- Comparison of Fimasartan and Amlodipine Therapy on Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque Inflammation. [Journal Article]
- CCClin Cardiol 2018 Dec 09
- CONCLUSIONS: Fimasartan and amlodipine reduce carotid atherosclerotic plaque inflammation similarly in patients with acute coronary syndrome, offering the same level of effectiveness.
- Contemporary Management of Heart Failure in the Elderly. [Review]
- DADrugs Aging 2018 Dec 11
- The foundation of the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction is a number of pharmacotherapies shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in large randomised multinational clinical tri...
The foundation of the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction is a number of pharmacotherapies shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in large randomised multinational clinical trials. These include angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, and more recently, a combined angiotensin receptor blocker neprilysin inhibitor, sacubitril/valsartan. In select cases, digoxin, ivabradine and hydralazine with isosorbide dinitrate have a role to play in the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. On this foundation, other more advanced treatments such as implantable cardioverter defibrillators and cardiac resynchronisation therapy are recommended in guidelines for the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (i.e. an ejection fraction of ≤ 40%) and for a select few there remains the option of mechanical circulatory support and cardiac transplantation. The efficacy of pharmacotherapy does not vary by age and each of these therapies should be considered in all patients, irrespective of age. Other factors such as co-morbidities like renal dysfunction may limit the use of some of these drugs in the elderly. Decision making with regard to device therapy is more complex; the likelihood of competing non-cardiovascular causes of death and life expectancy need to be considered. Despite multiple treatment options for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, the options for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction are limited. In the absence of robust outcomes data from a large randomised trial, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist is a reasonable therapy to reduce the risk of hospitalisation for heart failure in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.
- Detection of Angiotensin II and AT1 Receptor Concentrations in Keloid and Hypertrophic Scar. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2018; 11(10):36-39
- Background: Keloid and hypertrophic scars (HTS) are formed by excessive collagen formation. Angiotensin II, through the AT1 receptor, plays an important role in extracellular matrix production. Howe...
Background: Keloid and hypertrophic scars (HTS) are formed by excessive collagen formation. Angiotensin II, through the AT1 receptor, plays an important role in extracellular matrix production. However, less is known about angiotensin II and AT1 receptor concentrations in HTS and keloid tissues. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the angiotensin II and AT1 receptor concentrations in keloid, HTS, and normal skin tissues. Methods: Skin biopsy samples from patients with HTS (n=26), keloid (n=20), and normal (n=30) skin tissues were evaluated for angiotensin II and AT1 receptor concentrations by use of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Results: The angiotensin II concentration in patients with HTS was higher than that in the normal (P<0.0067) and keloid (P>0.9553) groups, while the AT1 receptor concentration in patients with keloid was higher than that in the HTS (P<0.0001) and normal (P<0.0048) groups. Conclusion: Angiotensin II and AT1 receptor concentrations could stimulate the formation of HTS and keloid. Angiotensin II receptor blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may be suitable compounds for the treatment of scar tissue.
- Managing chronic kidney disease in diabetes patients with the latest chemical therapies. [Journal Article]
- ERExpert Rev Clin Pharmacol 2018 Dec 03; :1-8
- During the years, while treatment strategy for diabetes mellitus has improved, the incidence of diabetes worldwide increases continuously. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the major diabetic mi...
During the years, while treatment strategy for diabetes mellitus has improved, the incidence of diabetes worldwide increases continuously. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the major diabetic microvascular complications, and a primary cause leading to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The progression to ESRD, affected by hyperglycemia and hypertension, is characterized by microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria. With advances in understanding the pathogenesis of CKD in diabetic patients, many novel therapeutic targets have been proposed, and the corresponding agents are being developed continually to prevent the progression of CKD. Areas covered: This review focuses on those tested in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of CKD in diabetic patients, including renin-angiotensin system blockers, aldosterone antagonists, calcium channel blockers, TGF-β inhibitors, protein kinase C inhibitors, advanced glycation end products inhibitors, GLP-1 analogues, DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists, and so on. Expert commentary: The ideal control of glucose and blood pressure and healthy lifestyle are prerequisite for diabetic patients, despite the progression of CKD is inevitable. Over the last few years, several agents have been developed to delay and even reverse progression of CKD in diabetic patients.
- Still Asking "Which Rate Is Right?" Years Later. [Editorial]
- CJClin J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 Dec 07; 13(12):1783-1784
- Facility-Level Variations in Kidney Disease Care among Veterans with Diabetes and CKD. [Journal Article]
- CJClin J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 Dec 07; 13(12):1842-1850
- CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with diabetes and CKD, at facility-level, ordering of laboratory tests, and scheduling of nephrology referrals in eligible patients remains suboptimal, with substantial variations across facilities.
- Conservatively managed patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome are undertreated with indicated medicines. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(11):e0208069
- CONCLUSIONS: Despite current invasive management of NSTE-ACS, patients not receiving catheterization are at very high risk for under treatment with recommended drugs, including NADs. Their medium-term prognosis is poor, with high mortality. Patients treated with PCI receive better pharmacological management, with high use of NADs.
- Estimated 5-Year Number Needed to Treat to Prevent Cardiovascular Death or Heart Failure Hospitalization With Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibition vs Standard Therapy for Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: An Analysis of Data From the PARADIGM-HF Trial. [Journal Article]
- JCJAMA Cardiol 2018 Nov 28
- CONCLUSIONS: The 5-year estimated NNT with ARNI therapy incremental to ACEI therapy overall and for clinically relevant subpopulations of patients with HFrEF are comparable with those for well-established HF therapeutics. These data further support guideline recommendations for use of ARNI therapy among eligible patients with HFrEF.
- Bioactive Signaling in Next-Generation Pharmacotherapies for Heart Failure: A Review. [Journal Article]
- JCJAMA Cardiol 2018 Nov 28
- CONCLUSIONS: This review identified that activation rather than inhibition of specific receptor pathways provided favorable cardiovascular effects that cannot be achieved by renin-angiotensin system inhibition alone. Thus, an entirely new avenue of translational and clinical research lies ahead in which HF pharmacotherapies will move beyond receptor antagonist strategies.
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- Evaluation of a guideline directed medical therapy titration program in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Cardiol Heart Vasc 2019; 22:1-5
- CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study showed that a nurse directed GDMT titration program successfully increased the number of GDMT that patients were able to tolerate in a timely fashion, all the while enhancing ejection fraction, sodium and chloride levels, with a reduction in rehospitalization rates.