- Angiostrongylus spp. in the Americas: geographical and chronological distribution of definitive hosts versus disease reports. [Journal Article]
- MIMem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2018; 113(3):143-152
- CONCLUSIONS: Consequently, many cases for angiostrongyliasis could have gone unreported or unrecognised throughout history and in the nowadays. Moreover, the population expansion and the climatic changes invite to make broader and more complete range of observation on the species that involve possible epidemiological risks. This paper integrates and shows the current distribution of Angiostrongylus species in America, being this information very relevant for establishing prevention, monitoring and contingency strategies in the region.
- Diagnosing and Understanding Angiostrongyliasis, A Zoonotic Cause of Meningitis. [Journal Article]
- ACACS Chem Neurosci 2018 Feb 07
- Eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is spreading worldwide, and it can manifest as a severe neurological disease. Angiostrongyliasis is a food- and water-borne parasitosis t...
Eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is spreading worldwide, and it can manifest as a severe neurological disease. Angiostrongyliasis is a food- and water-borne parasitosis that usually exhibits a seasonal and circumscribed geographical distribution. To improve control and treatment of these infections, further studies of transmission dynamics under natural conditions and the development of better diagnostic tools and treatment options are needed.
- Chi3l3: a potential key orchestrator of eosinophil recruitment in meningitis induced by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neuroinflammation 2018 Feb 02; 15(1):31
- CONCLUSIONS: We present evidences in favor of a key role for macrophave-derived Chi3l3 molecule in the infection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, which aggravates eosinophilic meningitis induced by Angiostrongylus cantonensis via a IL-13-mediated positive feedback loop. These reported results constitute a starting point for future research of angiostrongyliasis pathogenesis and imply that targeting chitinases and chitinase-like-proteins may be clinically beneficial in Angiostrongylus cantonensis-induced eosinophilic meningitis.
- Apoptosis and necroptosis of mouse hippocampal and parenchymal astrocytes, microglia and neurons caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection. [Journal Article]
- PVParasit Vectors 2017 Dec 19; 10(1):611
- CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, we showed for the first time that A. cantonensis infection causes the apoptosis and necroptosis of microglia and astrocytes in the parenchymal and hippocampal regions of host brain tissues, further demonstrating the pathogenesis of A. cantonensis infection and providing potential therapeutic targets for the management of angiostrongyliasis.
- High prevalence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm) on eastern Hawai'i Island: A closer look at life cycle traits and patterns of infection in wild rats (Rattus spp.). [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2017; 12(12):e0189458
- The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic pathogen and the etiological agent of human angiostrongyliasis or rat lungworm disease. Hawai'i, particularly east Hawai'i Island, is the epicen...
The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic pathogen and the etiological agent of human angiostrongyliasis or rat lungworm disease. Hawai'i, particularly east Hawai'i Island, is the epicenter for angiostrongyliasis in the USA. Rats (Rattus spp.) are the definitive hosts while gastropods are intermediate hosts. The main objective of this study was to collect adult A. cantonensis from wild rats to isolate protein for the development of a blood-based diagnostic, in the process we evaluated the prevalence of infection in wild rats. A total of 545 wild rats were sampled from multiple sites in the South Hilo District of east Hawai'i Island. Adult male and female A. cantonensis (3,148) were collected from the hearts and lungs of humanely euthanized Rattus rattus, and R. exulans. Photomicrography and documentation of multiple stages of this parasitic nematode in situ were recorded. A total of 45.5% (197/433) of rats inspected had lung lobe(s) (mostly upper right) which appeared granular indicating this lobe may serve as a filter for worm passage to the rest of the lung. Across Rattus spp., 72.7% (396/545) were infected with adult worms, but 93.9% (512/545) of the rats were positive for A. cantonensis infection based on presence of live adult worms, encysted adult worms, L3 larvae and/or by PCR analysis of brain tissue. In R. rattus we observed an inverse correlation with increased body mass and infection level of adult worms, and a direct correlation between body mass and encysted adult worms in the lung tissue, indicating that larger (older) rats may have developed a means of clearing infections or regulating the worm burden upon reinfection. The exceptionally high prevalence of A. cantonensis infection in Rattus spp. in east Hawai'i Island is cause for concern and indicates the potential for human infection with this emerging zoonosis is greater than previously thought.
- Angiostrongyliasis (Rat Lungworm Disease): Viewpoints from Hawai'i Island. [Journal Article]
- ACACS Chem Neurosci 2017 Sep 20; 8(9):1820-1822
- Hawai'i, particularly east Hawai'i Island, is the epicenter for angiostrongyliasis in the United States. Case numbers have been increasing and appear to parallel the introduction and spread of the se...
Hawai'i, particularly east Hawai'i Island, is the epicenter for angiostrongyliasis in the United States. Case numbers have been increasing and appear to parallel the introduction and spread of the semislug (Parmarion martensi) to east Hawai'i. The infective larvae in rainwater catchment as a source for household and agricultural water may also play a role. The spread of Angiostrongylus cantonensis as well as the potential introduction of the semislug P. martensi should be a concern to the mainland United States. The State of Hawai'i should recognize the seriousness of this growing problem and thus collaborate to fund studies to address the growing challenges surrounding angiostrongyliasis.
- Neuronal Apoptosis: Pathological Basis of Behavioral Dysfunctions Induced by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Rodents Model. [Journal Article]
- KJKorean J Parasitol 2017; 55(3):267-278
- Angiostrongylus cantonensis invades the central nervous system (CNS) of humans to induce eosinophilic meningitis and meningoencephalitis and leads to persistent headache, cognitive dysfunction, and a...
