- Mechanistic Multi-Tissue Modeling of Glucocorticoid-Induced Leucine Zipper Regulation: Integrating Circadian Gene Expression with Receptor-Mediated Corticosteroid Pharmacodynamics. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pharmacol Exp Ther 2017; 363(1):45-57
- The glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) is an important mediator of anti-inflammatory corticosteroid action. The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic/pharmacogenomic effects of acute and chronic ...
The glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) is an important mediator of anti-inflammatory corticosteroid action. The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic/pharmacogenomic effects of acute and chronic methylprednisolone (MPL) dosing on the tissue-specific dynamics of GILZ expression were examined in rats. A mechanism-based model was developed to investigate and integrate the role of MPL and circadian rhythms on the transcriptional enhancement of GILZ in multiple tissues. Animals received a single 50-mg/kg intramuscular bolus or a 7-day 0.3-mg/kg/h subcutaneous infusion of MPL and were euthanized at several time points. An additional group of rats were euthanized at several times and served as 24-hour light/dark (circadian) controls. Plasma MPL and corticosterone concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The expression of GILZ and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA was quantified in tissues using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The pharmacokinetics of MPL were described using a two-compartment model. Mild-to-robust circadian oscillations in GR and GILZ mRNA expression were characterized in muscle, lung, and adipose tissues and modeled using Fourier harmonic functions. Acute MPL dosing caused significant down-regulation (40%-80%) in GR mRNA and enhancement of GILZ mRNA expression (500%-1080%) in the tissues examined. While GILZ returned to its rhythmic baseline following acute dosing, a new steady-state was observed upon enhancement by chronic dosing. The model captured the complex dynamics in all tissues for both dosing regimens. The model quantitatively integrates physiologic mechanisms, such as circadian processes and GR tolerance phenomena, which control the tissue-specific regulation of GILZ by corticosteroids. These studies characterize GILZ as a pharmacodynamic marker of corticosteroid actions in several tissues.
- Impact of concomitant dexamethasone dosing schedule on bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy in multiple myeloma. [Meta-Analysis]
- BJBr J Haematol 2017; 178(5):756-763
- Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is the most troublesome adverse event associated with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Studies suggest an inflammatory aetiology for bortezomib-induced PN (BiPN) and it...
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is the most troublesome adverse event associated with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Studies suggest an inflammatory aetiology for bortezomib-induced PN (BiPN) and it has been hypothesized that reducing inflammation with concomitant dexamethasone may reduce BiPN incidence and/or severity. We retrospectively analysed PN rates from 32 studies (2697 patients with previously untreated multiple myeloma) incorporating bortezomib and differing dexamethasone schedules: partnered dosing (days of and after bortezomib), weekly dosing, and other dosing schedules (e.g. days 1-4, 8-11). Pooled overall PN rates were 45·5%, 63·9%, and 47·5%, respectively, with 5·3%, 11·0%, and 9·6% grade ≥3. Adjusting for potential confounders (age, gender, presence of thalidomide, bortezomib treatment duration), PN rates in patients on partnered dosing schedules appeared lower than in patients on weekly or other dosing schedules. Analyses conducted using patient-level data suggest that cumulative dexamethasone dose, a potential confounding factor, is unlikely to have influenced the analyses. Findings were similar in a separate pooled analysis excluding data from regimens incorporating thalidomide, when pooled overall PN rates were 50·1%, 63·9%, and 48·3%, respectively, with 4·2%, 11·0%, and 8·6% grade ≥3. These findings suggest that partnered dexamethasone dosing may result in less severe BiPN compared with alternative dexamethasone dosing schedules.
- A phase 1b study of isatuximab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone for relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. [Clinical Trial, Phase I]
- BloodBlood 2017 Jun 22; 129(25):3294-3303
- This phase 1b, open-label, dose-escalation study assessed the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody isatuximab given in 2 schedules (3, 5, or 10 mg/kg every other we...
