- Chronic Hyponatremia Due to the Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuresis (SIAD) in an Adult Woman with Corpus Callosum Agenesis (CCA). [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Case Rep 2018 Nov 12; 19:1345-1349
- CONCLUSIONS: A rare case of chronic hyponatremia due to the SIAD associated with CCA is reported that demonstrates the importance of correct diagnosis, management, and clinical follow-up of the SIAD, including bone densitometry.
- An update on tolvaptan for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. [Journal Article]
- DTDrugs Today (Barc) 2018; 54(9):519-533
- Tolvaptan is an orally active antagonist of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone [ADH]) V2 receptors. By blocking water reabsorption in kidney collecting ducts, it prompts renal free-water excretion and...
Tolvaptan is an orally active antagonist of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone [ADH]) V2 receptors. By blocking water reabsorption in kidney collecting ducts, it prompts renal free-water excretion and has been used for the treatment of hyponatremia, both euvolemic due to the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion, and hypervolemic due to liver cirrhosis and congestive heart failure. In the past few years, it has been shown that vasopressin and its second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) play an important role in the pathogenesis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). This has been the rationale for the use of tolvaptan to halt the progression of ADPKD, mainly through slowing kidney growth and decline in renal function. Two major randomized clinical trials have demonstrated the benefits of tolvaptan in slowing the progression of ADPKD in terms of kidney growth and decline in renal function at 1 and 3 years (REPRISE and TEMPO). However, the long-term effectiveness of treatment with tolvaptan remains to be determined.
- [Anti-NMDA receptor antibody-positive meningoencephalitis with SIADH and CNS demyelination: A case report]. [Case Reports]
- RSRinsho Shinkeigaku 2018 Sep 28; 58(9):560-564
- After a 34-year-old female developed a headache and high fever, she was diagnosed with aseptic meningitis. On admission, neurological examinations revealed cerebellar limb ataxia, horizontal gaze par...
After a 34-year-old female developed a headache and high fever, she was diagnosed with aseptic meningitis. On admission, neurological examinations revealed cerebellar limb ataxia, horizontal gaze paretic nystagmus, and pyramidal tract signs. Laboratory tests showed hyponatremia (129 mEq/l). Five days after admission, convulsions in the upper limbs due to the severe hyponatremia (108 mEq/l) were noted. In addition, serum antidiuretic hormone levels were markedly increased to 18.5 pg/ml. Brain MRI showed multiple small inflammatory lesions in the subcortical cerebral white matter, thalamus, and around the third ventricular diencephalic regions. Pulse corticosteroid treatment promptly improved her symptoms. Although tests for serum anti-aquaporin 4, anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, and anti-voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies were negative, cerebrospinal fluid samples tested positive for anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibodies. Oral prednisolone administration was continued, but she developed paresthesia in her upper and lower extremities and gaze-evoked nystagmus three months after the first attack. MRI showed that the previously observed high-intensity regions were decreased, but a new area of high intensity was observed in ventral regions through the lower midbrain to the pons. Because pulse corticosteroid treatment was again effective, we continued the oral prednisolone treatment. This case presented none of the characteristic symptoms of anti-NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis during the clinical course other than repeated demyelinating encephalitis and severe syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Additional clinical observations are needed to better understand the underlying pathology of the NMDA receptor antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid in this case.
- Early Relowering of Serum Sodium Concentration Overcomes Disturbances in Consciousness during Hyponatremia Overcorrection and Prevents Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome. [Case Reports]
- IMIntern Med 2018; 57(16):2353-2357
- A 79-year-old woman without any cerebral hernia symptoms was hospitalized with hyponatremia. After syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone induced by drugs was diagnosed and water restriction ...
A 79-year-old woman without any cerebral hernia symptoms was hospitalized with hyponatremia. After syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone induced by drugs was diagnosed and water restriction implemented, the patient became comatose during overcorrection caused by the generation of a large volume of electrolyte-free urine. Once the serum sodium concentration was immediately relowered by the administration of desmopressin and 5% glucose solution, the patient's level of consciousness improved dramatically without osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) developing. This outcome suggests that, similar to the findings in rat models, relowering the serum sodium concentration as early as possible to counter a disturbance of consciousness during the overcorrection of hyponatremia prevents ODS.
- Hyponatremia Induced by Duloxetine: A Case Report. [Case Reports]
- CPConsult Pharm 2018 Aug 01; 33(8):446-449
- CONCLUSIONS: This case report adds to the literature by describing a patient who developed hyponatremia/SIADH after two doses of duloxetine.Hyponatremia/SIADH can develop rapidly after initiation of duloxetine. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for this adverse drug reaction, particularly in elderly females.
- High Prevalence of Renal Salt Wasting Without Cerebral Disease as Cause of Hyponatremia in General Medical Wards. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Med Sci 2018; 356(1):15-22
- CONCLUSIONS: Of the 24 patients with RSW, 21 had no cerebral disease, supporting our proposal to change cerebral-renal salt wasting to renal salt wasting. Application of established pathophysiological standards and a new algorithm based on determination of FEurate were superior to the volume approach for determination of urinary sodium when identifying the cause of hyponatremia.
