- Oral and Dental Examination Findings in Beech Martens (Martes foina). [Journal Article]
- JCJ Comp Pathol 2018; 163:10-17
- Detailed clinical and radiographical descriptions of oral/dental pathology in the beech marten (Martes foina) are lacking. In the present study, skulls of M. foina from a museum collection (n = 109) ...
Detailed clinical and radiographical descriptions of oral/dental pathology in the beech marten (Martes foina) are lacking. In the present study, skulls of M. foina from a museum collection (n = 109) were examined macroscopically according to predefined criteria and full-mouth dental radiographs were obtained. Occlusion was diagnosed as 'scissor bite' in 22.5% of evaluated skulls, 77% of evaluated skulls showed 'level bite' of incisors and 9.2% of evaluated skulls had 'open bites'. In three skulls, class III malocclusion was diagnosed. Linguoversion of the mandibular second incisor teeth was noted in all skulls. Of the maximum possible number of teeth (i.e. full set of teeth in each skull), 90.4% were available for examination, 6.4% were missing artifactually, 2.0% were absent presumably congenitally and in 1.2 % the absence was presumably acquired. In three skulls supernumerary teeth were noted, all being incisor teeth. In four skulls, unerupted maxillary canine teeth were noted and in one skull odontodysplasia of the maxillary canine teeth was diagnosed. All other teeth were considered normal in morphology. The number of roots per tooth varied in the mandibular second premolar, maxillary first molar and mandibular second molar teeth. The most common dental pathology was attrition/abrasion with 72 skulls (66%) and 857 teeth (24.1% of evaluated teeth) affected, followed by periodontal disease affecting 52 (47.7%) of skulls and 773 teeth (18.9% of evaluated teeth). Dental fractures were present in 49 (45%) skulls and 148 teeth (3.8% of evaluated teeth). Radiographically evident periapical lesions were detected in 11 (10.1%) skulls and 18 teeth (0.5% of evaluated teeth). Other rare abnormal findings included tooth resorption, enamel hypoplasia/hypocalcification, fenestrations at palatal root of maxillary first molar tooth and different bony changes.
- Companion animals and human health: benefits, challenges, and the road ahead for human-animal interaction. [Journal Article]
- RSRev Sci Tech 2018; 37(1):71-82
- There is ample evidence that human-animal interaction (HAI) is associated with health. Studies encompass three general categories: those that compare companion animal owners with individuals who do n...
There is ample evidence that human-animal interaction (HAI) is associated with health. Studies encompass three general categories: those that compare companion animal owners with individuals who do not own companion animals, those examining brief, 'one-off' contacts with animals, and those that review animal-assisted interventions. The health benefits demonstrated typically include reductions in depression and loneliness, while enhancing social interaction or social skills, and decreasing anxiety and arousal. Other health benefits associated with companion animals include the promotion of exercise or physical activity. The types of human-animal contact that have been evaluated include visual contact, physical contact, and looking at images of animals. The species used in interventions include dogs, cats, horses, rabbits, goats, hamsters and crickets. Despite these benefits, HAIs are also associated with problems, including allergies, asthma, zoonoses, animal bites and scratches, and human falls. Other problems include grief and negative emotions when a companion animal is injured or dies. Companion animal ownership is also expensive. Inconsistent policies concerning keeping animals in housing and enabling service animals to access public places make it difficult to live with companion animals or keep service animals in some circumstances. Additional research is needed to provide an evidence base to evaluate the efficacy of particular types of HAI using a given type of animal. This will document specific outcomes for an individual with certain characteristics and assist in promoting the future use of HAI to enhance human and animal health and well-being.
- Pasteurella multocida multiple intrapelvic abscesses in a young woman with uterine cervical cancer. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Infect Chemother 2018 Sep 05
- Pasteurella multocida, a zoonotic pathogen in humans, is known to be associated with skin and soft tissue infections following animal bites, but rarely causes visceral infections. We report a case of...
