- Green drugs in the fight against Anisakis simplex-larvicidal activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition of Origanum compactum essential oil. [Journal Article]
- PRParasitol Res 2018 Jan 24
- Anisakiasis is a fish-borne parasitic disease caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked fish, as well as cephalopods, contaminated by third instar larvae (L3) of species belonging to the genus ...
Anisakiasis is a fish-borne parasitic disease caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked fish, as well as cephalopods, contaminated by third instar larvae (L3) of species belonging to the genus Anisakis (Anisakidae). Origanum compactum is a small herbaceous aromatic plant endemic to Spain and Morocco. In Morocco, the plant is used under infusion to treat heart diseases and intestinal pains or as preservative for foodstuffs. This is the first time that the O. compactum essential oil is tested against the parasitic nematode Anisakis simplex. The phytochemical analysis by GC-MS revealed carvacrol (50.3%) and thymol (14.8%) as the major oil constituents. The essential oil and its major constituents carvacrol and thymol were tested against A. simplex L3 larvae isolated from blue whiting fish (Micromesistius poutassou). A. simplex mortality (%) after 24 and 48 h of treatment at 1 μl/ml was 100%, with a low LD50compared with other essential oils and extracts, and the penetration in the agar assay was also reduced, if compared with control wells. The oil, as well as its major constituents, demonstrated a dose-dependent larvicidal activity. Inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase through a colorimetric assay in 96-well plates was used to elucidate the pharmacological mechanism as this enzyme plays a key role in nematodes neuromuscular function. Interestingly, O. compactum essential oil, carvacrol and thymol inhibited the enzyme, confirming that this could be one of the mechanisms involved in the anthelmintic activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that O. compactum essential oil is reported as a larvicidal agent against A. simplex L3 larvae.
- Pathogenic Potential of Fresh, Frozen, and Thermally Treated Anisakis spp. Type II (L3) (Nematoda: Anisakidae) after Oral Inoculation into Wistar Rats: A Histopathological Study. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nematol 2017; 49(4):427-436
- The third-stage (L3) larvae of Anisakis are the etiological agents of human anisakiasis caused by consumption of raw or undercooked seafood infected with anisakid nematodes. Infection with these worm...
The third-stage (L3) larvae of Anisakis are the etiological agents of human anisakiasis caused by consumption of raw or undercooked seafood infected with anisakid nematodes. Infection with these worms is associated with abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhea and can lead to massive infiltration of eosinophils and the formation of granulomas in the gastrointestinal tract if the larvae are not removed. Food allergy affects populations worldwide, and despite several reports on the presence of the potentially zoonotic nematodes among edible fishes in Egypt, there are few immunological and molecular studies investigating the epidemiology of these parasites. Anisakidosis, a human infection with nematodes of the family Anisakidae, is caused most commonly by Anisakis spp. In the present study, seventy specimens of the European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax commercialized in Alexandria city along the Mediterranean Sea were acquired during the period from July to December, 2015. Fish were necropsied and dissected to investigate the presence of nematode larvae. Thirty fish (42.9%) of the total were parasitized by nematode larvae which were morphologically identified as Anisakis spp. Type II (L3) according to light and scanning electron microscopy. The pathogenic potential of oral inoculation of fresh, frozen, and thermally treated larvae into Wistar rats was elucidated by histological examination of their thymus and spleen. Results obtained indicated that neither cooling nor freezing of the parasite could destroy their allergenic capacity. So, it is important to create a wider awareness of this potential risk to human health. It is becoming increasingly likely that the impact of Anisakis spp. on human health has been underestimated, and it is perhaps time to consider more sweeping measures than those currently enforced to protect the public health.
- Anisakiasis Involving the Oral Mucosa. [Journal Article]
- ACArch Craniofac Surg 2017; 18(4):261-263
- Anisakis is a parasite with life cycles involving fish and marine mammals. Human infection, anisakiasis, occurs with the ingestion of raw infected seafood and usually presents with acute or chronic g...