This phase 1b, open-label, dose-escalation study assessed the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody isatuximab given in 2 schedules (3, 5, or 10 mg/kg every other week [Q2W] or 10 or 20 mg/kg weekly [QW] for 4 weeks and then Q2W thereafter [QW/Q2W]), in combination with lenalidomide 25 mg (days 1-21) and dexamethasone 40 mg (QW), in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). Patients received 28-day treatment cycles; the primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of isatuximab with lenalidomide and dexamethasone. Fifty-seven patients (median 5 [range 1-12] prior regimens; 83% refractory to previous lenalidomide therapy) were treated. Median duration of dosing was 36.4 weeks; 15 patients remained on treatment at data cutoff. Isatuximab-lenalidomide-dexamethasone was generally well tolerated with only 1 dose-limiting toxicity reported (grade 3 pneumonia at 20 mg/kg QW/Q2W); the MTD was not reached. The most common isatuximab-related adverse events were infusion-associated reactions (IARs) (56%), which were grade 1/2 in 84% of patients who had an IAR and predominantly occurred during the first infusion. In the efficacy-evaluable population, the overall response rate (ORR) was 56% (29/52) and was similar between the 10 mg/kg Q2W and 10 and 20 mg/kg QW/Q2W cohorts. The ORR was 52% in 42 evaluable lenalidomide-refractory patients. Overall median progression-free survival was 8.5 months. Isatuximab exposure increased in a greater than dose-proportional manner; isatuximab and lenalidomide pharmacokinetic parameters appeared independent. These data suggest that isatuximab combined with lenalidomide and dexamethasone is active and tolerated in heavily pretreated patients with RRMM. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01749969.
- Targeting histone deacetylases in T-cell lymphoma. [Review]
- LLLeuk Lymphoma 2017; 58(6):1306-1319
- Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are epigenetic modifiers with single-agent activity in patients with cutaneous and peripheral T-cell lymphoma (CTCL, PTCL). The mechanisms for this preferential...
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are epigenetic modifiers with single-agent activity in patients with cutaneous and peripheral T-cell lymphoma (CTCL, PTCL). The mechanisms for this preferential activity remain unclear, and although some would term this as 'class effect,' there are differences in efficacy and safety, likely a result of the varying chemical structures/classes, histone and non-histone targets, potencies, and clinical dosing for each. Three HDACi have single-agent approval in relapsed/refractory TCL in the United States: romidepsin in CTCL and PTCL, vorinostat in CTCL, and belinostat in PTCL. Although comparison of these agents is difficult due to differences in patient populations, through this review we aimed to provide a detailed overview of the clinical data for HDACi in TCL and their use in clinical practice. Despite early concerns, data demonstrate the cardiac safety of HDACi, while highlighting the need to maintain electrolytes in the normal range and monitor QT interval when initially co-administering antiemetics or other drugs that prolong QT. To further improve response rates and durability of responses, HDACi are under clinical investigation in combination with chemotherapy regimens and various novel agents.
- Timing of glucocorticoid administration determines severity of lipid metabolism and behavioral effects in rats. [Journal Article]
- CIChronobiol Int 2017; 34(1):78-92
- Glucocorticoids (GCs) are a group of steroid hormones secreted by the adrenal glands in circadian cycles, and the dysregulation of GC signaling has been suggested to cause metabolic syndrome. Even th...
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are a group of steroid hormones secreted by the adrenal glands in circadian cycles, and the dysregulation of GC signaling has been suggested to cause metabolic syndrome. Even though prolonged GC exposure is associated with serious side effects such as metabolic syndrome and central nervous system disorders, the use of GCs in anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive therapies has been continuously rising. Meanwhile, the exact mechanisms by which GCs can influence the lipid metabolism as well as behavior and how they are affected by time remain unknown. In this study, the effects of two different long-term GC dosing regimens on lipid metabolism and behavior were investigated. Male Wistar rats received daily administrations of the GC dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DEX, 0.5 mg/kg body weight) at either ZT0 (Dex0) or ZT12 (Dex12). After 6 weeks of treatment, DEX-treated rats, especially those treated at ZT0, had higher hepatic lipid accumulation and serum triglyceride levels and less locomotor activity than did control rats. In addition, serum levels of corticosterone, 5-hydroxy tryptamine and norepinephrine were decreased in the Dex0 group but not in the Dex12 group compared to the control group. Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that the chronic administration of GCs at ZT0 upregulated genes related to glycolysis and lipid synthesis and downregulated genes related to fatty acid β-oxidation in the liver more remarkably than administration at ZT12. Both DEX-treated groups displayed severely altered expression patterns of the core clock genes Bmal1 and Per2 in the liver and in fat. In addition, the expression of glutamate aspartate transporter, glial fibrillary acidic protein and glutamate transporter-1, astrocyte-related genes important for maintaining nervous system functions, was drastically decreased in the hippocampus of DEX-treated rats, especially when DEX was given at ZT0. In conclusion, our findings confirm that the severity of side effects, indicated by altered lipid metabolism and behavioral activity, depends on the timing of GC administration and is associated with the degree of glucocorticoid receptor dysfunction after dosing at disparate time points.
- Domperidone Prescribing Practices Exposed Patients to Cardiac Risk despite a "Black Box" Warning: A Canadian Tertiary Care Center Study. [Journal Article]
- CJCan J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016; 2016:2937678
- CONCLUSIONS: The advisory was associated with more appropriate domperidone initiation and compliance with recommended dosages. Our study suggests the need for increased awareness of the dosing and monitoring of domperidone to ensure patient safety.
