- [Standardization of a multiplex real-time PCR test for the identification of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, A. costaricensis and A. vasorum]. [Journal Article]
- BBiomedica 2018 Mar 15; 38(1):111-119
- CONCLUSIONS: A multiple qPCR was standardized at the laboratory for three clinically significant species of Angiostrongylus.
- Angiostrongylus costaricensis infection in Martinique, Lesser Antilles, from 2000 to 2017. [Journal Article]
- PParasite 2018; 25:22
- Human abdominal angiostrongyliasis (HAA) is a parasitic disease caused by the accidental ingestion of the nematode Angiostrongylus costaricensis in its larval form. Human infection can lead to severe...
Human abdominal angiostrongyliasis (HAA) is a parasitic disease caused by the accidental ingestion of the nematode Angiostrongylus costaricensis in its larval form. Human infection can lead to severe ischemic and inflammatory intestinal lesions, sometimes complicated by life-threatening ileal perforations. Only one case had been reported in Martinique, an Island in the French Antilles, in 1988. We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of patients diagnosed with abdominal angiostrongyliasis at the University Hospital of Martinique between 2000 and 2017. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the incidence and perform a descriptive analysis of the clinical, biological, radiological, and histopathological features of HAA in Martinique. Two confirmed cases and two probable cases were identified in patients aged from 1 to 21 years during the 18-year period, with an estimated incidence of 0.2 cases per year (0.003 case/year/100.000 inhabitants (IC95% = 0.00-0.05)). All patients presented with abdominal pain associated with high blood eosinophilia (median: 7.24 G/L [min 4.25; max 52.28 G/L]). Two developed ileal perforation and were managed by surgery, with diagnostic confirmation based on histopathological findings on surgical specimens. The other two cases were probable, with serum specimens reactive to Angiostrongylus sp. antigen in the absence of surgery. All cases improved without sequelae. The description of this case series highlights the need to increase awareness of this life-threatening disease in the medical community and to facilitate access to specific diagnostic tools in Martinique. Environmental and epidemiological studies are needed to broaden our knowledge of the burden of this disease.
- Novel approach to study gastropod-mediated innate immune reactions against metastrongyloid parasites. [Journal Article]
- PRParasitol Res 2018; 117(4):1211-1224
- The anthropozoonotic metastrongyloid nematodes Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Angiostrongylus costaricensis, as well as Angiostrongylus vasorum, Crenosoma vulpis, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Trog...
The anthropozoonotic metastrongyloid nematodes Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Angiostrongylus costaricensis, as well as Angiostrongylus vasorum, Crenosoma vulpis, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior are currently considered as emerging gastropod-borne parasites and have gained growing scientific attention in the last years. However, the knowledge on invertebrate immune responses and on how metastrongyloid larvae are attacked by gastropod immune cells is still limited. This work aims to describe an in vitro system to investigate haemocyte-derived innate immune responses of terrestrial gastropods induced by vital axenic metastrongyloid larvae. We also provide protocols on slug/snail management and breeding under standardized climate conditions (circadian cycle, temperature and humidity) for the generation of parasite-free F0 stages which are essential for immune-related investigations. Adult slug species (Arion lusitanicus, Limax maximus) and giant snails (Achatina fulica) were maintained in fully automated climate chambers until mating and production of fertilized eggs. Newly hatched F0 juvenile specimens were kept under parasite-free conditions before experimental use. An improved protocol for gastropod haemolymph collection and haemocyte isolation was established. Giemsa-stained haemolymph preparations showed adequate haemocyte isolation in all three gastropod species. Additionally, a protocol for the production of axenic first and third stage larvae (L1, L3) was established. Haemocyte functionality was tested in haemocyte-nematode-co-cultures. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy analyses revealed that gastropod-derived haemocytes formed clusters as well as DNA-rich extracellular aggregates catching larvae and decreasing their motility. These data confirm the usefulness of the presented methods to study haemocyte-mediated gastropod immune responses to better understand the complex biology of gastropod-borne diseases.