Anisakis is a parasite with life cycles involving fish and marine mammals. Human infection, anisakiasis, occurs with the ingestion of raw infected seafood and usually presents with acute or chronic gastrointestinal symptoms from esophageal or gastric invasion. We report a rare caseinvolving the oral cavity. A 39-year-old male presented with oral and sub-sternal pain of one day duration after eating raw cuttlefish. Physical examination revealed areas of erythema and edema with a central white foreign particle on the labial and buccal mucosa. With microscopic field we could remove the foreign material from the lesions. The foreign material was confirmed to be Anisakis. Anisakis was also removed from the esophagus by esophagogastroduodenoscopy. The patient was discharged the following day without complication. Anisakiasis is frequently reported in Korea and Japan, countries where raw seafood ingestion is popular. The symptoms of acute anisakiasis include pain, nausea, and vomiting and usually begin 2-12 hours after ingestion. The differential diagnosis includes food poisoning, acute gastritis, and acute pancreatitis. A history of raw seafood ingestion is important to the diagnosis of anisakiasis. Treatment is complete removal of the Anisakis to relieve acute symptoms and prevent chronic granulomatous inflammation.
- Tissue-specific transcriptomes of Anisakis simplex (sensu stricto) and Anisakis pegreffii reveal potential molecular mechanisms involved in pathogenicity. [Journal Article]
- PVParasit Vectors 2018 Jan 10; 11(1):31
- CONCLUSIONS: This work provides the scientific community with a list of key transcripts expressed by AS and AP pharyngeal tissues and corresponding annotation information which represents a ready-to-use resource for future functional studies of biological pathways specifically involved in host-parasite interplay.
- Detection of Anisakid Larvae in Marinated Mackerel Sushi in Tokyo, Japan. [Journal Article]
- JJJpn J Infect Dis 2018 Jan 23; 71(1):88-89
- Colonic Anisakiasis. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Med 2017 Dec 08
- Geographic and host size variations as indicators of Anisakis pegreffii infection in European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus) from the Mediterranean Sea: Food safety implications. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Food Microbiol 2018 Feb 02; 266:126-132
- European pilchards are traditionally eaten marinated or salted in the Mediterranean countries often without thermal processing or gutting due to small size. Since ingestion of live third stage Anisak...
European pilchards are traditionally eaten marinated or salted in the Mediterranean countries often without thermal processing or gutting due to small size. Since ingestion of live third stage Anisakis larvae represents a causing agent in the onset of anisakiasis, the aim of our study was to assess prevalence and intensity of Anisakis infection in European pilchards originating from different Mediterranean regions in a three-year sampling period (2013-2015). A total of 1564 specimens of European pilchard collected from two geographically distinct sampling regions (western Mediterranean and Adriatic Sea) were examined using the UV-Press method, which utilises the fluorescence of frozen anisakids in flattened and subsequently frozen fillets and viscera. A subsample of 67 isolated larvae was identified as A. pegreffii by diagnostic allozyme markers and sequence analyses of the mtDNA cox2 locus. The overall prevalence in pilchards was 12.2% (range 0-44.9% for different sampling points) and mean intensity 1.8. More importantly, we have observed an overall larval prevalence of 1.5% in fillets. The highest prevalence (44.9%) was recorded in pilchards caught in western parts of the Mediterranean. As fish host size was a significant predictor of parasite abundance, it should be highlighted that these pilchards were also the largest (mean total length 173.2mm); on average >2cm larger than the rest of the samples. Other isolated nematode species included Hysterothylacium sp. in viscera, showing almost a double of A. pegreffii prevalence, 20.1%. In summary, our study demonstrates that the presence of A. pegreffii in European pilchards from the Mediterranean Sea is highly influenced by both geographic and host size variation. This implies that, before future risk management measures are developed, these variables should be assessed in order to minimize public health concerns.
