- Photosynthetic and antioxidant response of wheat to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) contamination in the soil. [Journal Article]
- CChemosphere 2018 Jun 14; 209:258-267
- Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a commonly used, artificially-synthesized, industrial chemical that can be released into the soil. However, to date, there is no comprehensive study on the effect...
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a commonly used, artificially-synthesized, industrial chemical that can be released into the soil. However, to date, there is no comprehensive study on the effects of DEHP on photosynthesis, induction of reactive oxygen species, and response of the antioxidant defense system in wheat plants growing in DEHP contaminated soil. This study was conducted to address this gap in knowledge. Our results showed that after application of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg DEHP, photosynthetic parameters, fluorescence parameters, and chlorophyll content of wheat leaves at seedling, jointing, and booting stages decreased, while the intercellular carbon dioxide concentration increased. This indicates that the observed decrease in net photosynthetic rate in wheat leaves was due to a non-stomatal limitation, wherein DEHP seems to have hindered the photoelectron transfer process. Both superoxide anion (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content increased in the roots, stems, and leaves in plant under DEHP treatment compared with those in the control plants. Antioxidant enzyme activity increased with increasing DEHP stress, except under the 40 mg/kg treatment at the seedling stage. The antioxidant system had a certain protective effect on wheat, but DEHP still caused peroxidation of cell membrane lipids. The extent of DEHP damage to the roots, stems, and leaves was concentration dependent. Furthermore, enzymatic activity tolerance increased with metabolism, and long-term effects of DEHP gradually decreased with plant growth. Finally, the toxic effects of DEHP on root tissues were more serious at the seedling and jointing stages.
- AGE-RELATED CHANGES IN HEMATOLOGY AND BLOOD BIOCHEMISTRY VALUES IN ENDANGERED, WILD RING-TAILED LEMURS ( LEMUR CATTA) AT THE BEZÀ MAHAFALY SPECIAL RESERVE, MADAGASCAR. [Journal Article]
- JZJ Zoo Wildl Med 2018; 49(1):30-47
- The health of 44 wild ring-tailed lemurs ( Lemur catta) at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve was assessed across three age classes: <5 yr (young), 5-9 yr (adult), and ≥10 yr (old). Hematology and bio...
The health of 44 wild ring-tailed lemurs ( Lemur catta) at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve was assessed across three age classes: <5 yr (young), 5-9 yr (adult), and ≥10 yr (old). Hematology and biochemistry tests were performed manually (leukocyte count and differential, packed cell volume, total protein) and using a point-of-care analyzer (hematocrit, hemoglobin, glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, sodium, potassium, chloride, ionized calcium, total carbon dioxide, anion gap), respectively. Urine specific gravity was measured via refractometry. Age- and sex-related differences were detected. Old lemurs had significantly lower lymphocyte count than adult and young lemurs, leading to markedly lower total leukocyte count and higher neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. Decreased lymphocyte count with advanced age is consistent with immunosenescence. Young lemurs had significantly higher total protein, monocyte count, and potassium than adult and old lemurs but significantly lower ionized calcium than adult lemurs. Males had significantly higher leukocyte, neutrophil, and monocyte counts; lower percentage basophils; and higher blood urea nitrogen than females. Females had markedly higher glucose than males. Young females had the highest monocyte count and total protein, which were significantly lower in the adult and old age classes. Basophil count was stable in females across age but dropped precipitously in males in the adult and old age classes. Within adult and old age classes, males had significantly higher blood urea nitrogen and lower basophils than females. Glucose was significantly higher after α2 agonist administration. Identifying age-related hematologic and biochemical changes in apparently healthy wild ring-tailed lemurs will aid in clinical diagnosis and treatment of lemurs in human care, which is especially relevant for management of geriatric animals in zoo populations. Equally important, a better understanding of the ability of aging lemurs to tolerate environmental stressors will inform the capacity for this species to cope with ongoing and future habitat alteration.
- Comparison of acid-base and electrolyte changes following administration of 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.42 in a saline and a polyionic solution in anaesthetized dogs. [Journal Article]
- VAVet Anaesth Analg 2018; 45(3):260-268
- CONCLUSIONS: Changes in both groups were minor and short-lived with either fluid in healthy individuals, but might become clinically relevant with higher fluid doses or in critically ill dogs.
