- Natural conception: repeated predictions over time. [Journal Article]
- HRHum Reprod 2016 Dec 18
- How can we predict chances of natural conception at various time points in couples diagnosed with unexplained subfertility?
How can we predict chances of natural conception at various time points in couples diagnosed with unexplained subfertility?
- Effectiveness of lifestyle intervention in subgroups of obese infertile women: a subgroup analysis of a RCT. [Journal Article]
- HRHum Reprod 2016; 31(12):2704-2713
- Do age, ovulatory status, severity of obesity and body fat distribution affect the effectiveness of lifestyle intervention in obese infertile women?
Do age, ovulatory status, severity of obesity and body fat distribution affect the effectiveness of lifestyle intervention in obese infertile women?
- Puberty, ovarian cycle, pregnancy, and postpartum ovulation in captive Sichuan golden monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) based on changes in urinary and fecal gonadal steroid metabolites. [Journal Article]
- TTheriogenology 2017 Jan 01; 87:179-186
- The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproductive status and clarify the reproductive physiology of captive Sichuan golden monkeys. The concentrations of urinary estradiol-3-glucuronide (E2G...
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproductive status and clarify the reproductive physiology of captive Sichuan golden monkeys. The concentrations of urinary estradiol-3-glucuronide (E2G) and pregnanediol-glucuronide (PdG) or fecal estradiol-17β (E2) and PdG in two females, and fecal testosterone concentrations in a male, were measured continuously using enzyme immunoassays. On the basis of these hormone profiles, the follicular phase, luteal phase, and ovarian cycle were calculated to be 14.7 ± 4.8, 10.4 ± 2.8, and 25.1 ± 3.3 days, respectively. The first ovulation (puberty) in a female monkey was observed at 5.1 years old, and the first pregnancy was diagnosed at 6.4 years old. For the first 2 months of pregnancy (204 days), fecal E2 and PdG maintained constant high values and then increased until parturition. These profiles were similar to urinary E2G and PdG changes. During the last trimester of a twin pregnancy, fecal PdG was up to approximately three times higher compared with a single pregnancy. Therefore, fecal PdG levels in late pregnancy may be effective for the detection of a twin pregnancy. The first postpartum ovulation occurred 66 (fetal death and artificial rearing), 143 (fetal death), and 189 (natural suckling) days after parturition. The anovulation period of the natural suckling case was longer than the others. Conception and postpartum ovulation were detected between September and January. Fecal testosterone levels of the male were correlated with the fecal E2 level of the nonpregnancy period in exhibited together female. Our results reported that urinary (E2G and PdG) and fecal (E2 and PdG) hormone measurement is effective for monitoring the reproductive status, thereby expanding knowledge of the reproductive endocrinology of this endangered species.
- [Polycystic ovary sindrome: impact on reproductive and material fetal health]. [Journal Article]
- RFRev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba 2016; 73(2):102-13
- CONCLUSIONS: patients with PCOS have a higher risk for complications during pregnancy and newborns more frequently have low weight or macrosomy. A careful history can recognize patients with higher perinatal risk to develop complications.
- Evolutionary determinants of polycystic ovary syndrome: part 1. [Review]
- FSFertil Steril 2016; 106(1):33-41
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common and complex genetic disorder that develops under varying degrees of hyperandrogenemic and hyperinsulinemic conditions that cause phenotypic variability ra...
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common and complex genetic disorder that develops under varying degrees of hyperandrogenemic and hyperinsulinemic conditions that cause phenotypic variability ranging from mild hirsutism to anovulation and infertility. In addition to increased risk of reproductive disability, PCOS is associated with metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. Similar prevalence rates and shared genetic susceptibility of PCOS among different populations suggest that genetic risk factors were already present in the ancestors of humans. Contemporary human genetic studies inform us that the origin of human ancestors is from Africa. Sharing common susceptibility loci between Chinese and European ancestry suggests that PCOS may have persisted for more than 50,000 years, before the migration of humans out of Africa. Although PCOS is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility, its high prevalence is still a paradox. From an evolutionary perspective, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying PCOS might be candidate factors for survival advantage of the human being. Former compensatory advantageous factors may become pathogenic mechanisms underlying complex metabolic disease with prolonged life expectancy and transition to sedentary lifestyle.
