- The effect of nabilone on appetite, nutritional status, and quality of life in lung cancer patients: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. [Journal Article]
- SCSupport Care Cancer 2018 Mar 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Nabilone is an adequate and safe therapeutic option to aid in the treatment of patients diagnosed with anorexia. Larger trials are necessary in order to draw robust conclusions in regard to its efficacy in lung cancer patients.
- Systematic review and meta-analysis of cannabinoids in palliative medicine. [Review]
- JCJ Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2018; 9(2):220-234
- We provide a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of cannabinoids in palliative medicine. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLIN...
We provide a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of cannabinoids in palliative medicine. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and http://clinicaltrials.gov, and a selection of cancer journals were searched up until 15th of March 2017. Of the 108 screened studies, nine studies with a total of 1561 participants were included. Overall, the nine studies were at moderate risk of bias. The quality of evidence comparing cannabinoids with placebo was rated according to Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation as low or very low because of indirectness, imprecision, and potential reporting bias. In cancer patients, there were no significant differences between cannabinoids and placebo for improving caloric intake (standardized mean differences [SMD]: 0.2 95% confidence interval [CI]: [-0.66, 1.06] P = 0.65), appetite (SMD: 0.81 95% CI: [-1.14, 2.75]; P = 0.42), nausea/vomiting (SMD: 0.21 [-0.10, 0.52] P = 0.19), >30% decrease in pain (risk differences [RD]: 0.07 95% CI: [-0.01, 0.16]; P = 0.07), or sleep problems (SMD: -0.09 95% CI: [-0.62, 0.43] P = 0.72). In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients, cannabinoids were superior to placebo for weight gain (SMD: 0.57 [0.22; 0.92]; P = 0.001) and appetite (SMD: 0.57 [0.11; 1.03]; P = 0.02) but not for nausea/vomiting (SMD: 0.20 [-0.15, 0.54]; P = 0.26). Regarding side effects in cancer patients, there were no differences between cannabinoids and placebo in symptoms of dizziness (RD: 0.03 [-0.02; 0.08]; P = 0.23) or poor mental health (RD: -0.01 [-0.04; 0.03]; P = 0.69), whereas in HIV patients, there was a significant increase in mental health symptoms (RD: 0.05 [0.00; 0.11]; P = 0.05). Tolerability (measured by the number of withdrawals because of adverse events) did not differ significantly in cancer (RD: 1.15 [0.80; 1.66]; P = 0.46) and HIV patients (RD: 1.87 [0.60; 5.84]; P = 0.28). Safety did not differ in cancer (RD: 1.12 [0.86; 1.46]; P = 0.39) or HIV patients (4.51 [0.54; 37.45]; P = 0.32) although there was large uncertainty about the latter reflected in the width of the CI. In one moderate quality study of 469 cancer patients with cancer-associated anorexia, megestrol was superior to cannabinoids in improving appetite, producing >10% weight gain and tolerability. In another study comparing megestrol to dronabinol in HIV patients, megestrol treatment led to higher weight gain without any differences in tolerability and safety. We found no convincing, unbiased, high quality evidence suggesting that cannabinoids are of value for anorexia or cachexia in cancer or HIV patients.
- Bone metabolism in anorexia nervosa and hypothalamic amenorrhea. [Journal Article]
- MMetabolism 2018; 80:91-104
- Anorexia nervosa (AN) and hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) are states of chronic energy deprivation associated with severely compromised bone health. Poor bone accrual during adolescence followed by incr...
Anorexia nervosa (AN) and hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) are states of chronic energy deprivation associated with severely compromised bone health. Poor bone accrual during adolescence followed by increased bone loss results in lifelong low bone density, degraded bone architecture, and higher risk of fractures, despite recovery from AN/HA. Amenorrhea is only one of several compensatory responses to the negative energy balance. Other hypothalamic-pituitary hormones are affected and contribute to bone deficits, including activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and growth hormone resistance. Adipokines, particularly leptin, provide information on fat/energy stores, and gut hormones play a role in the regulation of appetite and food intake. Alterations in all these hormones influence bone metabolism. Restricted in scope, current pharmacologic approaches to improve bone health have had overall limited success.
- Anorexia, functional capacity, and clinical outcome in patients with chronic heart failure: results from the Studies Investigating Co-morbidities Aggravating Heart Failure (SICA-HF). [Journal Article]
- EHESC Heart Fail 2017; 4(4):448-457
- CONCLUSIONS: Inflammation, use of loop diuretics, and cachexia are associated with an increased likelihood of anorexia in patients with HF, and patients with anorexia showed impaired functional capacity and poor outcomes.
- Assessment of nutritional status using abridged scored patient-generated subjective global assessment in cancer patient. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cancer Res Ther 2017 Jul-Sep; 13(3):514-518
- CONCLUSIONS: According to the high prevalence of cancers and increasing growth of them in recent years with regard to outpatient treatment development for cancer patients, using the abPG-SGA standard questionnaire by nutritionist or nurses can be effective to detect malnourished patients and reduce complications caused by disease.
