- Total Nose and Upper Lip Replantation: A Case Report and Literature Review. [Journal Article]
- PRPlast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2018; 6(10):e1839
- The nose plays a critical role in olfaction, air filtration and humidification, and facial aesthetics. Most nasal amputations result from animal bites, human bites, and lacerations from glass. Succes...
The nose plays a critical role in olfaction, air filtration and humidification, and facial aesthetics. Most nasal amputations result from animal bites, human bites, and lacerations from glass. Successful replantation yields the best aesthetic and functional outcomes and is preferred compared with multistage nasal reconstruction. However, nasal replantation is technically challenging; establishing venous outflow can be particularly difficult. A 17-year-old male sustained a complete nose and upper lip amputation in a motor vehicle accident. The midface segment was emergently replanted. Two arteries (left dorsal nasal artery, left superior labial artery) and 1 vein (branch of the left supratrochlear artery) were anastomosed using microsurgical technique. A vein graft, systemic anticoagulation, and postoperative leeching were important adjuncts. Total operative time was 10 hours. Cold ischemia time was 2 hours and warm ischemia time was 1 hour. Two arteries were anastomosed to minimize the risk of ischemia of the nose and/or upper lip. Complete survival of the replanted segment was achieved. Eighteen months postoperatively, the patient has bilateral nasal patency, intact septal support, and an excellent aesthetic result. All efforts should be made to establish a venous anastomosis during nasal replantation to maximize functional and aesthetic outcomes. Partial necrosis is common following artery-only replantation, leading to tissue loss and contracture.
- An updated meta-analysis of the distribution and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in ticks in Europe. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Health Geogr 2018 Dec 04; 17(1):41
- The bacteria of the group Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. are the etiological agents of Lyme borreliosis in humans, transmitted by bites of ticks. Improvement of control measures requires a solid framework...
The bacteria of the group Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. are the etiological agents of Lyme borreliosis in humans, transmitted by bites of ticks. Improvement of control measures requires a solid framework of the environmental traits driving its prevalence in ticks.
- Productive Propagation of Rift Valley Fever Phlebovirus Vaccine Strain MP-12 in Rousettus aegyptiacus Fruit Bats. [Journal Article]
- VViruses 2018 Nov 30; 10(12)
- Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV), the causative agent of an emerging zoonotic disease in Africa and Arabia, can infect a variety of species, predominantly ruminants, camelids, and humans. While c...
Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV), the causative agent of an emerging zoonotic disease in Africa and Arabia, can infect a variety of species, predominantly ruminants, camelids, and humans. While clinical symptoms are mostly absent in adult ruminants and camelids, RVFV infection may lead to a serious, sometimes fatal disease in humans. Virus transmissions between individuals and between species mainly occur through mosquito bites, but direct or even indirect contact with infectious materials may also result in infection. Although the main reservoir of the virus is not yet identified, small mammals such as rodents and bats may act as amplifying hosts. We therefore inoculated Rousettusaegyptiacus fruit bats that are abundant in northern Africa with the vaccine strain MP-12, in order to elucidate the general competence of this species for virus propagation and transmission. We were able to detect the RVFV genome in the spleen of each of these animals, and re-isolated the virus from the spleen and liver of some animals. Moreover, we were able to identify the Gc RVFV surface antigen in mild subacute multifocal necrotizing hepatic lesions of one bat which was sacrificed 7 days post exposure. These findings demonstrate that Rousettusaegyptiacus fruit bats can propagate RVFV.
- Antibiotic resistant zoonotic bacteria in Irrawaddy squirrel (Callosciurus pygerythrus). [Journal Article]
- VMVet Med Sci 2018 Nov 29
- Irrawaddy squirrel (Callosciurus pygerythrus) may play an important role in the transmission of zoonotic bacteria, but little is known about the carriage of zoonotic bacteria in this common frugivoro...