- [A Case of Consciousness Disorder Induced by the Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion Following Cisplatin and 5-Fluorouracil Chemotherapy in a Patient with Tongue Cancer]. [Case Reports]
- GTGan To Kagaku Ryoho 2018; 45(5):855-857
- We herein report a case of a consciousness disorder that was induced by the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion following cisplatin (CDDP) and 5 -fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy...
We herein report a case of a consciousness disorder that was induced by the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion following cisplatin (CDDP) and 5 -fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy in a patient with tongue cancer. A 72- year-old woman complained of tongue pain and was admitted to our hospital for neoadjuvant chemotherapy, under a diagnosis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (T4aN2bM0). She was treated with CDDP and 5-FU. On the second day after administration, she complained of nausea and anorexia, and on the third day, she showed impaired consciousness. Laboratory studies revealed that the patient had a serum sodium concentration 112mEq/L, and no dehydration was noted. The patient was diagnosed with SIADH, using the appropriate diagnostic criteria based on serum and urine hypoosmolality. We subsequently discontinued chemotherapy and initiated fluid restriction and sodium supplements. Two days after this treatment, her consciousness level improved, and on the fifth day of treatment, laboratory studies revealed a serum sodium level of 134mEq/ L.
- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone ADH release (SIADH) is a condition defined by the unsuppressed release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the pituitary gland or nonpituitary sources or...
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone ADH release (SIADH) is a condition defined by the unsuppressed release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the pituitary gland or nonpituitary sources or its continued action on vasopressin receptors. The condition was first detected in two lung cancer patients by William Schwartz and Frederic Bartter in 1967. They developed the classic Schwartz and Bartter criteria for the diagnosis of SIADH which has not changed. SIADH is characterized by impaired water excretion leading to hyponatremia with hypervolemia or euvolemia.
- Endocrinopathy-induced euvolemic hyponatremia. [Journal Article]
- IEIntern Emerg Med 2018; 13(5):679-688
- Euvolemic hyponatremia results from either the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), hypothyroidism, or adrenal insufficiency. Furthermore, the criteria for diagnosis of S...
Euvolemic hyponatremia results from either the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), hypothyroidism, or adrenal insufficiency. Furthermore, the criteria for diagnosis of SIADH entail the exclusion of hypothyroidism and hypoadrenalism. We aim to assess the yield of euvolemic hyponatremia workup focusing on underlying endocrinopathies in a real-world setting. A single-center retrospective study includes all patients diagnosed with euvolemic hyponatremia in a tertiary hospital between 1.1.2007 and 1.1.2013. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected from medical charts. Euvolemic hyponatremia was detected in 564 patients. Thyroid function was tested in 69% (391/564) and adrenal function was assessed in 29% (164/564) of cases. Endocrinopathy-induced euvolemic hyponatremia was diagnosed in nine (1.6%) patients: three patients were diagnosed with hypothyroidism-induced hyponatremia, three with adrenal insufficiency as an underlying cause, and three with central hypothyroidism and central hypoadrenalism. All nine had medical history and symptoms suggestive of endocrine deficiencies other than the hyponatremia, which resolved within 1-3 days after administration of hormone replacement therapy. Yield of performed workup for hypothyroidism and hypoadrenalism in euvolemic hyponatremia was low. However, in this real-world study, only a limited number of patients underwent a full ascertainment of hypoadrenalism and hypothyroidism, which was diagnosed only in patients with additional findings supportive of these endocrinopathies; a higher rate of undiagnosed endocrinopathies cannot be ruled out. As both hypoadrenalism and hypothyroidism are easily treatable, potentially life-threatening conditions, there are insufficient data to change current recommendation for their universal evaluation in patients with euvolemic hyponatremia.
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- Hyponatremia in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: Literature review. [Case Reports]
- ANActa Neurol Scand 2018; 138(1):4-11
- Hyponatremia is a potentially serious electrolyte abnormality observed in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs), and its most common cause is syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone...
Hyponatremia is a potentially serious electrolyte abnormality observed in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs), and its most common cause is syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Another potential cause of hyponatremia is cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS), although CSWS has not previously been reported in NMOSDs. Accurate and early differentiation between SIADH and CSWS is difficult. However, the two conditions have important implications for the selection of therapy. Here, we describe two patients with aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab)-positive NMOSDs who developed hyponatremia as a result of CSWS and SIADH, respectively. Additionally, we review all previously reported studies of hyponatremia in patients with NMOSDs and propose several potential pathophysiological mechanisms of hyponatremia. In conclusion, NMOSDs accompanied by hyponatremia are not actually rare, but have previously been given little attention. Furthermore, SIADH should not be the only consideration, before the exclusion of rare but significant CSWS.