Did you mean: (Angiostrongyliasis Cantonese)?
- First record of Bulimulus tenuissimus (Mollusca) as potential experimental intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda). [Journal Article]
- BJBraz J Biol 2018 Oct 29
- Snails are essential to complete the life cycle of the metastrongylid nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the causative agent of infections in domestic and wild animals, mainly rodents, and also of...
Snails are essential to complete the life cycle of the metastrongylid nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the causative agent of infections in domestic and wild animals, mainly rodents, and also of neural angiostrongyliasis or eosinophilic meningitis in humans. There are many reports of mollusks that can act as intermediate hosts of this parasite, especially freshwater snails and the African giant Achatina fulica. The terrestrial gastropod Bulimulus tenuissimus is widely distributed in Brazil and other species of the same genus occur in Brazil and other countries, overlapping regions in which there are reports of the occurrence of A. cantonensis and angiostrongyliasis. In spite of this, there are no records in the literature of this species performing the role of intermediate host to A. cantonensis. The present study analyzed the experimental infection with first-stage larvae of A. cantonensis, under laboratory conditions, of B. tenuissimus, by using histology and electron microscopy techniques. Three weeks after exposure to L1 larvae, it was possible to recover L3 larvae in small numbers from the infected snails. Developing larvae were observed in the cephalopedal mass (foot), ovotestis, and mantle tissues, being located inside a granulomatous structure composed of hemocyte infiltration, but there was no calcium or collagen deposition in these structures in significant amounts. In the third week post exposure, it was possible observe a sheath around the developing larvae. The infected snails presented reduction in the fibrous muscular tissue in the foot region, loss of the acinar organization in the digestive gland, with increase of amorphous material inside the acini and loss of epithelial pattern of nuclear organization in the acinar cells. However, the ovotestis seemed unaffected by the infection, since there was a large number of developing oocytes and spermatozoa in different stages of formation. The digestion of infected snails allows us the third-stage recovery rate of 17.25%, at 14 days post exposure to the L1. These L3 recovered from B. tenuissimus were used to infect rats experimentally, and 43 days post infection first-stage (L1) larvae of A. cantonensis were recovered from fresh feces. The results presented constituted the first report of the role of B. tenuissimus as an experimental intermediate host to A. cantonensis and shed some light on a possible problem, since the overlapping distribution of B. tenuissimus and A. cantonensis in Brazil and other countries where different species of Bulimulus occur enables the establishment and maintenance of the life cycle of this parasite in nature, with wild rodents as reservoirs, acting as a source of infection to humans, causing neural angiostrongyliasis.
- Small-scale spatial analysis of intermediate and definitive hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. [Journal Article]
- IDInfect Dis Poverty 2018 Oct 15; 7(1):100
- CONCLUSIONS: P. canaliculata and rats were widely distributed in Nanao Island and positive infection has also been found in the hosts, demonstrating that there was a risk of angiostrongyliasis in this region of China. The distribution of positive P. canaliculata and rats exhibited spatial correlation, and the GWR model had advantage over the OLS model in the spatial analysis of hosts of A. cantonensis.
- Molecular phylogeography and genetic diversity of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and A. malaysiensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) based on 66-kDa protein gene. [Journal Article]
- PIParasitol Int 2018 Sep 26; 68(1):24-30
- Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the main causative agent of human angiostrongyliasis. A sibling species, A. malaysiensis has not been unequivocally incriminated to be involved in human infections. To ...
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the main causative agent of human angiostrongyliasis. A sibling species, A. malaysiensis has not been unequivocally incriminated to be involved in human infections. To date, there is only a single report on the application of the partial 66-kDa protein gene sequence for molecular differentiation and phylogeny of Angiostrongylus species. Nucleotide sequences of the 66-kDa protein gene of A. cantonensis and A. malaysiensis from Thailand, as well as those of the laboratory strains of A. cantonensis from Thailand and Hawaii, A. cantonensis from Japan and China, A. malaysiensis from Malaysia, and A. costaricensis from Costa Rica, were used for the reconstruction of phylogenetic tree by the maximum likelihood (ML) method and the haplotypes by the median joining (MJ) network. The ML phylogenetic tree contained two major clades with a full support bootstrap value - (1) A. cantonensis and A. malaysiensis, and (2) A. costaricensis. A. costaricensis was basal to A. cantonensis and A. malaysiensis. The genetic distance between A. cantonensis and A. malaysiensis ranged from p = .82% to p = 3.27%, that between A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis from p = 4.90% to p = 5.31%, and that between A. malaysiensis and A. costaricensis was p = 4.49% to p = 5.71%. Both A. cantonensis and A. malaysiensis possess high 66-kDa haplotype diversity. There was no clear separation of the conspecific taxa of A. cantonensis and A. malaysiensis from different geographical regions. A more intensive and extensive sampling with larger sample size may reveal greater haplotype diversity and a better resolved phylogeographical structure of A. cantonensis and A. malaysiensis.
