- Simultaneous quantification of atropine and scopolamine in infusions of herbal tea and Solanaceae plant material by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (tandem) mass spectrometry. [Journal Article]
- RCRapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2018 Aug 16
- CONCLUSIONS: The usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS(/MS) for investigations of plant-derived samples to prove contaminations by small basic compounds was demonstrated. The elaborated procedure is reliable but quite laborious to obtain quantitative results, but MALDI-TOF MS(/MS) was also shown to be a valuable tool for rapid qualitative screening for Atr and Scp in plant extracts.
- [Promethazine - an old pharmaceutical that has got a renaissance. An avalanche-like increase in the number of overdose cases in Sweden]. [Journal Article]
- LLakartidningen 2018 Jul 24; 115
- Promethazine is a phenothiazine derivative antihistamine first introduced in the 1940s that is used in multiple medical conditions as a sedative/hypnotic agent. The drug is not addictive, which proba...
Promethazine is a phenothiazine derivative antihistamine first introduced in the 1940s that is used in multiple medical conditions as a sedative/hypnotic agent. The drug is not addictive, which probably explains why it is increasingly used in the care of drug addicts. During the recent decade the sales of promethazine in Sweden have increased threefold while the yearly number of overdose cases with this drug at the Swedish Poisons Centre has increased from 100 to nearly 700. The anticholinergic delirium that may be provoked by this poisoning carries a symptomatology which may resemble the symptoms seen after an intracranial catastrophe, wherefore some cases are exposed to unnecessary diagnostic measures and invasive ventilator treatment. The case report and literature review presented in this paper conclude that physostigmine is the drug of choice in delirium provoked by overdose of promethazine, and that its use in this setting carries a minimal risk of serious side effects.
- The evaluation of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score, poisoning severity score, sequential organ failure assessment score combine with lactate to assess the prognosis of the patients with acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning. [Journal Article]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(21):e10862
- The aim of this study was to assess the ability of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score, poisoning severity score (PSS) as well as sequential organ failure assessment (...
The aim of this study was to assess the ability of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score, poisoning severity score (PSS) as well as sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score combining with lactate (Lac) to predict mortality in the Emergency Department (ED) patients who were poisoned with organophosphate.A retrospective review of 59 stands-compliant patients was carried out. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed based on the APACHE II score, PSS, SOFA score with or without Lac, respectively, and the areas under the ROC curve (AUCs) were determined to assess predictive value. According to SOFA-Lac (a combination of SOFA and Lac) classification standard, acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning (AOPP) patients were divided into low-risk and high-risk groups. Then mortality rates were compared between risk levels.Between survivors and non-survivors, there were significant differences in the APACHE II score, PSS, SOFA score, and Lac (all P < .05). The AUCs of the APACHE II score, PSS, and SOFA score were 0.876, 0.811, and 0.837, respectively. However, after combining with Lac, the AUCs were 0.922, 0.878, and 0.956, respectively. According to SOFA-Lac, the mortality of high-risk group was significantly higher than low-risk group (P < .05) and the patients of the non-survival group were all at high risk.These data suggest the APACHE II score, PSS, SOFA score can all predict the prognosis of AOPP patients. For its simplicity and objectivity, the SOFA score is a superior predictor. Lac significantly improved the predictive abilities of the 3 scoring systems, especially for the SOFA score. The SOFA-Lac system effectively distinguished the high-risk group from the low-risk group. Therefore, the SOFA-Lac system is significantly better at predicting mortality in AOPP patients.
- Cerbera odollam toxicity: A review. [Review]
- JFJ Forensic Leg Med 2018 May 09; 58:113-116
- Cerbera odollam is a plant species of the Apocynaceae family. It is often dubbed the 'suicide tree' due to its strong cardiotoxic effects, which make it a suitable means to attempt suicide. The plant...
Cerbera odollam is a plant species of the Apocynaceae family. It is often dubbed the 'suicide tree' due to its strong cardiotoxic effects, which make it a suitable means to attempt suicide. The plant grows in wet areas in South India, Madagascar, and Southeast Asia; and its common names include Pong-Pong and Othalanga. The poison rich part of the plant is the kernel which is present at the core of its fruit. The bioactive toxin in the plant is cerberin, which is a cardiac glycoside of the cardenolide class. Cerberin has a mechanism of action similar to digoxin; hence, Cerbera odollam toxicity manifests similar to acute digoxin poisoning. Ingestion of its kernel causes nausea, vomiting, hyperkalemia, thrombocytopenia, and ECG abnormalities. Exposure to high doses of Cerbera odollam carries the highest risk of mortality. Initial management includes supportive therapy and administration of atropine followed by temporary pacemaker insertion. Administration of digoxin immune Fab may be considered in severe cases, although efficacy is variable and data limited to isolated case reports.
- Inflammatory and oxidative mechanisms potentiate bifenthrin-induced neurological alterations and anxiety-like behavior in adult rats. [Journal Article]
- TLToxicol Lett 2018 May 21; 294:73-86
- Bifenthrin (BF) is a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide widely used in several countries to manage insect pests on diverse agricultural crops. Growing evidence indicates that BF exposure is associated wi...
