- Musculoskeletal Therapies: Adjunctive Physical Therapy. [Review]
- FEFP Essent 2018; 470:16-20
- Physical therapy (PT) modalities are a diverse group of treatments for musculoskeletal pain. Iontophoresis, phonophoresis, kinesiology taping, laser therapy, and myofascial release are some of the mo...
Physical therapy (PT) modalities are a diverse group of treatments for musculoskeletal pain. Iontophoresis, phonophoresis, kinesiology taping, laser therapy, and myofascial release are some of the most commonly used and are best considered as adjuncts to exercise. Each modality is relatively safe, but none is supported by high-quality evidence in the management of most musculoskeletal conditions. Individual patient response to such modalities is variable. Neither iontophoresis nor phonophoresis has been shown to have greater benefits for neck or back pain than supervised PT. However, use of phonophoresis has been shown to result in a small improvement when added to therapeutic exercise. Kinesiology taping improves symptoms for patients with plantar fascia pain, pes anserine bursitis, and low back pain (LBP). Laser therapy has shown small benefit in chronic LBP and shoulder disorders including adhesive capsulitis, calcific tendinitis and rotator cuff tendinopathies. Myofascial release, has been found to improve symptoms of neck pain. These modalities should never replace active PT, but their use should not be discouraged as part of a comprehensive program. A concern is cost because many health insurance companies consider these therapies to be medically unnecessary or experimental.
- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Stress injuries represent a spectrum of injuries ranging from periostitis, caused by inflammation of the periosteum, to a complete stress fracture that includes a full cortical break. They are relati...
Stress injuries represent a spectrum of injuries ranging from periostitis, caused by inflammation of the periosteum, to a complete stress fracture that includes a full cortical break. They are relatively common overuse injuries in athletes that are caused by repetitive submaximal loading on a bone over time. Stress injuries are often seen in running and jumping athletes and are associated with increased volume or intensity of training workload. Most commonly, they are found in the lower extremities and are specific to the sport in which the athlete participates. Upper extremity stress injuries are much less common than lower extremity stress injuries, but when they do occur, they are most commonly seen in the ulna. Similar to the lower extremity injuries, upper extremity stress injuries are the result of overuse and fatigue. Rib stress fractures are an uncommon site of stress injuries. First rib fractures are the most common, and these are seen in pitchers, basketball players, weightlifters, and ballet dancers. Stress fractures in ribs 4 through 9 are seen in competitive rowers, and posteromedial rib stress fractures can be seen in golfers. Stress fractures of the pelvis can be vague clinically and mimic other causes of groin and hip pain, for example, adductor strain, osteitis pubis, or sacroiliitis. The most common location is the ischiopubic ramus and sacrum. These injuries are seen most commonly in runners. Femoral neck stress fractures make up approximately 11% of stress injuries in athletes. The patient complains of hip or groin pain which is worse with weight bearing and range of motion especially internal rotation. There are 2 types of femoral neck stress fractures: tension-type (or distraction) fractures and compression-type fractures. Tension-type femoral neck stress fractures involve the superior-lateral aspect of the neck and are at highest risk for complete fracture; thus, these should be detected early. Compression-type fractures are seen in younger athletes and involve the inferior-medial femoral neck. A trial of non-surgical management can be attempted for patients without a visible fracture line on radiographs in compression type injuries. This injury is common in runners. Stress fractures of the femoral shaft are well documented in the literature, and in one study among military recruits, they represented 22.5% of all stress fractures. Patients typically complain of poorly localized, insidious leg pain often mistaken for muscle injury. An exam is often nonfocal, although the “fulcrum test” test can be used by providers to localize the affected pain and suggest the diagnosis. If there is no evidence of a cortical break on imaging, a non-surgical approach can be attempted. The patella is a rare location for a stress fracture and can be oriented either transverse or vertical. Transverse fractures are at higher risk for displacement and immobilization is recommended. Tibial stress injuries are the most common location of stress reactions and fractures. Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), also known as shin splints or tibial periostitis, can be difficult to distinguish from medial tibial stress fractures. Typically, the patient will be tender over the medial posterior edge of the tibia often made worse with a motor exam. Stress injuries will present with pain during activities of daily living, while MTSS is generally limited to exertional activity. Anterior cortex tibial stress fractures are less common than the posteromedial ones and are found in jumping and leaping athletes. These patients may have the “dreaded black line” on x-ray. They are at a greater risk of nonunion and full cortical break and require aggressive conservative therapy. If that fails, surgical management such as an intramedullary rod or flexible plate is indicated. Stress fractures of the medial tibial plateau are uncommon but can be confused for meniscus injury or pes anserine bursitis, and thus, a high index of suspicion is needed. Fibular stress fractures are common and most commonly located in the lower third of the fibula, proximal to the tibiofibular ligament. Patients will have reproducible pain on palpation of the affected bone. Medial malleolus stress fractures are uncommon. Running and jumping athletes can develop vertical stress fractures at the junction of the medial malleolus and tibial plafond. If full cortical disruption is identified, surgical fixation is typically indicated. Calcaneal stress fractures present as localized tenderness over the heel of the calcaneus posterior to the talus. Patients will have a positive squeeze test. Stress fractures can develop in the navicular, medial cuneiform, and lateral process of the talus. Navicular stress fractures are difficult to diagnose early on and are at high risk of nonunion due to poor vascular flow, primarily in the middle third. These are common in basketball players and runners. They are usually tender on the navicular bone. Metatarsal stress fractures account for 9% of all stress fractures in athletes. The second and third metatarsals are most commonly affected and are usually in the neck or distal shaft. They will be point tender with localized swelling over the affected bone. Dancers fracture is a stress fracture at the base of the second metatarsal. Stress fractures distal to the tuberosity of the fifth metatarsal are termed Jones fractures but must be distinguished from an acute Jones fracture. Sesamoid stress injuries of the great toe present as gradual unilateral plantar pain with the medial (tibial) sesamoid most frequently affected. Direct tenderness or pain with passive extension of the toe aid in diagnosis.