- Radiosensitization by Liposome-Encapsulated Fullerenes to Mitochondria/DNA-Damages on Human Melanoma Cells. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nanosci Nanotechnol 2018 Jun 01; 18(6):3775-3786
- The polyhydroxy small-gap fullerenes [C120O30(OH)30 · 30H2O · 25Na+: SGFs] were encapsulated in multilamellar liposomes (Lpsm) composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and 1,2-diol...
The polyhydroxy small-gap fullerenes [C120O30(OH)30 · 30H2O · 25Na+: SGFs] were encapsulated in multilamellar liposomes (Lpsm) composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (DOPS), which are designated as LpsmSGFs (DOPC/DOPS/SGFs = 35 mM:15 mM:246-445 μM, diameter = 141.2 nm, ζ-potential = -35.65 mV). Radiosensitization by LpsmSGFs under X-ray irradiation was evaluated on human melanoma HMV-II cells. On 7th day after X-ray irradiation, cell proliferation degree assessed by WST-8 decreased more markedly on cells pretreated with LpsmSGFs than Lpsm or free-SGFs. Fluorescent imaging of cells with Rhodamine123, dihydroethidium or anti-8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine antibody was monitored as an indicator for mitochondrial membrane potentials, intracellular superoxide anion radicals (O˙-2) or oxidative DNA-damages, respectively. After X-ray irradiation, LpsmSGFs obviously exhibited more augmented mitochondrial membrane potentials on perinuclear region of cells than Lpsm or free-SGFs. Without X-ray irradiation, superoxide anion radicals were found principally in the cytoplasm, but, when exposed to X-ray, they were found in cell nuclei associated with oxidative DNA-damages on cells pretreated with LpsmSGFs. Meanwhile, the oxidation-reduction potentials of SGFs aqueous solution increased by X-ray irradiation. These results suggest that LpsmSGFs-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species results in damages to cellular components such as mitochondria and DNA on cells, and thereby cell proliferation decreased. The LpsmSGFs has a potential as a pro-oxidative type radiosensitizer.
- Predictors of acute gastrointestinal bleeding in diabetic ketoacidosis: a retrospective observational study in minority population. [Journal Article]
- GRGastroenterol Rep (Oxf) 2017; 5(4):293-297
- CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that higher initial serum blood glucose was associated with increased incidence of AGIB in patients admitted with DKA. We also noted increased in-patient mortality in patients with DKA who had AGIB, even though statistically insignificant. More aggressive measures to correct blood glucose levels may result in decreased incidence of AGIB, thereby reducing mortality during hospitalization in patients with DKA.
- Age-dependent physiological dynamics in acid-base balance, electrolytes, and blood metabolites in growing goats. [Journal Article]
- VJVet J 2017; 229:45-52
- There is a paucity of published data reporting acid-base equilibrium in goats, and no information is available on how the acid-base complexity changes when suckling goat kids become ruminants. The ai...
There is a paucity of published data reporting acid-base equilibrium in goats, and no information is available on how the acid-base complexity changes when suckling goat kids become ruminants. The aims of this study were to evaluate young healthy goats for age-related changes in serum proteins, metabolites, and electrolytes; differences in results when the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation or strong ion approaches were used were also assessed. To assess biological variability and reproducibility, two consecutive long-term studies, each lasting from the 6th to 56th week of life (wl), were performed in 15 (Study 1) and 10 (Study 2) animals. Blood gas analysis, serum biochemical analysis, and electrophoresis were performed on venous blood, and acid-base information was obtained using the traditional Henderson-Hasselbalch approach, Stewart's strong ion model, and Constable's simplified strong ion model. In all goats within the first 4-5 months, serum concentrations of glucose, l-lactate, and inorganic phosphate decreased significantly, while serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, and gamma globulin increased. Consequently, nonvolatile weak acids (Atot Alb and Atot TP) increased. At the end of this 'adaptation period', i.e. when milk was replaced by purely plant-based food, significantly lower bicarbonate and base excess values were accompanied by blood pH that shifted towards acidosis. Electrolytes (Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Cl-), anion gap, strong ion difference, and strong ion gap did not show age-dependent trends. In conclusion, somatic growth and development of gastro-intestinal fermentation in growing goats act as complex sources of physiological variability on acid-base equilibrium that was not reflected by the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation only.
