monitoring and contingency strategies in the region.
- Diagnosing and Understanding Angiostrongyliasis, A Zoonotic Cause of Meningitis. [Journal Article]
- ACACS Chem Neurosci 2018 Mar 21; 9(3):393-394
- Eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is spreading worldwide, and it can manifest as a severe neurological disease. Angiostrongyliasis is a food- and water-borne parasitosis t...
Eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is spreading worldwide, and it can manifest as a severe neurological disease. Angiostrongyliasis is a food- and water-borne parasitosis that usually exhibits a seasonal and circumscribed geographical distribution. To improve control and treatment of these infections, further studies of transmission dynamics under natural conditions and the development of better diagnostic tools and treatment options are needed.
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- Chi3l3: a potential key orchestrator of eosinophil recruitment in meningitis induced by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neuroinflammation 2018 Feb 02; 15(1):31
- CONCLUSIONS: We present evidences in favor of a key role for macrophave-derived Chi3l3 molecule in the infection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, which aggravates eosinophilic meningitis induced by Angiostrongylus cantonensis via a IL-13-mediated positive feedback loop. These reported results constitute a starting point for future research of angiostrongyliasis pathogenesis and imply that targeting chitinases and chitinase-like-proteins may be clinically beneficial in Angiostrongylus cantonensis-induced eosinophilic meningitis.