- Prolonged Amenorrhea and Resumption of Menses in Women with HIV. [Journal Article]
- JWJ Womens Health (Larchmt) 2018 Sep 14
- CONCLUSIONS: Women with HIV infection have unexplained prolonged amenorrhea more often than at-risk seronegative women. This is especially common among obese, less-educated women. Prolonged amenorrhea in the HIV-seropositive women should be evaluated and not be presumed to be to the result of menopause.
- The Association between Oligomenorrhea, Onset of Menopause and Metabolic Syndrome in Thai Postmenopausal Women. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Menopausal Med 2018; 24(2):100-107
- CONCLUSIONS: A history of oligomenorrhea did not affect the age at menopause, but was associated with waist circumference during menopause.
- Pharmacological sympathetic denervation prevents the development of polycystic ovarian syndrome in rats injected with estradiol valerate. [Journal Article]
- RBReprod Biol Endocrinol 2018 Sep 07; 16(1):86
- CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study suggest that the noradrenergic fibers play a stimulant role in the establishment of polycystic ovary syndrome.
- Effects of letrozole and clomiphene citrate on Wnt signaling pathway in endometrium of polycystic ovarian syndrome and healthy women. [Journal Article]
- BRBiol Reprod 2018 Sep 03
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. In addition to anovulation, endometrial dysfunction can reduce fertility in PCOS. The cyclical changes of endom...
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. In addition to anovulation, endometrial dysfunction can reduce fertility in PCOS. The cyclical changes of endometrium are controlled by estrogen and progesterone via modulating Wnt/B-catenin pathway. Clomiphene citrate (CC) and letrozole are used to induce ovulation; unlike letrozole, there is a discrepancy between ovulation and pregnancy rates in CC-treated cycles. Because of the anti-estrogenic effects of CC on endometrium, we compared the expression of the key molecules of Wnt/B-catenin pathway in the endometrium of women taking CC and letrozole. This study included PCOS and healthy women divided into the groups stimulated with letrozole (5 mg) or CC (100 mg) as well as NO-treatment groups. The endometrial thickness and hormonal profile were measured on day 12 of the menses.Using real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot, we evaluated mRNA and protein expression of B-catenin, glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3B), dickkopf Wnt signaling pathway inhibitor 1 (DKK1), and estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) in the endometrial samples. Significantly, the mean serum estrogen and progesterone were lower and higher, respectively, in letrozole than CC groups. The endometrial thickness was significantly reduced in CC. The proteins expression of active B-catenin, inactive GSK3B, and ESR1 were significantly decreased in CC-treated groups. The mRNA and protein assessment of DKK1 showed significantly higher expression in CC. Our results indicate that letrozole can provide an acceptable activation of Wnt/B-catenin pathway, resulting in adequate proliferation of endometrium in the women receiving letrozole compared to CC.
- Accuracy of anti-Müllerian hormone and total follicles count to diagnose polycystic ovary syndrome in reproductive women. [Journal Article]
- TJTaiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2018; 57(4):499-506
- CONCLUSIONS: Serum AMH had a good diagnostic performance for diagnosis of PCOS presenting with oligo/anovulation and hyperandrogenism. AMH threshold at 4.7 ng/mL was the best compromise level for diagnosis of PCOS. FNPO ≥15, FNPS ≥7 and OV ≥ 6.5 mL were reliable threshold for detecting polycystic ovaries in women with frank manifestation of PCOS.
- Maintenance of bone mass despite estrogen depletion in female common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus). [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Primatol 2018 Aug 14; :e22905
- Estrogen depletion leads to bone loss in almost all mammals with frequent regular ovarian cycles. However, subordinate adult female common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) undergo socially induced anov...
Estrogen depletion leads to bone loss in almost all mammals with frequent regular ovarian cycles. However, subordinate adult female common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) undergo socially induced anovulation and hypoestrogenism without clinically apparent adverse skeletal consequences. Thus, we speculated that this non human primate might have evolved a mechanism to avoid estrogen-depletion bone loss. To test this possibility, we performed three experiments in which lumbar-spine (L5-L6) bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: (i) cross-sectionally in 13 long-term ovariectomized animals and 12 age- and weight-matched controls undergoing ovulatory cycles; (ii) longitudinally in 12 animals prior to, 3-4 and 6-7 months following ovariectomy (ovx), and six controls; and (iii) cross-sectionally in nine anovulatory subordinate and nine dominant females. In Experiments 1 and 3, plasma estradiol and estrone concentrations were measured and uterine dimensions were obtained by ultrasound in a subset of animals as a marker of functional estrogen depletion. Estrogen levels, uterine trans-fundus width, and uterine dorso-ventral diameter were lower in ovariectomized and subordinate females than in those undergoing ovulatory cycles. However, no differences were found in L5-L6 BMC or BMD. These results indicate that estrogen depletion, whether surgically or socially induced, is not associated with lower bone mass in female common marmosets. Thus, this species may possess unique adaptations to avoid bone loss associated with estrogen depletion.
- Effect of rumen-protected B vitamins and choline supplementation on health, production, and reproduction in transition dairy cows. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dairy Sci 2018 Aug 09
- The objectives were to determine the effects of a rumen-protected blend of B vitamins and choline (RPBC) on the incidence of health disorders, milk yield, and reproduction in early lactation and the ...