Irrawaddy squirrel (Callosciurus pygerythrus) may play an important role in the transmission of zoonotic bacteria, but little is known about the carriage of zoonotic bacteria in this common frugivorous rodent in Bangladesh. We aimed to investigate the presence of common zoonotic bacterial pathogens in Irrawaddy squirrel in the southeast part of Bangladesh. A total of 27 rectal and 27 oro-nasal swabs were collected from 27 healthy wild Irrawaddy squirrels. Four common zoonotic bacteria were isolated following routine laboratory procedures, and were identified based on colony morphology, and biochemical and staining properties. The pathogenic potential of the identified bacteria was confirmed by detection of virulence genes by PCR. All isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test against seven antibiotics from six generic groups which are commonly used in human and veterinary medicine in Bangladesh. The prevalence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Yersinia spp. and Staphylococcus spp. was 44.4% (95% CI, 32.0-57.6), 13% (95% CI, 6.1-24.7), 44.4% (95% CI, 32.0-57.6), and 72.2% (95% CI, 59.0-82.5), respectively. We identified potential zoonotic virulence genes in all of these four bacterial species. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed the presence of several multidrug resistant bacterial strains in squirrels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in Bangladesh of the detection of antibiotic resistant zoonotic bacteria in Irrawaddy squirrels. The findings underpin the role of Irrawaddy squirrel as a source of pathogenic antibiotic resistant bacteria, consequently, fruit rejected because of squirrel consumption and squirrel-bites deserve more concern than previously.
- Exposure history, post-exposure prophylaxis use, and clinical characteristics of human rabies cases in China, 2006-2012. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Nov 21; 8(1):17188
- Rabies is still a public health threat in China. Evaluating the exposure history, clinical characteristics, and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) of the cases could help in identifying approaches to re...
Rabies is still a public health threat in China. Evaluating the exposure history, clinical characteristics, and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) of the cases could help in identifying approaches to reducing the number of these preventable deaths. We analysed data collected from 10,971 case-investigations conducted in China from 2006 to 2012. Most cases (n = 7,947; 92.0%) were caused by animal bites; 5,800 (55.8%) and 2,974 (28.6%) exposures were from domestic and free-roaming dogs, respectively. Only 278 (4.8%) of these domestic dogs had previously received rabies vaccination. Among all cases, 5,927 (59.7%) cases had category III wounds, 1,187 (11.7%) cases initiated the rabies PEP vaccination and 234 (3.9%) cases with category III wounds received rabies immunoglobulin. In our adjusted logistic regression model, male cases (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.44) and farmers (aOR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.10-1.77) and person older than 55 years (aOR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.01-2.17) were less likely than females and persons in other occupations or younger than 15 years to initiate PEP vaccination. The median incubation period was 66 days (interquartile range (IQR): 33-167 days). To reduce the number of human deaths due to rabies, rabies prevention campaigns targeting males and farmers and older people should be conducted. Increasing routine rabies vaccination among domestic dogs will be essential in the long term.
- Avoiding bites and scratches? Understanding the public health implication of human-bat interactions in Ghana. [Journal Article]
- ZPZoonoses Public Health 2018 Nov 14
- Zoonotic pathogens cause an estimated 70% of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in humans, affecting various aspects of human development on a global scale. The significance of bats as a so...
Zoonotic pathogens cause an estimated 70% of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in humans, affecting various aspects of human development on a global scale. The significance of bats as a source of emerging infectious diseases is being progressively appreciated. This study was undertaken post-Ebola virus disease in West Africa and assessed the public health implications of human-bat interactions by exploring the reasons for contact between humans and bats, as well as reported actions taken upon experiencing bat bites or scratches. The paper highlights the nuances of human-bat interactions, stressing zoonotic disease risk awareness as well as the sources of information. The study used questionnaires to solicit information from 788 respondents in five communities with significant bat populations. We show that bat consumption was one of the main reasons for human-bat interactions. More men across the various communities ate bat meat. Only a small number of respondents (4.4%) reported being bitten by a bat, and 6.1% had been scratched by a bat. More than 21% had come into direct contact with bat blood. An even lower number went to the hospital after been bitten or scratched by bats. There was little knowledge on post-exposure management. The most common places human-bat interactions occurred were at home and on farms. Seventy-three per cent of the respondents believed that bats carried diseases, with Ebola virus disease being the most mentioned. Respondents indicated that the way they interacted with bats had not changed, even though they believed bats carried diseases and 46% stated that they had not changed the way they interacted with bats over the last two years. Apart from providing information on avoiding bites and scratches, a more holistic framework is needed to reduce human-bat interactions. The paper recommends a comprehensive and coordinated approach to optimizing an effective response to a potential bat-borne zoonotic disease spillover.