- Oncology Update: Anamorelin. [Review]
- PCPalliat Care 2017; 10:1178224217726336
- CONCLUSIONS: Anamorelin improves anorexia-cachexia symptoms in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.
- Cancer Cachexia: Cause, Diagnosis, and Treatment. [Journal Article]
- NCNutr Clin Pract 2017; 32(5):599-606
- Patients with cancer frequently experience unintended weight loss due to gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction caused by the malignancy or treatment of the malignancy. However, others may present with we...
Patients with cancer frequently experience unintended weight loss due to gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction caused by the malignancy or treatment of the malignancy. However, others may present with weight loss related to other symptoms not clearly associated with identifiable GI dysfunction such as anorexia and early satiety. Cancer cachexia (CC) is a multifactorial syndrome that is generally characterized by ongoing loss of skeletal muscle mass with or without fat loss, often accompanied by anorexia, weakness, and fatigue. CC is associated with poor tolerance of antitumor treatments, reduced quality of life (QOL), and negative impact on survival. Symptoms associated with CC are thought to be caused in part by tumor-induced changes in host metabolism that result in systemic inflammation and abnormal neurohormonal responses. Unfortunately, there is no single standard treatment for CC. Nutrition consequences of oncologic treatments should be identified early with nutrition screening and assessment. Pharmacologic agents directed at improving appetite and countering metabolic abnormalities that cause inefficient nutrient utilization are currently the foundation for treating CC. Multiple agents have been investigated for their effects on weight, muscle wasting, and QOL. However, few are commercially available for use. Considerations for choosing the most appropriate treatment include effect on appetite, weight, QOL, risk of adverse effects, and cost and availability of the agent.
- Overcoming obstacles in the design of cancer anorexia/weight loss trials. [Review]
- CRCrit Rev Oncol Hematol 2017; 117:30-37
- Most advanced cancer patients suffer loss of appetite (anorexia) and loss of weight. Despite the fact that cancer anorexia and weight loss are associated with a poor prognosis and detract from qualit...
Most advanced cancer patients suffer loss of appetite (anorexia) and loss of weight. Despite the fact that cancer anorexia and weight loss are associated with a poor prognosis and detract from quality of life, no interventions have been demonstrated to palliate this syndrome in its entirety, particularly in patients with treatment-refractory malignancies. Recently, two registration trials - one with anamorelin and another with enobosarm - failed to reach their primary endpoints, thus raising questions. Were both these agents ineffective? Alternatively, did study design issues compromise the ability of these trials to identify effective agents? Thus, this review is timely insofar it serves as an introduction to study design, offers guidance on how to test promising agents for cancer anorexia/weight loss, and provides advice for overcoming trial design obstacles.
- Cortisol Levels and Gastrointestinal Disorders After Stressful Surgery in Rabbits. [Journal Article]
- VIn Vivo 2017 Jul-Aug; 31(4):637-640
- Rabbits are widely used in biomedical studies because they are docile and manageable. However, they are prone to gastrointestinal disorders due to their vulnerability to stress. Eighteen adult rabbit...
Rabbits are widely used in biomedical studies because they are docile and manageable. However, they are prone to gastrointestinal disorders due to their vulnerability to stress. Eighteen adult rabbits were used for allogenic tracheal surgery. The tracheas for allograft, 20-mm length, were transplanted into 20-mm tracheal defects. Immediately after surgery, most rabbits suffered from poor appetite. Food and water intake gradually recovered within 7 days after surgery, but six rabbits had severe anorexia from day 7 post-surgery. Four of these rabbits developed symptoms of diarrhea after surgery; three of them died several days after the onset of diarrhea, while one rabbit recovered. Gastrointestinal disorders need to be prevented in rabbits undergoing stressful surgery. Furthermore, it is important to choose the proper type and dose of analgesics in order to relieve postoperative pain. With this observation in mind, rabbits are not considered to be an appropriate model for stressful surgery.
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- Nivolumab versus standard, single-agent therapy of investigator's choice in recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (CheckMate 141): health-related quality-of-life results from a randomised, phase 3 trial. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- LOLancet Oncol 2017; 18(8):1104-1115
- CONCLUSIONS: In this exploratory analysis of CheckMate 141, nivolumab stabilised symptoms and functioning from baseline to weeks 9 and 15, whereas investigator's choice led to clinically meaningful deterioration. Nivolumab delayed time to deterioration of patient-reported quality-of-life outcomes compared with single-agent therapy of investigator's choice in patients with platinum-refractory recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. In view of the major unmet need in this population and the importance of maintaining or improving quality of life for patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, these data support nivolumab as a new standard-of-care option in this setting.