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- Activity profiling of peptidases in Angiostrongylus costaricensis first-stage larvae and adult worms. [Journal Article]
- PNPLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Oct 31; 12(10):e0006923
- CONCLUSIONS: The proteolytic activities in adult worm and L1 lysates were characterized using a highly diversified library of peptide substrates and the activity was validated using a selection of fluorescent substrates. Taken together, peptidase signatures for different developmental stages of this parasite has improved our understanding of the disease pathogenesis and may be useful as potential drug targets or vaccine candidates.
- Shedding of Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae in the faeces of Swiss mice experimentally infected with different infective doses. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Helminthol 2018 Oct 24; :1-4
- Abdominal angiostrongyliasis is an endemic zoonosis in southern Brazil caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus costaricensis, which uses terrestrial molluscs as intermediate hosts and wild rodents as ...
Abdominal angiostrongyliasis is an endemic zoonosis in southern Brazil caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus costaricensis, which uses terrestrial molluscs as intermediate hosts and wild rodents as final hosts. Humans can be infected by ingesting infectious A. costaricensis larvae. To date, correlations between shedding of first-stage larvae (L1) and different infective doses of third-stage larvae (L3) have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess L1 faecal shedding levels in Swiss mice experimentally infected with different doses of A. costaricensis L3 and to determine whether infective doses are related to mortality. Thirty-two male Swiss mice were divided evenly into a non-infected control (NI-Con); low-dose infection (LD-Inf); medium-dose infection (MD-Inf) and high-dose infection (HD-Inf) groups infected with 0, 5, 15 and 30 A. costaricensis L3, respectively. Faecal samples were collected from each animal, starting at day 20 post infection. HD-Inf mice had greater faecal L1 shedding levels than LD-Inf mice, but not a significantly shortened survival. In conclusion, infective doses of A. costaricensis L3 affect L1 shedding levels without altering mortality in Swiss mice.
- Molecular phylogeography and genetic diversity of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and A. malaysiensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) based on 66-kDa protein gene. [Journal Article]
- PIParasitol Int 2018 Sep 26; 68(1):24-30
- Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the main causative agent of human angiostrongyliasis. A sibling species, A. malaysiensis has not been unequivocally incriminated to be involved in human infections. To ...
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the main causative agent of human angiostrongyliasis. A sibling species, A. malaysiensis has not been unequivocally incriminated to be involved in human infections. To date, there is only a single report on the application of the partial 66-kDa protein gene sequence for molecular differentiation and phylogeny of Angiostrongylus species. Nucleotide sequences of the 66-kDa protein gene of A. cantonensis and A. malaysiensis from Thailand, as well as those of the laboratory strains of A. cantonensis from Thailand and Hawaii, A. cantonensis from Japan and China, A. malaysiensis from Malaysia, and A. costaricensis from Costa Rica, were used for the reconstruction of phylogenetic tree by the maximum likelihood (ML) method and the haplotypes by the median joining (MJ) network. The ML phylogenetic tree contained two major clades with a full support bootstrap value - (1) A. cantonensis and A. malaysiensis, and (2) A. costaricensis. A. costaricensis was basal to A. cantonensis and A. malaysiensis. The genetic distance between A. cantonensis and A. malaysiensis ranged from p = .82% to p = 3.27%, that between A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis from p = 4.90% to p = 5.31%, and that between A. malaysiensis and A. costaricensis was p = 4.49% to p = 5.71%. Both A. cantonensis and A. malaysiensis possess high 66-kDa haplotype diversity. There was no clear separation of the conspecific taxa of A. cantonensis and A. malaysiensis from different geographical regions. A more intensive and extensive sampling with larger sample size may reveal greater haplotype diversity and a better resolved phylogeographical structure of A. cantonensis and A. malaysiensis.
- Invasive slug Meghimatium pictum (Stoliczka, 1873) infected by Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Céspedes, 1971, and the possible risk of human infection associated with grape consumption. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Helminthol 2018 Sep 12; :1-3
- Many molluscs may be infected with angiostrongylid larvae. Following the histopathological diagnosis of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in a grape farmer from southern Brazil, molluscs in the area were ...