- Paralytic rabies in a goat. [Journal Article]
- BVBMC Vet Res 2018 Nov 12; 14(1):338
- CONCLUSIONS: IHC revealed the widespread distribution of rabies virus antigen in the goat's CNS, contrasting the discrete pathological changes. In this goat, definitive diagnosis of paralytic rabies was obtained through the association of epidemiological, clinical, laboratorial, pathological findings (histology and IHC) and gold standard confirmatory tests (dFAT and MIT).
- [Niños con mordeduras de animales hospitalizados en un centro de referencia de Uruguay]. [Journal Article]
- BMBol Med Hosp Infant Mex 2018; 75(6):358-365
- CONCLUSIONS: A total of 106 children were hospitalized due to animal bites. The most affected were males under 5 years old. Most of them were bitten at home or nearby. Dogs and rodents were the most involved animals. There were predominantly head and limb lesions, mostly mild and superficial. Complications occurred in 77.4% of cases, mainly infectious and aesthetic-functional.
- Innovative Immunization Strategies for Antivenom Development. [Review]
- TToxins (Basel) 2018 Nov 02; 10(11)
- Snakes, scorpions, and spiders are venomous animals that pose a threat to human health, and severe envenomings from the bites or stings of these animals must be treated with antivenom. Current antive...
Snakes, scorpions, and spiders are venomous animals that pose a threat to human health, and severe envenomings from the bites or stings of these animals must be treated with antivenom. Current antivenoms are based on plasma-derived immunoglobulins or immunoglobulin fragments from hyper-immunized animals. Although these medicines have been life-saving for more than 120 years, opportunities to improve envenoming therapy exist. In the later decades, new biotechnological tools have been applied with the aim of improving the efficacy, safety, and affordability of antivenoms. Within the avenues explored, novel immunization strategies using synthetic peptide epitopes, recombinant toxins (or toxoids), or DNA strings as immunogens have demonstrated potential for generating antivenoms with high therapeutic antibody titers and broad neutralizing capacity. Furthermore, these approaches circumvent the need for venom in the production process of antivenoms, thereby limiting some of the complications associated with animal captivity and venom collection. Finally, an important benefit of innovative immunization approaches is that they are often compatible with existing antivenom manufacturing setups. In this review, we compile all reported studies examining venom-independent innovative immunization strategies for antivenom development. In addition, a brief description of toxin families of medical relevance found in snake, scorpion, and spider venoms is presented, as well as how biochemical, bioinformatic, and omics tools could aid the development of next-generation antivenoms.
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- Identification of a linear B-cell epitope in the catalytic domain of bothropasin, a metalloproteinase from Bothrops jararaca snake venom. [Journal Article]
- MIMol Immunol 2018; 104:20-26
- Bothropasin is a hemorrhagic snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP) from Bothrops jararaca venom, the snake responsible for most bites in Southeastern Brazil. SVMPs, such as bothropasin, are involved i...
Bothropasin is a hemorrhagic snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP) from Bothrops jararaca venom, the snake responsible for most bites in Southeastern Brazil. SVMPs, such as bothropasin, are involved in the main bothropic envenoming symptoms, which include hemorrhage, inflammation, necrosis and blood coagulation deficiency. B-cell epitope mapping of SVMPs can lead to the identification of peptides capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies without causing toxic effects, therefore improving anti-venom production. Here, using the SPOT synthesis technique, we have identified an epitope located in the catalytic domain of bothropasin (202KARMYELANIVNEILRYLYMH222) which was synthesized and named BotEp1. The peptide was used to immunize Swiss mice and Anti-BotEp1 serum cross-reacted with bothropasin and crude venoms from B. jararaca and B. atrox venoms. Furthermore, Anti-BotEp1 antibodies were able to completely neutralize the hemorrhagic activity of a chromatographic fraction from B. jararaca venom, which contains hemorrhagic SVMPs. In addition, the coagulation activity of the hemorrhagic fraction showed to be diminished when tested in serum from rabbit immunized with BotEp1 (compared to serum from non-immunized animal). Our results show the identification of neutralizing epitopes in bothropasin and provide basis for the use of synthetic peptides to improve the production of immunotherapeutics.