- Spurious Hyperchloremia in the Presence of Elevated Plasma Salicylate: A Cohort Study. [Journal Article]
- NNephron 2018; 138(3):186-191
- CONCLUSIONS: Circulating levels of salicylate can interfere with chloride measured by using routine techniques, resulting in spurious hyperchloremia outcomes and erroneous AG values. In patients with acute metabolic acidosis and abnormally reduced or negative AG, salicylate interference with chloride measurement should be suspected.
- Theoretical Probing of Weak Anion-Cation Interactions in Certain Pyridinium-Based Ionic Liquid Ion Pairs and the Application of Molecular Electrostatic Potential in Their Ionic Crystal Density Determination: A Comparative Study Using Density Functional Approach. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Phys Chem A 2018 Jan 11; 122(1):328-340
- A comprehensive study on the structure, nature of interaction, and properties of six ionic pairs of 1-butylpyridinium and 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium cations in combination with tetrafluoroborate (BF4...
A comprehensive study on the structure, nature of interaction, and properties of six ionic pairs of 1-butylpyridinium and 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium cations in combination with tetrafluoroborate (BF4-), chloride (Cl-), and bromide (Br-) anions have been carried out using density functional theory (DFT). The anion-cation interaction energy (ΔEint), thermochemistry values, theoretical band gap, molecular orbital energy order, DFT-based chemical activity descriptors [chemical potential (μ), chemical hardness (η), and electrophilicity index (ω)], and distribution of density of states (DOS) of these ion pairs were investigated. The ascendancy of the -CH3substituent at the fourth position of the 1-butylpyridinium cation ring on the values of ΔEint, theoretical band gap and chemical activity descriptors was evaluated. The ΔEintvalues were negative for all six ion pairs and were highest for Cl-containing ion pairs. The theoretical band gap value after -CH3substitution increased from 3.78 to 3.96 eV (for Cl-) and from 2.74 to 2.88 eV (for Br-) and decreased from 4.9 to 4.89 eV (for BF4-). Ion pairs of BF4-were more susceptible to charge transfer processes as inferred from their significantly high η values and comparatively small difference in ω value after -CH3substitution. The change in η and μ values due to the -CH3substituent is negligibly small in all cases except for the ion pairs of Cl-. Critical-point (CP) analyses were carried out to investigate the AIM topological parameters at the interionic bond critical points (BCPs). The RDG isosurface analysis indicated that the anion-cation interaction was dominated by strong Hcat···Xaniand Ccat···Xaniinteractions in ion pairs of Cl-and Br-whereas a weak van der Waal's effect dominated in ion pairs of BF4-. The molecular electrostatic potential (MESP)-based parameter ΔΔVminmeasuring the anion-cation interaction strength showed a good linear correlation with ΔEintfor all 1-butylpyridinium ion pairs (R2= 0.9918). The ionic crystal density values calculated by using DFT-based MESP showed only slight variations from experimentally reported values.
- Blood parameters as biomarkers in a Salmonella spp. disease model of weaning piglets. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2017; 12(10):e0186781
- The weaning pig is used as an experimental model to assess the impact of diet on intestinal health. Blood parameters (BP) are considered a useful tool in humans, but there is very scarce information ...
The weaning pig is used as an experimental model to assess the impact of diet on intestinal health. Blood parameters (BP) are considered a useful tool in humans, but there is very scarce information of such indicators in the weaning pig. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the use of different BP as indicators in an experimental model of salmonellosis.
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- Renal Tubular Acidosis in Patients with Primary Sjögren's Syndrome. [Journal Article]
- EBElectrolyte Blood Press 2017; 15(1):17-22
- Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the exocrine glands resulting in decreased saliva and tear production. It uncommonly involves the kidneys in various f...
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the exocrine glands resulting in decreased saliva and tear production. It uncommonly involves the kidneys in various forms, including tubulointerstitial nephritis, renal tubular acidosis, Fanconi syndrome, and rarely glomerulonephritis. Its clinical symptoms include muscle weakness, periodic paralysis, and bone pain due to metabolic acidosis and electrolyte imbalance. Herein, we describe the cases of two women with pSS whose presenting symptoms involve the kidneys. They had hypokalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis due to distal renal tubular acidosis and positive anti-SS-A and anti-SS-B autoantibodies. Since one of them experienced femoral fracture due to osteomalacia secondary to renal tubular acidosis, an earlier diagnosis of pSS is important in preventing serious complications.