Pasteurella multocida, a zoonotic pathogen in humans, is known to be associated with skin and soft tissue infections following animal bites, but rarely causes visceral infections. We report a case of P. multocida-associated multiple intrapelvic abscesses in a young woman with uterine cervical cancer. A 29-year-old unmarried woman was referred to us because of prolonged high fever accompanying abdominal pain with muscular guarding. She had a domestic cat but denied of any bites or scratches before that. Computed tomography demonstrated ascites and multiple abscesses around her uterus. Her condition did not improve with an initial treatment with flomoxef, clindamycin, and azithromycin. Further, we performed percutaneous pus drainage and switched the antimicrobial therapy to a combination of piperacillin/tazobactam and minocycline for 10 days. Although P. multocida was isolated from vaginal culture, no organisms were isolated from the pus culture. However, further investigation with specimen-direct 16S rDNA analysis diagnosed P. multocida as possibly a single pathogen responsible for the intrapelvic infection. After taking oral levofloxacin for two weeks, no recurrence was reported. Although P. multocida is known as an animal-related pathogen, it can transmit to humans without apparent bites or scratches. The present case illustrates that P. multocida can cause intrapelvic abscess as a result of ascending genital infection.
- Human rabies in Côte d'Ivoire 2014-2016: Results following reinforcements to rabies surveillance. [Journal Article]
- PNPLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018; 12(9):e0006649
- In Côte d'Ivoire, rabies is endemic and remains largely uncontrolled. The numbers of human exposures and rabies cases are unknown and are probably much higher than reported. Data on human rabies case...
In Côte d'Ivoire, rabies is endemic and remains largely uncontrolled. The numbers of human exposures and rabies cases are unknown and are probably much higher than reported. Data on human rabies cases are collected by the National Institute of Public Health (NIPH) Anti-rabies Center in Abidjan through a network of 28 NIPH local units, which cover the population of the entire country. During 2014, the NIPH initiated a program to reinforce the human rabies surveillance system in those 28 NIPH local units, with specific goals of improving the infrastructure, training, communication, and government involvement. Here, we report the progress and findings during 2014-2016. The reinforced system recorded 50 cases of human rabies (15-18 cases/year; annual incidence = 0.06-0.08 per 100,000) and more than 30,000 animal exposures (annual incidence = 41.8-48.0 per 100,000). Almost one-half of the human rabies cases were in children ≤15 years old. All were fatal and dog bites were the most common route by which rabies virus was transmitted. In the 32 cases where samples of sufficient quality for analysis were available, rabies was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR. Post-exposure prophylaxis with rabies vaccine was administered to all animal exposure victims presenting at the NIPH local units, although only about 57% completed the full immunization schedule. All available reports were provided by the NIPH local units, indicating effective communication between them and the NIPH Anti-rabies Center. These findings indicate that the reinforcements resulted in highly specific detection of human rabies, provided detailed epidemiological data about these cases, and improved estimates of animal exposure numbers. These represent substantial advances, but further improvements to the surveillance system are needed to increase disease awareness and capture cases that are currently missed by the system. In the future, better communication between local health centers and the NIPH units, surveillance at the local health center level, and increased veterinarian engagement will help provide a more complete picture of the rabies burden in Côte d'Ivoire.
- Francisella tularensis bacteraemia causing multi-organ failure. [Journal Article]
- OMOxf Med Case Reports 2018; 2018(9):omy067
- Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by the gram-negative coccobacillus Francisella tularensis. The bacterium can be transmitted in several ways including direct contact with animal reservoirs, ingestion, ...
Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by the gram-negative coccobacillus Francisella tularensis. The bacterium can be transmitted in several ways including direct contact with animal reservoirs, ingestion, inhalation and bites, and typical clinical symptoms are headache, fever, diarrhea and dyspnea. Francisella tularensis has two predominant subspecies (ssp), namely ssp. tularensis and ssp. holarctica. Ssp. holarctica is less virulent and does usually not cause fatal disease. We here present a 51-year-old male with sepsis and multi-organ failure caused by F. tularensis ssp. holarctica infection suggesting that atypical agents including F. tularensis should be considered in patients presenting symptoms of infections without response to standard treatments.