- Common Soft Tissue Musculoskeletal Pain Disorders. [Review]
- PCPrim Care 2018; 45(2):289-303
- Soft tissue musculoskeletal pain disorders are common in the primary care setting. Early recognition and diagnosis of these syndromes minimizes patient pain and disability. This article gives a brief...
Soft tissue musculoskeletal pain disorders are common in the primary care setting. Early recognition and diagnosis of these syndromes minimizes patient pain and disability. This article gives a brief overview of the most common soft tissue musculoskeletal pain syndromes. The authors used a regional approach to organize the material, as providers will encounter these syndromes with complaints of pain referring to an anatomic location. The covered disorders include myofascial pain syndrome, rotator cuff tendinopathy, bicipital tendinopathy, subacromial bursitis, olecranon bursitis, epicondylitis, De Quervain disease, trigger finger, trochanteric bursitis, knee bursitis, pes anserine bursitis, Baker cyst, plantar fasciitis, and Achilles tendinopathy.
- Painful Pes Anserine Bursitis Following Total Knee Replacement Surgery: Two cases. [Case Reports]
- SQSultan Qaboos Univ Med J 2018; 18(1):e97-e99
- Pes anserine bursitis (PAB) is an inflammation of the bursa located between the medial aspect of the tibia and the hamstring muscles. It is common in patients with degenerative or inflammatory knee a...
Pes anserine bursitis (PAB) is an inflammation of the bursa located between the medial aspect of the tibia and the hamstring muscles. It is common in patients with degenerative or inflammatory knee arthritis, usually has a self-limiting course and tends to respond well to conservative treatment. However, painful PAB directly following total knee replacement surgery is rare. We report two such cases who were diagnosed via ultrasonography at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in 2015. Both patients were treated locally with triamcinolone acetonide under ultrasound guidance and responded well to treatment.
- Pay Attention to the Pes Anserine in Knee Osteoarthritis. [Journal Article]
- CSCurr Sports Med Rep 2018; 17(2):41
- The Relationship between Chondromalacia Patella, Medial Meniscal Tear and Medial Periarticular Bursitis in Patients with Osteoarthritis. [Journal Article]
- RORadiol Oncol 2017; 51(4):401-406
- CONCLUSIONS: We observed a greater prevalence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee in patients with severe osteoarthritis and medial meniscus tear.
- Effect of polydeoxyribonucleotide injection on pes anserine bursitis: A case report. [Case Reports]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2017; 96(43):e8330
- CONCLUSIONS: This is the first successful report of successful PDRN injection for PA bursa.
- Investigating the Effect of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy on Reducing Chronic Pain in Patients with Pes Anserine Bursitis: A Randomized, Clinical- Controlled Trial. [Journal Article]
- ABAdv Biomed Res 2017; 6:70
- CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that ESWT could be effective in reducing the pain and treating PAB.
- Pes Anserinus Syndrome Caused by Osteochondroma in Paediatrics: A Case Series Study. [Journal Article]
- OOOpen Orthop J 2017; 11:397-403
- CONCLUSIONS: The characteristic location of the osteochondroma causes pes anserinus syndrome, even though the lesion is small. The diagnosis of osteochondroma or pes anserinus syndrome may be overlooked when it occurs in a paediatric population. The symptoms seem to be consistent, and resection of the osteochondroma is necessary for treatment.
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- Comparison of the efficacy of physical therapy and corticosteroid injection in the treatment of pes anserine tendino-bursitis. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Phys Ther Sci 2016; 28(7):1993-7
- [Purpose] The aims of this study were twofold. The first was to compare the functional capacity and pain of patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA), with or without pes anserine tendino-bursitis (PAT...
[Purpose] The aims of this study were twofold. The first was to compare the functional capacity and pain of patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA), with or without pes anserine tendino-bursitis (PATB). The second is to compare the efficacy of two treatment methods (physical therapy and corticosteroid injection) for patients with PATB. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty patient with KOA and PATB (Group 1) and 57 patients with KOA but without PATB (Group 2) were enrolled in the study. The patients' visual analog scale (VAS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) scores and three-meter timed-up and go scores were measured. The PATB group was randomly divided into two groups (Group A and B). Physical therapy (PT) modalities were applied to the first group (Group A), and the second group (Group B) received corticosteroid injections to the pes anserine area. Eight weeks later, patients' parameters were measured again. [Results] Initial WOMAC scores and timed up-and-go times were significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2. Both treatments resulted in significant improvements in all measured parameters, but no significant difference was detected between Group A and B. [Conclusion] Patients with PATB tend to have more severe pain, more altered functionality, and greater disability than those with KOA but without PATB. Both corticosteroid injection and PT are effective methods of treatment for PATB. Injection therapy can be considered an effective, inexpensive and fast therapeutic method.