- Angiostrongylus spp. in the Americas: geographical and chronological distribution of definitive hosts versus disease reports. [Journal Article]
- MIMem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2018; 113(3):143-152
- CONCLUSIONS: Consequently, many cases for angiostrongyliasis could have gone unreported or unrecognised throughout history and in the nowadays. Moreover, the population expansion and the climatic changes invite to make broader and more complete range of observation on the species that involve possible epidemiological risks. This paper integrates and shows the current distribution of Angiostrongylus species in America, being this information very relevant for establishing prevention, monitoring and contingency strategies in the region.
- Abdominal Angiostrongyliasis: A Presentation of Eosinophilic Granulomatous Colitis. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Surg Pathol 2018; 26(5):475-478
- We present a case of a 4-year-old girl with abdominal angiostrongyliasis who presented with persistent fevers, hepatosplenomegaly, acute abdominal pain, and eosinophilia. Computed tomography scan ide...
We present a case of a 4-year-old girl with abdominal angiostrongyliasis who presented with persistent fevers, hepatosplenomegaly, acute abdominal pain, and eosinophilia. Computed tomography scan identified thickening of the ascending colon with a narrowed lumen. Endoscopic evaluation revealed ulcerations and erythema in the ascending colon. The microscopic findings in biopsies included active chronic inflammation with prominent eosinophils and granulomas. A subset of granulomas contained the eggs of Angiostrongylus costaricensis. The definitive method of diagnosing A costaricensis is histology; peripheral blood serology has low specificity and the stool from infected patients does not contain eggs or larvae. Pathologists from endemic regions (Central and South America) are familiar with the typical histologic changes; however, because of increasing global travel, all pathologists should become familiar with A costaricensis, which may mimic common gastrointestinal diseases such as Crohn's disease, appendicitis, and Meckel's diverticulum.
- High-dose enoxaparin in the treatment of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in Swiss mice. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Helminthol 2017 Oct 03; :1-6
- Abdominal angiostrongyliasis (AA) is caused by Angiostrongylus costaricensis, which inhabits mesenteric arteries. There is no drug treatment for AA, and since intestinal infarction due to thrombi is ...
Abdominal angiostrongyliasis (AA) is caused by Angiostrongylus costaricensis, which inhabits mesenteric arteries. There is no drug treatment for AA, and since intestinal infarction due to thrombi is one of the main complications of the disease, the use of anticoagulants may be a treatment option. Thus, we aimed to assess the effect of high doses of enoxaparin on the prevention of ischaemic intestinal lesions and on the survival of mice infected with A. costaricensis. Twenty-four mice were infected with L3 of A. costaricensis and divided equally into two groups: Group 1, control treated with placebo, and Group 2, treated daily with enoxaparin (2.5 mg/kg) for 50 days. All mice were subjected to necropsy and histological analysis. The results from gross and microscopic assessments showed no variation in the prevalence of lesions between the groups. An analysis was also performed among survivors and non-survivors, showing that animals that died often presented lesions, such as granulation tissue in the serosa, and intestinal infarction and adhesion. The mortality rate did not vary between the enoxaparin-treated and control groups. Thus, we showed that high doses of enoxaparin have no protective effect against AA, as the survival rates and lesions of mice did not vary between the treated and control groups. Considering that the use of prophylactic doses was also shown to be ineffective in a previous study, we do not recommend the use of enoxaparin for AA treatment.
- Characterisation of the vascular pathology in Sigmodon hispidus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) following experimental infection with Angiostrongylus costaricensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae). [Journal Article]
- MIMem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2017; 112(5):328-338
- CONCLUSIONS: In addition to abdominal angiostrongyliasis, our data suggest that this model could be very useful for autoimune vasculitis and atherosclerosis studies.
- Natural infection of the feline lungworm Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in the invasive snail Achatina fulica from Argentina. [Journal Article]
- VPVet Parasitol 2017 Feb 15; 235:17-19
- The giant African snail Achatina fulica is an invasive mollusk native to Africa, the first record in Argentina was in Puerto Iguazú, in northeastern Argentina in 2010. Recently it was reported in Cor...