Many molluscs may be infected with angiostrongylid larvae. Following the histopathological diagnosis of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in a grape farmer from southern Brazil, molluscs in the area were investigated. During a nocturnal search, 245 specimens of slugs were collected and identified as the invasive Chinese slug Meghimatium pictum. Angiostrongylus costaricensis worms were recovered from mice that were experimentally infected with larvae obtained from 11 (4.5%) of the molluscs. This study presents the first report of M. pictum being identified as an intermediate host for A. costaricensis. Most of the slugs were collected from grape plants, which suggests that transmission may be associated with grape consumption.
- [Standardization of a multiplex real-time PCR test for the identification of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, A. costaricensis and A. vasorum]. [Journal Article]
- BBiomedica 2018 Mar 15; 38(1):111-119
- CONCLUSIONS: A multiple qPCR was standardized at the laboratory for three clinically significant species of Angiostrongylus.
- Angiostrongylus costaricensis infection in Martinique, Lesser Antilles, from 2000 to 2017. [Journal Article]
- PParasite 2018; 25:22
- Human abdominal angiostrongyliasis (HAA) is a parasitic disease caused by the accidental ingestion of the nematode Angiostrongylus costaricensis in its larval form. Human infection can lead to severe...
Human abdominal angiostrongyliasis (HAA) is a parasitic disease caused by the accidental ingestion of the nematode Angiostrongylus costaricensis in its larval form. Human infection can lead to severe ischemic and inflammatory intestinal lesions, sometimes complicated by life-threatening ileal perforations. Only one case had been reported in Martinique, an Island in the French Antilles, in 1988. We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of patients diagnosed with abdominal angiostrongyliasis at the University Hospital of Martinique between 2000 and 2017. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the incidence and perform a descriptive analysis of the clinical, biological, radiological, and histopathological features of HAA in Martinique. Two confirmed cases and two probable cases were identified in patients aged from 1 to 21 years during the 18-year period, with an estimated incidence of 0.2 cases per year (0.003 case/year/100.000 inhabitants (IC95% = 0.00-0.05)). All patients presented with abdominal pain associated with high blood eosinophilia (median: 7.24 G/L [min 4.25; max 52.28 G/L]). Two developed ileal perforation and were managed by surgery, with diagnostic confirmation based on histopathological findings on surgical specimens. The other two cases were probable, with serum specimens reactive to Angiostrongylus sp. antigen in the absence of surgery. All cases improved without sequelae. The description of this case series highlights the need to increase awareness of this life-threatening disease in the medical community and to facilitate access to specific diagnostic tools in Martinique. Environmental and epidemiological studies are needed to broaden our knowledge of the burden of this disease.
- Angiostrongylus vasorum and Aelurostrongylus abstrusus: Neglected and underestimated parasites in South America. [Review]
- PVParasit Vectors 2018 03 27; 11(1):208
- The gastropod-borne nematodes Angiostrongylus vasorum and Aelurostrongylus abstrusus are global causes of cardio/pulmonary diseases in dogs and cats. In the last decade, the number of reports on cani...
The gastropod-borne nematodes Angiostrongylus vasorum and Aelurostrongylus abstrusus are global causes of cardio/pulmonary diseases in dogs and cats. In the last decade, the number of reports on canine and feline lungworms has increased in several areas of Europe and North America. The unspecific clinical signs and prolonged course of these diseases often renders diagnosis challenging. Both infections are considered as emerging and underestimated causes of disease in domestic pets. In South America, little information is available on these diseases, apart from occasional reports proving the principle presence of A. vasorum and A. abstrusus. Thus, the purpose of this review is to summarize reports on infections in both domestic and wildlife animals in South America and to increase the awareness on gastropod-borne metastrongyloid parasites, which also include important zoonotic species, such as A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis. This review highlights the usefulness of diagnostic tools, such as the Baermann funnel technique, serology and PCR, and proposes to include these routinely on cases with clinical suspicion for lungworm infections. Future national epidemiological surveys are recommended to be conducted to gain a deeper insight into the actual epidemiological situation of gastropod-borne parasitoses in South America.