- What affects functional ovarian reserve, thyroid function or thyroid autoimmunity? [Journal Article]
- RBReprod Biol Endocrinol 2016 May 10; 14(1):26
- CONCLUSIONS: Even after adjustment for thyroid autoimmunity and age, TSH <3.0μIU/mL in euthyroid infertility patients is associated with significantly better FOR (higher AMH) than TSH ≥3.0μIU/mL. This observation suggests a direct beneficial effect of lower TSH levels on follicular recruitment, and warrants investigations of thyroxin supplementation in infertile women with TSH levels ≥3.0μIU/mL in attempts to improve FOR.
- Diagnostic criteria for PCOS: Is there a need for a rethink? [Review]
- BPBest Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2016; 37:5-11
- The diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have been grouped in different classifications that have been conflicting for many years. At present, the classification of Rotterdam is...
The diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have been grouped in different classifications that have been conflicting for many years. At present, the classification of Rotterdam is the most used, but with varying frequency depending on the country and medical specialties. This classification is now >10 years old. Although its fundamental principle (two criteria required out of three) is still valid, each of its three items (oligo-anovulation (OA), hyperandrogenism (HA), and polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM)) needs to be updated. The definition of biological HA is still unresolved. The criteria used to define OA are insufficient. The definition of PCOM proposed in 2003 is now obsolete when using the latest generation of ultrasound machines. The serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) assay seems increasingly to be an excellent substitute for follicular count and is likely to emerge as the official PCOM marker. A new consensus conference is urgently needed.
- The role of anti-Müllerian hormone in the pathogenesis and pathophysiological characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome. [Review]
- EJEur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2016; 199:82-7
- Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the major causes of anovulatory infertility. High levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in the serum of PCOS patients participate in the major steps of t...
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the major causes of anovulatory infertility. High levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in the serum of PCOS patients participate in the major steps of the anovulation, and are related to pathogenesis and pathophysiological characteristic of PCOS, including the interactions of AMH with intra/extra ovarian factors like FSH, LH, androgen, and estrogen, as well as the role of AMH in folliculogenesis of PCOS. AMH promotes follicular atresia which may participate in the follicle pattern in PCOS patients. Recent years, the abnormally increased AMH in serum and follicle fluid of PCOS patients have attracted many scholars' attention. In this review, we summarized the role of AMH played in PCOS patients. It is of great significance for clarifying the role of AMH in the diagnosis and treatment of PCOS patients because AMH has the potential to increase our understanding of ovarian pathophysiology and to guide the clinical management of a broader range of conditions.
- Prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome and its associated complications in Iranian women: A meta-analysis. [Review]
- IJIran J Reprod Med 2015; 13(10):591-604
- CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of PCOS in Iran is not high. However, given the risk of complications such as heart disease - cardiovascular and infertility, prevention of PCOS is important; we suggest that health officials must submit plans for the community in this respect.
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- The Diagnosis of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescents. [Review]
- PedPediatrics 2015; 136(6):1154-65
- Consensus has recently been reached by international pediatric subspecialty societies that otherwise unexplained persistent hyperandrogenic anovulation using age- and stage-appropriate standards are ...
Consensus has recently been reached by international pediatric subspecialty societies that otherwise unexplained persistent hyperandrogenic anovulation using age- and stage-appropriate standards are appropriate diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adolescents. The purpose of this review is to summarize these recommendations and discuss their basis and implications. Anovulation is indicated by abnormal uterine bleeding, which exists when menstrual cycle length is outside the normal range or bleeding is excessive: cycles outside 19 to 90 days are always abnormal, and most are 21 to 45 days even during the first postmenarcheal year. Continued menstrual abnormality in a hyperandrogenic adolescent for 1 year prognosticates at least 50% risk of persistence. Hyperandrogenism is best indicated by persistent elevation of serum testosterone above adult norms as determined in a reliable reference laboratory. Because hyperandrogenemia documentation can be problematic, moderate-severe hirsutism constitutes clinical evidence of hyperandrogenism. Moderate-severe inflammatory acne vulgaris unresponsive to topical treatment is an indication to test for hyperandrogenemia. Treatment of PCOS is symptom-directed. Cyclic estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives are ordinarily the preferred first-line medical treatment because they reliably improve both the menstrual abnormality and hyperandrogenism. First-line treatment of the comorbidities of obesity and insulin resistance is lifestyle modification with calorie restriction and increased exercise. Metformin in conjunction with behavior modification is indicated for glucose intolerance. Although persistence of hyperandrogenic anovulation for ≥2 years ensures the distinction of PCOS from physiologic anovulation, early workup is advisable to make a provisional diagnosis so that combined oral contraceptive treatment, which will mask diagnosis by suppressing hyperandrogenemia, is not unnecessarily delayed.