- Pasteurella multocida line infection: a case report and review of literature. [Journal Article]
- BIBMC Infect Dis 2018 Aug 23; 18(1):420
- CONCLUSIONS: Pasteurella Multocida bacteremia in the presence of a long-term central venous catheter is potentially curable using 2 weeks of intravenous antibiotics and line retention. Further data regarding outcomes of treatment in this setting are required though in select cases clinicians faced with a similar scenario could opt for trial of intravenous therapy and retention of central venous catheter.
- Comparison of the dynamics of Japanese encephalitis virus circulation in sentinel pigs between a rural and a peri-urban setting in Cambodia. [Journal Article]
- PNPLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018; 12(8):e0006644
- Japanese encephalitis is mainly considered a rural disease, but there is growing evidence of a peri-urban and urban transmission in several countries, including Cambodia. We, therefore, compared the ...
Japanese encephalitis is mainly considered a rural disease, but there is growing evidence of a peri-urban and urban transmission in several countries, including Cambodia. We, therefore, compared the epidemiologic dynamic of Japanese encephalitis between a rural and a peri-urban setting in Cambodia. We monitored two cohorts of 15 pigs and determined the force of infection-rate at which seronegative pigs become positive-in two study farms located in a peri-urban and rural area, respectively. We also studied the mosquito abundance and diversity in proximity of the pigs, as well as the host densities in both areas. All the pigs seroconverted before the age of 6 months. The force of infection was 0.061 per day (95% confidence interval = 0.034-0.098) in the peri-urban cohort and 0.069 per day (95% confidence interval = 0.047-0.099) in the rural cohort. Several differences in the epidemiologic dynamic of Japanese encephalitis between both study sites were highlighted. The later virus amplification in the rural cohort may be linked to the later waning of maternal antibodies, but also to the higher pig density in direct proximity of the studied pigs, which could have led to a dilution of mosquito bites at the farm level. The force of infection was almost identical in both the peri-urban and the rural farms studied, which shifts the classic epidemiologic cycle of the virus. This study is a first step in improving our understanding of Japanese encephalitis virus ecology in different environments with distinct landscapes, human and animal densities.
- Intra-aural tick bite causing unilateral facial nerve palsy in 29 cases over 16 years in Kandy, Sri Lanka: is rickettsial aetiology possible? [Journal Article]
- BIBMC Infect Dis 2018 Aug 22; 18(1):418
- CONCLUSIONS: On contrary to popular toxin theory, we were able to demonstrate treatable rickettsial aetio-pathology as the cause of otoacariasis associated lower motor facial palsy in Sri Lanka.
- Long term trends and spatial distribution of animal bite injuries and deaths due to human rabies infection in Uganda, 2001-2015. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(8):e0198568
- CONCLUSIONS: Animal bite injuries, a potential exposure to rabies infection, and mortality attributed to rabies infection are public health challenges affecting all regions of Uganda. Eliminating rabies requires strengthening of rabies prevention and control strategies at all levels of the health sector. These strategies should utilize the "One Health" approach with strategic focus on strengthening rabies surveillance, controlling rabies in dogs and ensuring availability of post exposure prophylaxis at lower health facilities.
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- Bionomics and vectorial role of anophelines in wetlands along the volcanic chain of Cameroon. [Journal Article]
- PVParasit Vectors 2018 Aug 14; 11(1):471
- CONCLUSIONS: The present study represents detailed Anopheles vector characterisation from an understudied area along the volcanic chain of Cameroon with endemic malaria transmission. The significant differences in bionomics and Anopheles species distribution within the studied wetlands, highlights the importance of providing baseline data and an opportunity to assess the outcome of ongoing malaria control interventions in the country.