- CHAMPION-1: a phase 1/2 study of once-weekly carfilzomib and dexamethasone for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. [Clinical Trial, Phase II]
- BloodBlood 2016 Jun 30; 127(26):3360-8
- Carfilzomib, a proteasome inhibitor, is approved in the United States as a single agent, and in combination with dexamethasone or lenalidomide/dexamethasone (KRd) for relapsed or refractory multiple ...
Carfilzomib, a proteasome inhibitor, is approved in the United States as a single agent, and in combination with dexamethasone or lenalidomide/dexamethasone (KRd) for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (MM). Under the single-agent and KRd approvals, carfilzomib is administered as a 10-minute IV infusion on days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, and 16 of 28-day cycles (20 mg/m(2) [cycle 1, days 1-2]; 27 mg/m(2) thereafter). This multicenter, single-arm, phase 1/2 study, Community Harmonized Assessment of Myeloma Patients via an Integrated Oncology Network-1 (CHAMPION-1), evaluated once-weekly carfilzomib with dexamethasone in relapsed, or relapsed and refractory MM (1-3 prior therapies). Patients received carfilzomib (30-minute IV infusion) on days 1, 8, and 15 of 28-day cycles. The phase 1 portion used a 3 + 3 dose-escalation scheme to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of carfilzomib. During phase 2, patients received carfilzomib on the same schedule at the MTD. Patients received dexamethasone (40 mg) on days 1, 8, 15, and 22; dexamethasone was omitted on day 22 for cycles 9+. A total of 116 patients were enrolled. The MTD was 70 mg/m(2), and 104 patients (phase 1/2) received carfilzomib 70 mg/m(2) At 70 mg/m(2), the median number of prior regimens was 1; and 52% were bortezomib-refractory. At 70 mg/m(2), the most common grade ≥3 adverse events were fatigue (11%) and hypertension (7%). Overall response rate at 70 mg/m(2) was 77%. Median progression-free survival was 12.6 months. These findings merit additional evaluation of the once-weekly dosing regimen. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01677858.
- Different oral corticosteroid regimens for acute asthma. [Review]
- CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2016; (5):CD011801
- CONCLUSIONS: Evidence is not strong enough to reveal whether shorter or lower-dose regimens are generally less effective than longer or higher-dose regimens, or indeed that the latter are associated with more adverse events. Any changes recommended for current practice should be supported by data from larger, well-designed trials. Varied study design and outcome measures limited the number of meta-analyses that we could perform. Greater emphasis on palatability and on whether some regimens might be easier to adhere to than others could better inform clinical decisions for individual patients.
- A phase I dose-escalation study of apatorsen (OGX-427), an antisense inhibitor targeting heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27), in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and other advanced cancers. [Clinical Trial, Phase I]
- AOAnn Oncol 2016; 27(6):1116-22
- CONCLUSIONS: Apatorsen was tolerated at the highest dose evaluated (1000 mg). Single-agent activity was suggested by changes in tumor markers, CTC, and stable measurable disease. Phase II studies evaluating apatorsen are underway.
New Search Next
- Preventing female virilisation in congenital adrenal hyperplasia: The controversial role of antenatal dexamethasone. [Review]
- ANAust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2016; 56(3):225-32
- Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) refers to a group of recessively inherited disorders of cortisol production, which in the classical form results in virilisation of female fetuses. Since the 1980...
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) refers to a group of recessively inherited disorders of cortisol production, which in the classical form results in virilisation of female fetuses. Since the 1980s, antenatal treatment with dexamethasone has been recommended in high-risk pregnancies to minimise the risk of virilising the female genitalia of affected fetuses. To be effective, this treatment requires implementation in early pregnancy, prior to the commencement of autonomous fetal adrenal androgen synthesis. Using this approach, seven of eight high-risk pregnancies are treated unnecessarily, prior to establishing the fetal gender or the confirmed diagnosis of a genetically affected pregnancy. In the face of ongoing concerns regarding potential adverse maternal-fetal effects of antenatal dexamethasone exposure, a review of this practice has been advocated by expert advisory groups. In this review, we summarise current controversies, potential improvements and future directions in the management of pregnancies at risk of CAH. In high-risk families, recent genomic advances include early prenatal diagnosis utilising noninvasive genetic techniques to minimise unnecessary dexamethasone exposure to unaffected fetuses. In affected pregnancies when families elect for antenatal treatment, optimal antenatal dosing regimens need to be defined and a standardised treatment and follow-up protocol are recommended. Establishment of a national registry with standardised follow-up will allow future families to be better informed of the risks and benefits of both treated and untreated fetal CAH.