The giant African snail Achatina fulica is an invasive mollusk native to Africa, the first record in Argentina was in Puerto Iguazú, in northeastern Argentina in 2010. Recently it was reported in Corrientes Province. This snail can act as an intermediate host of Metastrongyloidea nematodes of importance in public health as: Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Angiostrongylus costaricensis and Angiostrongylus vasorum. Taking into account the presence of A. fulica in Argentina, the objectives of this study is to assess the presence of Metastrongyloidea nematodes in this mollusk species in Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, close to the international border with Brazil and Paraguay. A total of 451 samples were collected from February 2014 to November 2015. The snails were processed using a digestion technique to recover the parasites. A total of 206 nematodes larvae were founded in the digestion solution of 10 hosts (P=2%; MA=0.5; MI=21). Third larval stage (L3) nematodes identified as Aelurostrongylus abstrusus were founded parasitizing the snails. No other larval stage was observed. This species has veterinary importance because it causes 'aelurostrongilosis', also known as feline strongyloidosis. This study constitutes the first record of a Metastrongyloidea nematode in A. fulica in Argentina and also highlights the susceptibility of this mollusk as intermediate host of other helminthes of health importance. The present study suggests that there is a need to establish an epidemiological monitoring system in order to prevent the possible installation of an infected mollusks focus.
- The white-nosed coati (Nasua narica) is a naturally susceptible definitive host for the zoonotic nematode Angiostrongylus costaricensis in Costa Rica. [Journal Article]
- VPVet Parasitol 2016 Sep 15; 228:93-95
- Angiostrongylus costaricensis (Strongylida, Angiostrongylidae) is a roundworm of rodents, which may cause a severe or fatal zoonosis in several countries of the Americas. A single report indicated th...
Angiostrongylus costaricensis (Strongylida, Angiostrongylidae) is a roundworm of rodents, which may cause a severe or fatal zoonosis in several countries of the Americas. A single report indicated that the white-nosed coati (Nasua narica), acts as a potential free-ranging wildlife reservoir. Here we investigated the prevalence and features of A. costaricensis infection in two procyonid species, the white-nosed coati and the raccoon (Procyon lotor) from Costa Rica to better understand their possible role in the epidemiology of this zoonotic infection. Eighteen of 32 (56.2%) white-nosed coatis collected between July 2010 and March 2016 were infected with A. costaricensis but none of 97 raccoons from the same localities were diagnosed with this infection. First-stage larvae of A. costaricensis were obtained from feces of 17 fresh white-nosed coati carcasses by Baermann technique. Parasite identity was confirmed by morphology, histology and molecular characterization of target genes. These data demonstrate that the white-nosed coati is a naturally susceptible definitive host for A. costaricensis in Costa Rica contrary to findings in the raccoon.
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- Susceptibility of Biomphalaria glabrata submitted to concomitant infection with Angiostrongylus costaricensis and Schistosoma mansoni. [Journal Article]
- BJBraz J Biol 2017 Jul-Sept; 77(3):451-458
- The easy adaptation of Angiostrongylus costaricensis, nematode responsible for abdominal angiostrongyliasis to several species of terrestrial and freshwater molluscs and the differences observed in t...
The easy adaptation of Angiostrongylus costaricensis, nematode responsible for abdominal angiostrongyliasis to several species of terrestrial and freshwater molluscs and the differences observed in the interactions of trematodes with their intermediate hosts have induced us to study the concomitant infection of Biomphalaria glabrata with Schistosoma mansoni and A. costaricensis. Prior exposure of B. glabrata to A. costaricensis (with an interval of 48 hours), favored the development of S. mansoni, observing higher infection rate, increased release of cercariae and increased survival of molluscs, when compared to molluscs exposed only to S. mansoni. Prior exposure of B. glabrata to A. costaricensis and then to S. mansoni also enabled the development of A. costaricensis since in the ninth week of infection, higher amount of A. costaricensis L3 larvae was recovered (12 larvae / mollusc) while for molluscs exposed only to A. costaricensis, the number of larvae recovered was lower (8 larvae / mollusc). However, pre-exposure of B. glabrata to S. mansoni (with an interval of 24 hours), and subsequently exposure to A. costaricensis proved to be very harmful to B. glabrata, causing extensive mortality of molluscs, reduced pre-patent period to release cercariae and greater recovery of L3 A. costaricensis larvae.