The objectives were to determine the effects of a rumen-protected blend of B vitamins and choline (RPBC) on the incidence of health disorders, milk yield, and reproduction in early lactation and the effects on gene expression and liver fat infiltration. A randomized controlled trial in 3 commercial dairy herds (n = 1,346 cows with group as the experimental unit; experiment 1) and a university research herd (n = 50 cows with cow as the experimental unit; experiment 2) evaluated the use of 100 g/cow per d of commercially available proprietary RPBC supplement (Transition VB, Jefo, St. Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada), or a placebo, fed 3 wk before to 3 wk after calving. In experiment 2 liver biopsies were taken at 4 and 14 ± 1 d in milk to measure triacylglycerol concentrations and expression of 28 genes selected to represent relevant aspects of liver metabolism. Treatment effects were assessed using multivariable mixed logistic regression models for binary health and reproductive outcomes; linear regression models for milk yield, dry matter intake, and liver outcomes; and survival analysis for time insemination and pregnancy. In experiment 1, treatment did not have an effect on the incidence of hyperketonemia (blood β-hydroxybutyrate ≥ 1.2 mmol/L; cumulative incidence to 3 wk postpartum of 28 to 30%), clinical health disorders, or udder edema. The prevalence of anovulation at 8 wk postpartum was 11% in the treatment group and 23% in the control but did not differ statistically given group-level randomization. Pregnancy at first insemination (33 and 35%) and median time to pregnancy to 200 d in milk (96 and 97 d) were not different between treatment and control, respectively. No difference was observed between treatment groups in milk yield or components through the first 3 Dairy Herd Improvement Association test days (44 kg/d in both groups, accounting for parity and components). In experiment 2, there were no differences between treatment groups in feed intake. Mean blood β-hydroxybutyrate was lower at wk 3 in RPBC (0.6 vs. 0.9 ± 0.12 mmol/L) with no difference between treatments for mean blood concentrations of fatty acids (wk -1 or 1) and β-hydroxybutyrate at wk 1 or 2. The gene for acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1) had lower mRNA abundance in RPBC with no difference between treatments for the other genes, but the expression of half of the genes assessed differed with days in milk. Liver triacylglycerol was lower in primiparous cows at 4 d in milk in RPBC (2.0 vs. 4.4 ± 1.2%) but not at 14 d in milk (2.2 vs. 3.2 ± 0.97%) with no treatment effect in multiparous cows (4.6 ± 0.8%). Accounting for parity, days in milk, fat and protein percentages, repeated test days, and a random effect of cow, no significant difference was observed between treatments in milk yield across the first 3 Dairy Herd Improvement Association tests (41.2 ± 1.3 in RPBC vs. 38.0 ± 1.4 kg/d in control). Under the diet and management conditions of the field study including low prevalence of clinical health disorders, in experiment 1 we did not detect a benefit of RPBC, but in experiment 2 liver fat content decreased in primiparous cows.
- Short communication: Associations of udder edema with health, milk yield, and reproduction in dairy cows in early lactation. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dairy Sci 2018 Aug 09
- Udder edema (UE) is a common condition of cows around calving, but its effects are not well characterized. The objectives of this study were to determine the associations of UE with the incidence of ...
Udder edema (UE) is a common condition of cows around calving, but its effects are not well characterized. The objectives of this study were to determine the associations of UE with the incidence of health disorders and with milk yield and reproduction in dairy cows in early lactation. On 3 commercial farms, UE was scored weekly on 1,346 cows, on a scale of 0 to 3, from 1 wk before calving to 3 wk after calving. Among cows with complete UE scores, 30% never had edema, 12% had edema only prepartum, 11% had it only postpartum, and 48% had edema prepartum and in at least 1 wk postpartum. Udder edema was associated with a greater incidence of clinical mastitis before 30 d in milk (5 vs. 2%). Subclinical ketosis (blood β-hydroxybutyrate ≥1.2 mmol/L) was more prevalent at wk 2 (11 vs. 6%) postpartum among cows with UE. No association was observed of UE with other diseases or culling in early lactation. In a subset of 912 cows with complete UE and 3 test-days of milk yield data, differences were observed in yield at test d 1 among UE categories. Cows with UE only prepartum produced less milk (39.9 kg/d) than cows with UE postpartum only (42.4 kg/d) and cows with UE both prepartum and postpartum (41.6 kg/d), none of which differed from cows without UE (40.9 kg/d). Udder edema was not associated with the prevalence of anovulation, or the time to or probability of pregnancy at first insemination, yet to 300 d in milk, cows that had UE postpartum had a shorter time from calving to pregnancy than cows without UE. The associations of UE with health and productivity are mixed, and the mechanisms underlying UE and its effects merit further investigation.
- Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. [Review]
- NCNurs Clin North Am 2018; 53(3):407-420
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a commonly occurring endocrine disorder characterized by hirsutism, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. Often comorbid with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and ...
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a commonly occurring endocrine disorder characterized by hirsutism, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. Often comorbid with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and obesity, it also carries significant risk for the development of cardiovascular and metabolic sequelae, including diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Traditionally, the treatment of patients with PCOS has focused on relief of symptoms. Here, the criteria for the diagnosis of PCOS are reviewed with an emphasis on the stratification of subtypes by metabolic features. Then treatment options are reviewed according to the management goal: relief of hyperandrogenic symptoms, regulation of menstruation, and restoration of fertility.
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- Skewed X-chromosome inactivation and shorter telomeres associate with idiopathic premature ovarian insufficiency. [Journal Article]
- FSFertil Steril 2018; 110(3):476-485.e1
- CONCLUSIONS: Skewed XCI and shortened telomere length were associated with idiopathic POI, despite no alterations in the AR and FMR1 genes. Additionally, there is a tendency for women with short telomeres to exhibit skewed XCI.