- Novel approach to study gastropod-mediated innate immune reactions against metastrongyloid parasites. [Journal Article]
- PRParasitol Res 2018; 117(4):1211-1224
- The anthropozoonotic metastrongyloid nematodes Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Angiostrongylus costaricensis, as well as Angiostrongylus vasorum, Crenosoma vulpis, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Trog...
The anthropozoonotic metastrongyloid nematodes Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Angiostrongylus costaricensis, as well as Angiostrongylus vasorum, Crenosoma vulpis, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior are currently considered as emerging gastropod-borne parasites and have gained growing scientific attention in the last years. However, the knowledge on invertebrate immune responses and on how metastrongyloid larvae are attacked by gastropod immune cells is still limited. This work aims to describe an in vitro system to investigate haemocyte-derived innate immune responses of terrestrial gastropods induced by vital axenic metastrongyloid larvae. We also provide protocols on slug/snail management and breeding under standardized climate conditions (circadian cycle, temperature and humidity) for the generation of parasite-free F0 stages which are essential for immune-related investigations. Adult slug species (Arion lusitanicus, Limax maximus) and giant snails (Achatina fulica) were maintained in fully automated climate chambers until mating and production of fertilized eggs. Newly hatched F0 juvenile specimens were kept under parasite-free conditions before experimental use. An improved protocol for gastropod haemolymph collection and haemocyte isolation was established. Giemsa-stained haemolymph preparations showed adequate haemocyte isolation in all three gastropod species. Additionally, a protocol for the production of axenic first and third stage larvae (L1, L3) was established. Haemocyte functionality was tested in haemocyte-nematode-co-cultures. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy analyses revealed that gastropod-derived haemocytes formed clusters as well as DNA-rich extracellular aggregates catching larvae and decreasing their motility. These data confirm the usefulness of the presented methods to study haemocyte-mediated gastropod immune responses to better understand the complex biology of gastropod-borne diseases.
- Angiostrongylus spp. in the Americas: geographical and chronological distribution of definitive hosts versus disease reports. [Journal Article]
- MIMem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2018; 113(3):143-152
- CONCLUSIONS: Consequently, many cases for angiostrongyliasis could have gone unreported or unrecognised throughout history and in the nowadays. Moreover, the population expansion and the climatic changes invite to make broader and more complete range of observation on the species that involve possible epidemiological risks. This paper integrates and shows the current distribution of Angiostrongylus species in America, being this information very relevant for establishing prevention, monitoring and contingency strategies in the region.
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- Abdominal Angiostrongyliasis: A Presentation of Eosinophilic Granulomatous Colitis. [Case Reports]
- IJInt J Surg Pathol 2018; 26(5):475-478
- We present a case of a 4-year-old girl with abdominal angiostrongyliasis who presented with persistent fevers, hepatosplenomegaly, acute abdominal pain, and eosinophilia. Computed tomography scan ide...
We present a case of a 4-year-old girl with abdominal angiostrongyliasis who presented with persistent fevers, hepatosplenomegaly, acute abdominal pain, and eosinophilia. Computed tomography scan identified thickening of the ascending colon with a narrowed lumen. Endoscopic evaluation revealed ulcerations and erythema in the ascending colon. The microscopic findings in biopsies included active chronic inflammation with prominent eosinophils and granulomas. A subset of granulomas contained the eggs of Angiostrongylus costaricensis. The definitive method of diagnosing A costaricensis is histology; peripheral blood serology has low specificity and the stool from infected patients does not contain eggs or larvae. Pathologists from endemic regions (Central and South America) are familiar with the typical histologic changes; however, because of increasing global travel, all pathologists should become familiar with A costaricensis, which may mimic common gastrointestinal diseases such as Crohn's disease, appendicitis, and Meckel's diverticulum.