- A Multicenter Study of IgE Sensitization to Anisakis simplex and Diet Recommendation [Journal Article]
- EMEndocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2017 11 29
- CONCLUSIONS: Data obtained confirm the importance of a fish-free diet in patients with severe symptoms since a new antigenic exposure coincides with a relapse of symptoms and increased IgE levels. This last point should be kept in mind and carefully evaluated in patients at risk for anaphylaxis or angioedema.
- Modelling studies determing the mode of action of anthelmintics inhibiting in vitro trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) of Anisakis simplex s.l. [Journal Article]
- EPExp Parasitol 2018; 184:46-56
- The trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) enzyme is involved in the synthesis of trehalose, the main sugar in the energy metabolism of nematodes. TPP is a member of the HAD-like hydrolase superfami...
The trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) enzyme is involved in the synthesis of trehalose, the main sugar in the energy metabolism of nematodes. TPP is a member of the HAD-like hydrolase superfamily and shows a robust and specific phosphatase activity for the substrate trehalose-6-phosphate. The presence of conserved active sites of TPP in closely related nematodes and its absence in humans makes it a promising target for antiparasitic drugs. In the present study, homology modeling, molecular docking and MD simulation techniques were used to explore the structure and dynamics of TPP. In the active site, a magnesium ion is stabilized by 3 coordinate bonds formed by D189, D191 and D400. The key amino acids involved in ligand binding by the enzyme are C198, Y201,T357, D191 and Y197. This study relied on docking to select potential inhibitors of TPP which were tested in vitro for sensitivity to anthelmintic drugs such as levamisole and ivermectin targeting Anisakis simplex. The higher toxicity of LEV than IVM was demonstrated after 96 h, 30% of larvae were motile in cultures with 100 μg/ml of LEV and 1000 μg/ml of IVM. We identified drug combination of LEV-IVM against in vitro A. simplex as agonistic effect (CI = 1.1). Levamisole appeared to be a more effective drug which inhibited enzyme activity after 48 h and expression of mRNA after 96 h at a concentration of 10 μg/ml. This preliminary study predicted the structure of TPP, and the results of an in vitro experiment involving A. simplex will contribute to the development of effective inhibitors with potential antiparasitic activity in the future.
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- Excretory/secretory proteases and mechanical movement of Anisakis pegreffii infective larvae in the penetration of BALB/c mice gastrointestine. [Journal Article]
- KJKaohsiung J Med Sci 2017; 33(12):594-601
- Anisakiasis is a human parasitic disease caused by infection with the infective larvae of Anisakis. Accidental infection in humans causes the gastrointestinal pathophysiological effects of mechanical...
Anisakiasis is a human parasitic disease caused by infection with the infective larvae of Anisakis. Accidental infection in humans causes the gastrointestinal pathophysiological effects of mechanical tissue damage by migrating larvae. The mechanism of the infective larval invasion and migration is suspected to involve larval excretory/secretory proteases and motility. This study demonstrates the penetration rate of the infective larvae of Anisakis pegreffii in mouse gastrointestine depends on the time after infection, and that only 15% of larvae remain in the gastrointestinal tract 3 h after infection. Strong activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and serine proteases, especially plasmin, were found in the excretory/secretory products of A. pegreffii; these can be inhibited by ONO-4817 and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, respectively. The protease activity was also significantly decreased in another 1 h of cultivation of larvae in fresh 0.9% normal saline (NS) after previous cultivation for 48 h in NS. The motility scores of larvae were significantly lower after 48 h of cultivation in NS. The penetration rate of A. pegreffii larvae in the gastrointestine of infected mice sequentially were 90% in the freshly prepared, 68% in serine protease inhibited, 55% in MMPs inhibited larvae, and 16% in larvae cultivated in NS for 48 h. Therefore, this study demonstrates that MMPs and serine proteases excreted and secreted by A. pegreffii and the mechanical movement of infective larvae participate in the penetration of the gastrointestine of mice after infection.