- Adverse effects of doping with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in competitive athletics, recreational sports and bodybuilding. [Journal Article]
- MEMinerva Endocrinol 2018 Feb 19
- Despite the fact that sports organizations and legislators have introduced various mechanisms to discourage athletes from using performance and appearance enhancing substances a high percentage of at...
Despite the fact that sports organizations and legislators have introduced various mechanisms to discourage athletes from using performance and appearance enhancing substances a high percentage of athletes admits to their unabated application. In competitive athletics, bodybuilding and in recreational sports anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) continue to be the substances most abused. This review summarizes the side effects of AAS abuse on organs and system functions in both sexes. High doses of AAS cause a significant increase of erythrocytes und haemoglobin concentration, which may lead to thromboembolism, intracardiac thrombosis and stroke. Long-term AAS abusers have a higher incidence of arrhythmias, atherosclerosis, concentric left-ventricular myocardial hypertrophy with impaired diastolic function and also sudden cardiac death. Changes of liver function and structure, up to hepatocellular carcinoma, have been described, mainly in cases of chronic misuse of 17α-alkylated AAS. Sleeplessness, increased irritability, depressive mood status are often observed in AAS abuse. In former AAS abusers depression, anxiety and melancholy may persist for many years. Due to negative feedback in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis AAS can cause reversible suppression of spermatogenesis up to azoospermia. In women the changes most often caused by AAS abuse are hirsutism, irreversible deepening of voice, dysmenorrhoea, secondary amenorrhoea with anovulation and infertility. AAS abuse notwithstanding, under clinical conditions testosterone remains the most important hormone for substitution therapy of male hypogonadism.
- The Diagnostic Value of Anti-Mullerian Hormone in Early Post Menarche Adolescent Girls with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2018 Feb 17
- CONCLUSIONS: The use of adult specific diagnostic methods in adolescence may result in an incomplete diagnosis and inadequate treatment plan. Although the serum AMH level clearly facilitates the diagnosis of PCOS, the use of the AMH level in adolescence in PCOS diagnosis is still controversial and further studies are needed.
- Association of testosterone and antimüllerian hormone with time to pregnancy and pregnancy loss in fecund women attempting pregnancy. [Journal Article]
- FSFertil Steril 2018 Feb 07
- CONCLUSIONS: Women with higher T and AMH had more frequent anovulatory cycles but with marginal impacts on TTP or pregnancy loss. A continuum of mild inefficiency in reproductive function may be related to higher T and AMH, including in fecund women with normal menstrual cycles and no clinical diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome, but with unclear effects on fecundability and pregnancy loss.
- The correlation between serum AMH and HOMA-IR among PCOS phenotypes. [Journal Article]
- BRBMC Res Notes 2018 Feb 09; 11(1):114
- CONCLUSIONS: There was a positive correlation between serum AMH and HOMA IR levels. Serum AMH and HOMA IR levels were significantly different across the four PCOS phenotypes; with the highest values were present with phenotype 1.
- C-Reactive protein in relation to fecundability and anovulation among eumenorrheic women. [Journal Article]
- FSFertil Steril 2018; 109(2):232-239.e1
- CONCLUSIONS: Among healthy women attempting pregnancy after one or two pregnancy losses, we found preliminary evidence that systemic inflammation is associated with reduced fecundability, but not independently from adiposity. Sporadic anovulation did not appear to drive this association.
- Prevalence, clinical characteristics, and reproductive outcomes of polycystic ovary syndrome in older women referred for tertiary fertility care. [Journal Article]
- AGArch Gynecol Obstet 2017 Dec 30
- CONCLUSIONS: PCOS comprised 5% of the infertility diagnosis in women aged ≥ 40; PCOM and anovulation were the most prominent features. The higher oocyte number resulted in improved cumulative live birth rate.