- First records of molluscs naturally infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) in Northeastern Brazil, including new global records of natural intermediate hosts. [Journal Article]
- RIRev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2018; 60:e51
- Human neural angiostrongyliasis is an emerging infectious disease caused by nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The present study investigated the presence of Angiostrongylus spp. in terrestrial mo...
Human neural angiostrongyliasis is an emerging infectious disease caused by nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The present study investigated the presence of Angiostrongylus spp. in terrestrial molluscs collected from the following areas in the Metropolitan Region of Aracaju, Sergipe State, Brazil: Barra dos Coqueiros, Nossa Senhora do Socorro, Sao Cristovao and Aracaju. In total, 703 specimens representing 13 mollusc species were screened for Angiostrongylus spp. Larvae of Angiostrongylus spp. were found in three species. Larvae recovered from Achatina fulica were used for experimental infection in Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus). For specific identification of nematodes, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) was sequenced from both larvae and adults recovered from molluscs and rats, respectively. Infection with A. cantonensis was detected in all municipalities and in the following three host species: Bulimulus tenuissimus, Cyclodontina fasciata (Barra dos Coqueiros), and A. fulica (Aracaju, Nossa Senhora do Socorro and Sao Cristovao). Co-infections were also found with Caenorhabditis sp. and Strongyluris sp. larvae. This is the first study of the helminth fauna associated with the terrestrial malacofauna in Sergipe State, and confirms that these three snail species are involved in the transmission of A. cantonensis in the state. In addition, B. tenuissimus and C. fasciata are newly reported natural hosts of the parasite.
- Hurdles in the evolutionary epidemiology of Angiostrongylus cantonensis: Pseudogenes, incongruence between taxonomy and DNA sequence variants, and cryptic lineages. [Journal Article]
- EAEvol Appl 2018; 11(8):1257-1269
- Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm, is a zoonotic pathogen that is one of the leading causes of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide. This parasite is regarded as an emerging pathogen with a ...
Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm, is a zoonotic pathogen that is one of the leading causes of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide. This parasite is regarded as an emerging pathogen with a global range expansion out of southeastern Asia post-WWII. To date, molecular systematic/phylogeographic studies on A. cantonensis have mainly used two mitochondrial (mtDNA) markers, cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) and cytochrome b (CYTB), where the focus has largely been descriptive in terms of reporting local patterns of haplotype variants. In order to look for more global evolutionary patterns, we herein provide a collective phylogenetic assessment using the six available whole mtDNA genome samples that have been tagged as A. cantonensis, A. malaysiensis, or A. mackerrasae along with all other GenBank CO1 and CYTB partial sequences that carry these species identifiers. The results reveal three important complications that researchers will need to be aware of, or will need to resolve, prior to conducting future molecular evolutionary studies on A. cantonensis. These three problems are (i) incongruence between taxonomic identifications and mtDNA variants (haplotypes or whole mtDNA genome samples), (ii) the presence of a CYTB mtDNA pseudogene, and (iii) the need to verify A. mackerrasae as a species along with other possible cryptic lineages, of which there is suggestive evidence (i.e., A. cantonensis could be a species complex). We provided a discussion of how these complications are hurdles to our understanding of the global epidemiology of angiostrongyliasis. We call for future studies to be more explicit in morphological traits used for identifications (e.g., provide measurements). Moreover, it will be necessary to repeat prior morphological and life-history studies while simultaneously using sequence data in order to assess possible associations between critical epidemiological data (e.g., biogeography, virulence/pathology, host species use) and specific lineages.
- Rat Lungworm Infection Associated with Central Nervous System Disease - Eight U.S. States, January 2011-January 2017. [Case Reports]
- MMMMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Aug 03; 67(30):825-828
- Angiostrongyliasis is caused by infection and migration to the brain of larvae of the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, or rat lungworm. Adult A. cantonensis reside in the lungs of the ...