Angiostrongylus cantonensis invades the central nervous system (CNS) of humans to induce eosinophilic meningitis and meningoencephalitis and leads to persistent headache, cognitive dysfunction, and ataxic gait. Infected mice (nonpermissive host), admittedly, suffer more serious pathological injuries than rats (permissive host). However, the pathological basis of these manifestations is incompletely elucidated. In this study, the behavioral test, histological and immunohistochemical techniques, and analysis of apoptotic gene expression, especially caspase-3, were conducted. The movement and motor coordination were investigated at week 2 post infection (PI) and week 3 PI in mice and rats, respectively. The cognitive impairs could be found in mice at week 2 PI but not in rats. The plaque-like lesion, perivascular cuffing of inflammatory cells, and dilated vessels within the cerebral cortex and hippocampus were more serious in mice than in rats at week 3 PI. Transcriptomic analysis showed activated extrinsic apoptotic pathway through increased expression of TNFR1 and caspase-8 in mice CNS. Immunohistochemical and double-labeling for NeuN and caspase-3 indicated the dramatically increased expression of caspase-3 in neuron of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus in mice but not in rats. Furthermore, western-blotting results showed high expression of cleaved caspase-3 proteins in mice but relatively low expression in rats. Thus, extrinsic apoptotic pathway participated in neuronal apoptosis might be the pathological basis of distinct behavioral dysfunctions in rodents with A. cantonensis infection. It provides the evidences of a primary molecular mechanism for the behavioral dysfunction and paves the ways to clinical diagnosis and therapy for A. cantonensis infection.
- Angiostrongylus cantonensis: An optimized cultivation of this parasitic nematode under laboratory conditions. [Journal Article]
- PRParasitol Res 2017; 116(8):2231-2237
- Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis), a parasitic nematode, is the important neurotropic pathogen which causes human angiostrongyliasis. It has a complex life-cycle and severe parasite-host i...
Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis), a parasitic nematode, is the important neurotropic pathogen which causes human angiostrongyliasis. It has a complex life-cycle and severe parasite-host interaction in contrast to free-living nematode. Establishment of a well-suited life-cycle and in vitro cultivation of A. cantonensis in the laboratory will be one of the key techniques to elucidate the mechanism of parasite-host interaction. However, the low survival and growth rate of worms is still to be the problem. We optimized the known life-cycle of A. cantonensis in the laboratory, showing that small in size, easy to breed, and high compatibility of Biomphalaria straminea precede the common snails as an intermediate host of A. cantonensis. Furthermore, the egg hatching rate in Ham's F-12 medium reached approximately 80% using the eggs of mature female adult worms. We also demonstrated that the survival of larvae could be sustained for more than 30 days by in vitro cultivation of L1 larvae in DMEM with mixed antibiotics (100 units/mL of penicillin G potassium, 50 μg/mL of streptomycin sulfate, and 0.5 μg/mL of amphotericin B) and L3, L4, and L5 larvae in Waymouth's medium with 20% fetal calf serum and mixed antibiotics. Infective L1 and L3 larvae kept high infective rate to the snail and rat after cultivation in these media, respectively. It will provide the basis for studying on genetic manipulations for functional genes, new drug screening, and the mechanism of parasite-host interaction of parasitic nematodes.
- Resveratrol relieves Angiostrongylus cantonensis - Induced meningoencephalitis by activating sirtuin-1. [Journal Article]
- ATActa Trop 2017; 173:76-84
- Resveratrol, a natural herbal compound found in high levels in grapes and red wine, is frequently used as activator of sirtuin-1. This study investigated the potential function of sirtuin-1 in regula...
Resveratrol, a natural herbal compound found in high levels in grapes and red wine, is frequently used as activator of sirtuin-1. This study investigated the potential function of sirtuin-1 in regulating angiostrongyliasis meningoencephalitis in resveratrol-treated mice. Mice were subjected to meningoencephalitis to study the protective effect of resveratrol against meningoencephalitis and investigate the effects of sirtuin-1 activation on brain. Results demonstrated that sirtuin-1 level decreased in mice with meningoencephalitis and significantly increased in resveratrol-treated mice. Moreover, resveratrol treatment significantly reduced eosinophil counts, p65, Interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-5, IL-33, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels, matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity, claudin-5 degradation, and blood-brain barrier permeability. By contrast, the anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 was significantly increased in resveratrol-treated mice. Resveratrol treatment was partially beneficial in controlling the pathological processes of angiostrongyliasis meningoencephalitis. The results demonstrate the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol against Angiostrongylus cantonensis-induced eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in mice. Treatment with sirtuin-1 agonist was given within a therapeutic window after A. cantonensis infection.
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- Angiostrongylus cantonensis Meningitis and Myelitis, Texas, USA. [Journal Article]
- EIEmerg Infect Dis 2017; 23(6):1037-1038
- Infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis roundworms is endemic in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Basin. A. cantonensis meningitis and myelitis occurred in summer 2013 in a child with no history of ...
Infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis roundworms is endemic in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Basin. A. cantonensis meningitis and myelitis occurred in summer 2013 in a child with no history of travel outside of Texas, USA. Angiostrongyliasis is an emerging neurotropic helminthic disease in Texas and warrants increased awareness among healthcare providers.