- Gonadotrophins versus clomifene citrate with or without intrauterine insemination in women with normogonadotropic anovulation and clomifene failure (M-OVIN): a randomised, two-by-two factorial trial. [Journal Article]
- LctLancet 2017 Dec 19
- CONCLUSIONS: In women with normogonadotropic anovulation and clomifene citrate failure, a switch of treatment to gonadotrophins increased the chance of livebirth over treatment with clomifene citrate; there was no evidence that addition of intrauterine insemination does so.
- Demographic analysis of a low resource, socioculturally diverse urban community presenting for infertility care in a United States public hospital. [Journal Article]
- CRContracept Reprod Med 2017; 2:17
- CONCLUSIONS: Women presenting for infertility care to a low resource county medical center represent immigrant communities and are generally of younger age, but with a longer duration of infertility. This study identifies lower educational level, income, and immigrant status as barriers in access to care.
- Polycystic ovary syndrome: a common reproductive syndrome with long-term metabolic consequences. [Review]
- HKHong Kong Med J 2017; 23(6):622-34
- Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age. Although traditionally viewed as a reproductive disorder, there is increasing appreciation that it is ...
Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age. Although traditionally viewed as a reproductive disorder, there is increasing appreciation that it is associated with significantly increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome may present to clinicians via a variety of different routes and symptoms. Although the impact on reproduction predominates during the reproductive years, the increased cardiometabolic problems are likely to become more important at later stages of the life course. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome have an approximately 2- to 5-fold increased risk of dysglycaemia or type 2 diabetes, and hence regular screening with oral glucose tolerance test is warranted. Although the diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome are still evolving and are undergoing revision, the diagnosis is increasingly focused on the presence of hyperandrogenism, with the significance of polycystic ovarian morphology in the absence of associated hyperandrogenism or anovulation remaining uncertain. The management of women with polycystic ovary syndrome should focus on the specific needs of the individual, and may change according to different stages of the life course. In view of the clinical manifestations of the condition, there is recent debate about whether the current name is misleading, and whether the condition should be renamed as metabolic reproductive syndrome.
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- Intrauterine Insemination: Fundamentals Revisited. [Editorial]
- JOJ Obstet Gynaecol India 2017; 67(6):385-392
- Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is an assisted conception technique that involves the deposition of a processed semen sample in the upper uterine cavity, overcoming natural barriers to sperm ascent i...
Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is an assisted conception technique that involves the deposition of a processed semen sample in the upper uterine cavity, overcoming natural barriers to sperm ascent in the female reproductive tract. It is a cost-effective, noninvasive first-line therapy for selected patients with functionally normal tubes, and infertility due to a cervical factor, anovulation, moderate male factor, unexplained factors, immunological factor, and ejaculatory disorders with clinical pregnancy rates per cycle ranging from 10 to 20%. It, however, has limited use in patients with endometriosis, severe male factor infertility, tubal factor infertility, and advanced maternal age ≥ 35 years. IUI may be performed with or without ovarian stimulation. Controlled ovarian stimulation, particularly with low-dose gonadotropins, with IUI offers significant benefit in terms of pregnancy outcomes compared with natural cycle or timed intercourse, while reducing associated COH complications such as multiple pregnancies and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Important prognostic indicators of success with IUI include age of patient, duration of infertility, stimulation protocol, infertility etiology, number of cycles, timing of insemination, number of preovulatory follicles on the day of hCG, processed total motile sperm > 10 million, and insemination count > 1 × 106 with > 4% normal spermatozoa. Alternative insemination techniques, such as Fallopian tube sperm perfusion, intracervical insemination, and intratubal insemination, provide no additional benefit compared to IUI. A complete couple workup that includes patient history, physical examination, and clinical and laboratory investigations is mandatory to justify the choice in favor of IUI and guide alternative patient management, while individualizing the treatment protocol according to the patient characteristics with a strict cancelation policy to limit multi-follicular development may help optimize IUI pregnancy outcomes.