Bifenthrin (BF) is a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide widely used in several countries to manage insect pests on diverse agricultural crops. Growing evidence indicates that BF exposure is associated with an increased risk of developing neurodegenerative disorders. However, the mechanisms by which BF induces neurological and anxiety alterations in the frontal cortex and striatum are not well known. The present in vivo study was carried out to determine whether reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative stress (OS) and neuroinflammation are involved in such alterations. Thirty-six Wistar rats were thus randomly divided into three groups and were orally administered with BF (0.6 and 2.1 mg/kg body weight, respectively) or the vehicle (corn oil), on a daily basis for 60 days. Results revealed that BF exposure in rats enhanced anxiety-like behavior after 60 days of treatment, as assessed with the elevated plus-maze test by decreases in the percentage of time spent in open arms and frequency of entries into these arms. BF-treated rats also exhibited increased oxidation of lipids and carbonylated proteins in the frontal cortex and striatum, and decreased glutathione levels and antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Treatment with BF also increased protein synthesis and mRNA expression of the inflammatory mediators cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), microsomal prostaglandin synthase-1 (mPGES-1) and nuclear factor-kappaBp65 (NF-kBp65), as well as the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and ROS. Moreover, BF exposure significantly decreased protein synthesis and mRNA expression of nuclear factor erythroid-2 (Nrf2) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), as well as gene expression of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors (mAchR) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the frontal cortex and striatum. These data suggest that BF induced neurological alterations in the frontal cortex and striatum of rats, and that this may be associated with neuroinflammation and oxidative stress via the activation of Nrf2/NF-kBp65 pathways, which might promote anxiety-like behavior.
- [Hypertensive crisis and anticholinergic toxidrome secondary to accidental consumption of datura stramonium in two children]. [Journal Article]
- ACAnn Cardiol Angeiol (Paris) 2018; 67(3):215-218
- CONCLUSIONS: Hypertension crisis and other anticholinergic clinical signs of Datura stramonium intoxication achieve favorable outcomes in children.
- Oxidative stress in organophosphate poisoning: role of standard antidotal therapy. [Review]
- JAJ Appl Toxicol 2018; 38(8):1058-1070
- Despite the main mechanism of organophosphate (OP) toxicity through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) being well known over the years, some chronic adverse health effects indicate the involve...
Despite the main mechanism of organophosphate (OP) toxicity through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) being well known over the years, some chronic adverse health effects indicate the involvement of additional pathways. Oxidative stress is among the most intensively studied. Overstimulation of cholinergic and glutamatergic nervous system is followed by intensified generation of reactive species and oxidative damage in many tissues. In this review, the role of oxidative stress in pathophysiology of OP poisoning and the influence of commonly used medical interventions on its levels are discussed. Current standardized therapy of OP intoxications comprises live-saving administration of the anticholinergic drug atropine accompanied by oxime AChE reactivator and diazepam. The capability of these antidotes to ameliorate OP-induced oxidative stress varies between both therapeutic groups and individual medications within the drug class. Regarding oxidative stress, atropine does not seem to have a significant effect on oxidative stress parameters in OP poisoning. In a case of AChE reactivators, pro-oxidative and antioxidative properties could be found. It is assumed that the ability of oximes to trigger oxidative stress is rather associated with their chemical structure than reactivation efficacy. The data indicating the potency of diazepam in preventing OP-induced oxidative stress are not available. Based on current knowledge on the mechanism of OP-mediated oxidative stress, alternative approaches (including antioxidants or multifunctional drugs) in therapy of OP poisoning are under consideration.
- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- In 1943, as the planet was engulfed in WWII and the United States was officially announcing the end of The Great Depression, the most common modern antihistamine, diphenhydramine, was first synthesiz...
In 1943, as the planet was engulfed in WWII and the United States was officially announcing the end of The Great Depression, the most common modern antihistamine, diphenhydramine, was first synthesized. Shortly after in 1947, orphenadrine was synthesized and used for the treatment of Parkinson. With the turn of the decade, antihistamine use became more prevalent, and pediatric deaths increased. A comparison to atropine poisoning and their similar pharmacologic properties were soon realized. The specific concern of antihistamine toxicity is not due to their competitive H1-receptor binding and the sedation but due to their anticholinergic effect. Toxic exposure causes varying degrees of symptoms with differing implications. Treatment for antihistamine exposure can range from close monitoring and supportive therapy to rapid pharmacologic treatment.
- Disabling tremor induced by long-term use of sodium valproate and lamotrigine: Case report. [Case Reports]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2017; 96(47):e8711
- CONCLUSIONS: Considering the wide and long-term utilization of VPA and LTG, healthcare providers should be aware of them as a possible cause of tremor. When necessary, an attempt of discontinuing the suspected drugs should be made to confirm the diagnosis, instead of symptomatic treatment, especially when the adverse event was severe and fatal.
New Search Next
- Anticholinergic medication for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia. [Review]
- CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 01 17; 1:CD000204
- CONCLUSIONS: Based on currently available evidence, no confident statement can be made about the effectiveness of anticholinergics to treat people with antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia. The same applies for the withdrawal of such medications. Whether the withdrawal of anticholinergics may benefit people with antipsychotic-induced TD should be evaluated in a parallel-group, placebo-controlled randomised trial, with adequate sample size and at least 6 weeks of follow-up.