Angiostrongyliasis is caused by infection and migration to the brain of larvae of the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, or rat lungworm. Adult A. cantonensis reside in the lungs of the definitive wild rodent host, where they produce larvae passed in feces, which are then ingested by snails and slugs (gastropods). Human infection typically occurs when gastropods containing mature larvae are inadvertently ingested by humans. Although human infection often is asymptomatic or involves transient mild symptoms, larval migration to the brain can lead to eosinophilic meningitis, focal neurologic deficits, coma, and death. The majority of cases of human angiostrongyliasis occur in Asia and the Pacific Islands, including Hawaii, but autochthonous and imported cases have been reported in the continental United States (1,2), underscoring the importance of provider recognition to ensure prompt identification and treatment. The epidemiologic and clinical features of 12 angiostrongyliasis cases in the continental United States were analyzed. These cases were identified through A. cantonensis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing (3) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) submitted to CDC from within the continental United States. Six cases were likely a result of autochthonous transmission in the southern United States. All 12 patients had CSF pleocytosis and eosinophilia, consistent with eosinophilic meningitis. Health care providers need to be aware of the possibility of angiostrongyliasis in patients with eosinophilic meningitis, especially in residents in the southern United States or persons who have traveled outside the continental United States and have a history of ingestion of gastropods or contaminated raw vegetables.
- Eating Centipedes Can Result in Angiostrongylus cantonensis Infection: Two Case Reports and Pathogen Investigation. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Trop Med Hyg 2018; 99(3):743-748
- Angiostrongyliasis is a food-borne parasitic disease caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis that can lead to eosinophilic meningitis (EM) or meningoencephalitis in humans. Angiostrongylus...
Angiostrongyliasis is a food-borne parasitic disease caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis that can lead to eosinophilic meningitis (EM) or meningoencephalitis in humans. Angiostrongylus cantonensis is prevalent in the Pacific Islands. In recent years, a large number of outbreaks and severe cases have occurred. Several species of mollusk, such as snails and slugs, act as intermediate and paratenic hosts of A. cantonensis. In this study, two cases of EM were found to have been caused by infection with A. cantonensis due to consumption of raw centipedes. To survey the A. cantonensis infections acquired through centipedes that the patients had bought at a vegetable market, we performed etiological examinations and polymerase chain reaction amplification of A. cantonensis genes. Third-instar larvae of A. cantonensis were detected in the centipedes, and specific genes from A. cantonensis were detected in all the specimens. This indicates that the centipede may act as a competent host for the transmission of A. cantonensis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of A. cantonensis infection through the consumption of centipedes.
- Modelling the distribution in Hawaii of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm) in its gastropod hosts. [Journal Article]
- PParasitology 2018 Jun 21; :1-8
- Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm), a parasitic nematode, is expanding its distribution. Human infection, known as angiostrongyliasis, may manifest as eosinophilic meningitis, an emerging inf...
Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm), a parasitic nematode, is expanding its distribution. Human infection, known as angiostrongyliasis, may manifest as eosinophilic meningitis, an emerging infectious disease. The range and incidence of this disease are expanding throughout the tropics and subtropics. Recently, the Hawaiian Islands have experienced an increase in reported cases. This study addresses factors affecting the parasite's distribution and projects its potential future distribution, using Hawaii as a model for its global expansion. Specimens of 37 snail species from the Hawaiian Islands were screened for the parasite using PCR. It was present on five of the six largest islands. The data were used to generate habitat suitability models for A. cantonensis, based on temperature and precipitation, to predict its potential further spread within the archipelago. The best current climate model predicted suitable habitat on all islands, with greater suitability in regions with higher precipitation and temperatures. Projections under climate change (to 2100) indicated increased suitability in regions with estimated increased precipitation and temperatures, suitable habitat occurring increasingly at higher elevations. Analogously, climate change could facilitate the spread of A. cantonensis from its current tropical/subtropical range into more temperate regions of the world, as is beginning to be seen in the continental USA.
- Immunochromatographic test for rapid serological diagnosis of human angiostrongyliasis. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Infect Dis 2018; 73:69-71
- CONCLUSIONS: AcQuickDx Test is rapid, highly sensitive and specific, and easy to perform without additional equipment or ancillary supplies. It yields results that are interpreted visually, and possesses a long shelf-life at room temperature. Thus, it can be applied as an additional test for clinical diagnostic support of angiostrongyliasis either in conventional laboratories or for remote areas where laboratory infrastructure is not available.
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- Eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in an infant: A case report. [Case Reports]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(24):e10975
- CONCLUSIONS: A. cantonensis is the most common cause of parasitic eosinophilic meningitis cases in Southeast Asia. Physicians treating infants who live in areas where A. cantonensis is endemic and who present with irritability, abnormal motor function, and elevated eosinophil count should be aware of the disease to provide timely and rational therapy to the patients.